Ayesha Bashir (03)
Maryam Bashir (04)
Ayesha Bashir (01)
Wajeeha Jamal (33)
.Ammara Qasim (34)
Students of AWKUM
There are many methods of teaching
languages. Some have had their heyday and
have fallen into relative obscurity; others
are widely used now.
Many methods have been proposed but this
presentation will cover only four major
Silent Way Method
Grammar Translation Method
"a method of foreign or second language
teaching which makes use of translation and
grammar study as the main teaching and
---Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2002). Longman Dictionary of
Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Pearson Education Limited.
The Grammar Translation Method was the traditional
way Latin and Greek were taught in Europe.
. In the 19th century it began to be used to teach “modern”
languages such as French, German, and English, and it is
still used in some countries today.
A typical lesson consists of the presentation of a
grammatical rule, a study of lists of vocabulary, and a
Personal understanding of this point: up with
grammatical rules + vocabulary
Because the Grammar Translation
Method emphasizes reading rather than
the ability to communicate in a language,
there was a reaction to it in the 19th
century (see NATURAL APPROACH,
DIRECT METHOD), and there was later a
greater emphasis on the teaching of
Language and Learning Theory
Deductive learning is essential. First, the teacher gives
rules explicitly then the rules are reinforced with
examples and exercises.
2. Language Theory:
Language is for understanding the literature. Translation
is the way to learn the language. Oral communication is
not primarily important. Written language is superior to
spoken language. Students also learn the structure of
their own native language.
Teacher is the strict authority. Classes are
Students are the passive receivers of the new
information. The teacher starts the activities
and directs them. Students are supposed to
memories the rules and the new vocabulary
with their meanings in their native language.
Very often “Teacher –Student” interactions
occur. Rarely “Student –
Student”interactions also occur.
The teacher corrects the error strictly.Errors
are not tolerated.
Culture is limited to literature and fine arts
•The most common vocabulary teaching technique is “the memorisation of long lists
of vocabulary with their equivalents in the students’ native language. Other
techniques are Teaching “cognates” (i.e., “cinema –sinema”, “theatre – tiyatro” ...,
etc).- Using synonyms and antonyms
The teaching of grammar is deductive. The teacher introduces the rules explicitly
and wants the students to apply these rules to new examples in exercises. Students
are supposed to memorise the rules. In order to explain the rules, the teacher uses
comparison the meanings and contract between the students’ native language
grammar and target language grammar.Translation is a common way to clarify of
the new grammar patterns in the target language.
Texts from the target language literature are used. The teacher may either write
the text or use an authentic literary text.
Structural syllabus (i.e., list of structures to be taught during the course) is used.The
order of structures starts from the easiest.
Role of L1:
L1 (i.e., students’ native language) has an important function in teaching
vocabulary and grammar. Since oral communication in the target language is not
important,classroom instructions are given in L1.
it doesnot deal with student’s feelings
Translation is an important technique to test students’ progress in the
target language. In addition, “fill-in-the-blank” type test items are also used.
Synonyms,antonyms, and cognates can be asked to test vocabulary in formal
tests. Reading passages and comprehension questions about the passages
can also take place in tests as the reading section.
Objectives of GTM
To be able to read literature written in
the target language
To be able to translate from one
language to another
To develop reading and writing skill
(1) Translation of a Literary Passage
(2) Reading Comprehension Questions
(5) Deductive Application of Rule
(8) Use Words in Sentences
Translation of a literary passage:
The translation may be written or
spoken or both.
The class focuses on vocabulary and
Students should not translate
idioms and like the literary, but
rather their understanding of the
meaning is important.
There are three kinds of group of
First group of questions, students ask
for information contained within the
Second group of questions, students will
have to make inferences from the
Third group of questions, students are
required to relate the passage to their
Students might be asked to find
anonyms or synonyms in the
Students might be asked to define
a set of words based on their
understanding in the passage.
Students might be asked to work
with the vocabulary of the
Deductive application of rule:
Grammar rules are presented with examples.
Later students are asked to apply grammar rules to
some different examples.
Cognates: (similar spelling and
sound patterns that correspond
Students are taught to
recognize cognates in the
Students are asked to
memorize cognate words and
their meaning in target
Students are given a serios of
sentences with words missing.
They fill in the blanks with new
vocabulary idioms or with items
of a particular grammar type
such as prepositions or verbs
with different tenses.
Students are given lists of target language
vocabulary words and their native
Students are asked to memorize the
Students are also required to memorize
grammatical rules and grammatical
paradigms such as conjugations.
Use words in sentences:
Students make up sentences in which they use
The teacher gives the students a topic to write
about in the target language.
The topic is based upon some aspect of the reading
passage of the lesson.
It is an easy method in which the child
proceeds from the known to unknown. It
helps in building vocabulary and saves
teacher labour but it is an un natural
method and does not follow the natural
order of learning a language. It neglects
speech and teaches English by rules not by
Direct Method of Language Teaching
“Teach the Language Not About the Language”
No Use of Native Language
is also known as:
Natural Method Phonetical
• In the mid and late 19 century,
Europe experienced a wave of
increasing opportunities of
communication, due to
industrialization and international
trade and travel.
• A need was felt to develop oral
proficiency in foreign languages.
• Language teachers had already
method inadequate and
ineffective in developing
'communicative ability' in
• They strongly advocate an alternative method
in which language was presented in contexts
and the mother tongue was avoided.
• Its principal advocates were Pendergast and
Sauveur who proposed what they called
Natural Method that suggest radical change
from Grammar- translation method. It is this
method that later on came to be known as the
The Direct Method is named “direct” because
meaning should be connected directly with the
target language without translation into the
• Language can be learnt only through
demonstration. Instead of analytical
procedures of explaining grammar rules,
students must be encourage to use
language naturally and spontaneously so
that they induce grammar.
• The learning of second language was
seen as parallel to the acquisition of the
child's first language.
• This method therefore emphasize the
importance of sounds , simple sentences
and direct association of language with
object and person of immediate
environment- the classroom, the home,
the garden, etc.
• 1. Classroom instruction
is conducted exclusively
in the target language.
The teacher should
explain or translate.
• NEVER TRANSLATE:
2. Only everyday
vocabulary and sentences
• BASIC VOCABULARY
IS GIVEN FIRST
3. Vocabulary is taught
through known words,
objects (realia), pictures.
4.Grammar is taught
inductively. There may
never be an explicit
grammar rule given.
• DO NOT GIVE RULES:
MAKE THEM FIGURE
OUT THE RULE.
5. New teaching points
are introduced orally.
6. Both speech and
7. The teacher, by asking the
student to make a choice, gets
him to correct his own error.
• LEARNING BY SELF-
8. The syllabus is based on
situations or topics
• 10. Students should
learn to think in the
target language as
soon as possible
11.The purpose of
language learning is
students need to learn
how to ask questions as
well as answer them.
• Q & A: The teacher asks
questions of any nature and
the students answer.
• Dictation: The teacher
chooses a grade
appropriate passage and
reads the text
• aloud. Teacher reads the
passage three times
• Reading Aloud:
Students take turn
reading sections of a
passage, play or
dialogue out loud.
• Map Drawing: Students
are given a map without
labeled then the
students label it by
using the directions the
• Paragraph Writing : The
students are asked to
write a passage in their
One of its positive points is that it promises
to teach the language and Not about the
• It is a natural method which teaches language
in the same way the mother tongue is
acquired. Only the target language is used and
the learning is contextualized..
• Its emphasis on speech made it more
attractive for those who have needs of real
communication in the target language. It is
one of the first methods to introduce the
teaching of vocabulary through realias.
• In spite of its achievements, the direct method fell
short from fulfilling the needs of educational
systems. One of its major shortcomings is that it was
hard for public schools to integrate it. As R. Brown
(1994:56) points out, the Direct Method “did not take
well in public schools where the constraints of
budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background
(native speakers or native like fluency) made such a
method difficult to use.”
• After a short popularity in the beginning of the 20th
century, it soon began to lose its appeal because of
these constraints. It then paved the way to the
AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (ALM)
The audio-lingual method was widely used in
the United States and other countries in the
1950's and 1960's. It is still used in some
Also known as Oral Method/The Army
Method/ The New Method
The Audio-Lingual Method
Similar to the direct method:
Ø They both are oral-based approaches – pronunciation and
ability of speaking in the target language is superior to other skills
Ø Grammar is learnt inductively
Different from the direct method:
Ø Not only vocabulary but also grammatical sentence
Ø Stronger theoretical base in linguistics (structural
linguistics) and psychology (behavioural psychology)
Founded around 1950’s and 1960’s, AL
was based on structural linguistic
an behavioral psychology : the way to
acquire the sentence patterns of the target
language is repetition of dialogues about
every day situations that are imitated and
drilled to make the response automatic.
Language is a system of structural
related elements, like phonological
units, grammatical units, and lexical
items, for the transmission of
meaning. So to learn the target
language is to mater the elements of
the target language system.
Language learning is habit-
Mistakes, the bad habit, should be
Language skills are learned more
effectively if they are presented
orally first, then in written form.
OBJECTIVES OF ALM
To enable students to speak and write in
To make students able to use target language
automatically without stopping to think
To form new habits in the target language
PRINCIPLES OF ALM
Speaking and listening competence preceded reading
and writing competence.
Use of MT is highly discouraged in the classroom.
The development of language skills is a matter of habit
Students practice particular patterns of language
through structured dialogue and drill until response is
Structured patterns in language are taught using
The emphasis is on having students produce
error free utterances.
This method of language learning supports
kinesthetic learning styles.
Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are
taught. Concrete vocabulary is taught through
demonstration, objects, and pictures.
Abstract vocabulary is taught through
association of ideas.
The printed word must be kept away from the
second language learner as long as possible
Explicit rules are not provided. student induce
the rules through examples and Drills.
Meaning is taught directly. Vocabulary is
introduced through Dialogues.
Audio lingual Method uses a structural
Techniques of AL –
T: Hello. How are you?
S: Fine, thanks. And you?
T: Fine. Where are you going?
S: I’m going to the school. Would you like to
T: Sure. Let’s go together.
Techniques of AL –
Backward build-up drill: to teach long
lines of dialogues:
break down the line into several parts
repeat a part of the sentence
follow the teacher, students expand
what they repeated part by part until
they are able repeat the entire line.
Backward build-up drill
T: Repeat after me: post office.
S: Post office.
T: To the post office.
S: To the post office.
T: Going to the post office.
S: Going to the post office.
T: I’m going to the post office.
S: I’m going to the post office.
Techniques of AL –
Students repeat the teacher’s model as
accurately and as quickly as possible to learn
the lines of the dialog
Techniques of AL –
To make students ask and answer
questions with each other.
It allows some controlled communication
among students and give the teacher an
opportunity to check students’ speech.
Techniques of AL –
To change a certain kind of sentence pattern to another form.
to transform an affirmative S. into a negative S.
to transform a statement into a question.
to transform an active S. into a passive S.
to transform a direct speech into reported speech
T: ‘They are going to the bank.’
S: ‘Are they going to the bank?’
T: Giang buys a new car.
S: A new car is bought by Giang.
Techniques of AL –
Question & Answer Drill
Students practice the target language with answering questions
and the question patterns.
Students answer the teacher’s question quickly .
Techniques of AL –
Question & Answer Drill
T: Are you going to the bank?
S: Yes, I am. I’m going to the bank
T: Are you going to the zoo?
S: No, I’m not going to the zoo. I’m going to the
Listening, speaking Reading, writing
-Depending on context.
-Overlearning: students learn to answer automatically
without stopping to think.
-Language cannot be separated from culture.
The nature of student-teacher
Most of the interactions is between teacher and
students and is initiated by the teacher.
Teacher Role/Student Role
The teacher is like an orchestra leader.
Providing students with a good model for
Students are imitators.
How is language viewed?
Everyday speech is emphasized in the Audio-
lingual Method. The level of complexity of the
speech is graded, so that beginning students
are presented with only simple patterns.
Culture consists of the everyday behavior and
lifestyle of the target language speakers.
What areas of language are
Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while the
students are mastering the grammatical
The oral skills receive most of the attention.
Pronunciation is taught from the beginning.
The role of the students’ native
The target language is used in the classroom,
not the students’ native language.
How is evaluation accomplished?
Students might be asked to distinguish between words
in a minimal pair, for example, or to supply an
appropriate verb form in a sentence.
How does the teacher respond to
Student errors are to be avoided if at all possible through the
teacher’s awareness of where the students will have difficulty
and restriction of what they are taught to say.
The role of instructional materials
Instructional materials in the Audiolingual Method assist the
teacher to develop language mastery in the learner. They are
Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment often have central
roles in an audio lingual course.
Language is speech, not writing.
A language is a set of habits.
Teach the language,not about the language.
A language is what native speakers say,not
what someone else thinks they ought to say.
Languages are different.
The Silent Way: Method of
The silent way
(SW), a method
originated in the
early 1970s and
Caleb Gattegno in
Teaching Foreign Language
Challenge Audio-lingual method:
students are unable to transfer
habits formed in the classroom to
communicate outside of it.
Language must not be considered
a product of habit formation, but
Language acquisition must be a
procedure of student using their
own cognition, to discover the
rules of the language they are
Cognitive approach rather than
responding to stimuli.
Language learning has a sequence from
the known to un known.
Student induce the rules from
examples and the language they are
exposed to, therefore learning is
Teaching should be subordinated to learning.
Emphasizes the autonomy of the learners.
Students are encouraged to have an active role in
learning the language.
Pronunciation is seen as fundamental.
Uses a structural syllabus but implicitly.
Translation and rote repetition are avoided.
Silence is use as a tool.
To focus student’s attention.
To encourage them to
correct their own errors.
Teacher are still active:
Using hand gestures
Encourage students to
help their peers.
Near native like fluency
in the target language.
Providing the learners
with a basic practical
knowledge of the
Beginning with student’s knowledge.
Developing syllabus from easy to complex.
Role of L1
Can be used to give
sessions L1 be used at
L1 can be exploited.
e.g., similar sounds in L1
and L2 can be used to
make students aware of
Teacher may never
give a formal test.
student’s learning all
monitoring by the
teacher is essential.
Errors are natural, so
necessary for the
students to compare
their own production
with their developing
Peer correction is also
very important, but it
should be in a co-
Which can be used
for anything from
such as describing
any room setting.
Which is used to teach
the language sounds.
Student cannot understand what
teacher mean totally.
Student’s learning results are slower.
Materials can cost a lot of time and
DM, ALM AND
GTM DM ALM SW
LEARNING Deductive Inductive Inductive Inductive
THEORY learning learning learning learning
LANGUAGE Language is Language is Language is Language is
THEORY for for oral use for oral use for oral use
CULTURE Limited to Include other Include Inseparable
literature and aspect of life, everyday part of
fine art such as behaviour and language.
dressing life style language
foods etc. reflects
TEACHER’S Teacher’s Teachers are Teacher is Teacher is silent
ROLE strict like partner like an and directs the
authority orchestral learners through
leader and a gestures
STUDENT’S Passive Active Imitators of Active participants
ROLE receiver of participant the teachers
information and are
INTERACTI Teacher- Teacher- Teacher- Student-student
ON student student and student and interaction
interaction student- student-
VOCABULA Memorize Through Through By means of visual
RY native pictures, dialogues aids and words
TEACHING language demonstratio charts
equivalent n and
for T.L sentences
GRAMMAR Grammar is Grammar is Grammar is Grammar is
TEACHING taught taught taught taught
deductively inductively inductively inductively
ROLE OF L1 is L1 is not L1 is not L1 is
L1 allowed.clas permitted allowed permitted
instruction is needed
given in L1
MATERIAL Text from Reading Dialogues Sound color
theT.L passages, charts, color
dialogues rods etc.
SYLLABU Structural Situational Structural Structural
S syllabus and topical syllabus syllabus
GOALS To teach To enable To enable To enable
AND translation, to students to students to students to
OBJECTI read and communicate speak and use the T.L
VES translate in T.L as well write in T.L for self
literary text in as think in T.L expression
ERROR Error is Student’s self Error is Error are
CORREC corrected by correction corrected by natural and
TION the teacher teachers since inevitable and
strictly. error cause self correction
accuracy is bad habit is there
STUDENTS Not dealt No info No info Students feelings
FEELING with about about are taken in
students students students consideration
feelings feelings feelings
EVALUATIO Through Students Discrete- Continuous
N translation, ability to use point test monitoring by the
fill in the language is teacher occur. it
blanks, tested, not doesn’t give any
synonyms, about formal test
SKILLS Reading and Speaking Listening, Listening,
writing and listening speaking, speaking, reading
is reading and and writing
CONCENTRA Vocabulary Pronunciation Pronunciation pronunciation
TE ON and grammar and everyday and grammar
TECHNIQUE Translation of Reading Dialogue, Sound color
S a literary text, aloud, chain char,words
rote question and drill,repititive chart
memorization answer drill etc Cuisenaire
etc exercise, rods etc.