Biology notes for summative assessment


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Biology notes for summative assessment

  1. 1. DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISM Contents Ø It is essential to understand the interrelationships among different groups of organisms. Introduction Ø It forms a bone for the development of other biological sciences. Historical Account Ø It projects a picture of all life forms at a glance. 3. HISTORICAL ACCOUNT :: Virus Aristotale classified animals on basis of habitat (land water and air). He further classified the animals on basis of presence of RBC into Anaima and Ehaima. Enaima was classified into ovipara (egg layers) and vivipara (Dirth to young). Five Kingdom Classification q Monera q Protista q Plantae 3.1 Two Kingdom Classification : Father of taxonomy - Carolus Linnaeus. He preposed following kingdoms. q Fungi q Animalia (A) Plantae Ø Which included Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, Mosses, Liverworts, Ferns, Conifers and Flowering plants. 1. CLASSIFICATION :: (B) Animalia - Definition : Ø Included Protozoan, Sponges, Jelly fishes, Worms, Crabs, Insects, Millipedes, Centipedes, Spiders, Snails, Star fishes, Snakes, Frogs, Birds and Mammals. The method of arranging organisms into groups on sets on the basis of similarities and differences is called classification. 2. TAXONOMY OR SYSTEMATICS :: 3.2 Three Kingdom Classification : Ø This was suggested by german biologist, E. Haeckel in 1866. Definition : The taxonomy or systematics is the study of diversity and kind of organisms and the evolutionary relationship among them. Ø As some microscopic single celled forms were unlike plants or animals altogether and could not be placed in earlier system, thus three kingdom system was proposed. It includes (1) plantae, (2) Animalia, (3) Protista ... contained all single celled organisms like protozoans and unicellular algae. Importance of Classification : Ø It makes the study of wide variety of organisms easy. Biology - Diversity in Living Organism 37
  2. 2. q Sibling species : Related species which are 3.3 Four Kingdom Classification : reproductively isolated bat morphologically similar. Ø This was developed by Copeland in 1966. Ø As prokaryotes (Organisms without true nucleus) were different from eukaryotes (organism with true nucleus), a new group, monera was formed. q Eademic species : A species restricted to a given area. (B) Binomial Nomenclature : 3.4 Five Kingdom Classification : Ø Proposed by Carolus Linnaeus. Ø This most favoured scheme was proposed by R.H. Whittaker in 1969. Fungi could not find a suitable place in earlier system of classifications and thus whittaker’s five kingdom theory found favour amongst most biologists. Ø According to this system of nomenclature, each animal or plant is given two names : the first one is the generic name and the second one is the name of the species. Ø Scientific names are always in Latin. Ø This classification includes : (a) Plantae (c) Fungi Ø The first letter of the generic name is always capitalized and that of the specific name is written in small letter. For example, the scientific name of frog is Rana tigrina, in which Rana is the generic name and tigrina is the name of the species. (b) Animalia (d) Protista (e) Monera. 3.5 Six Kingdom Classification : Ø It was proposed by Woese, Kandler and Wealis (1990). They divided monera into Archae bacteria and Eubacteria. 4. VIRUES :: Ø The study of viruses is known as virology. (A) Taxonomic Categories : Ø Viruses belong to intermediate zone between living and non-living worlds. Kingdom Subkingdom Ø Their size varies from 10-250 nm. Phylum (division in plants) Ø Viruses have an extermely basic structure, made up of a central core of either a DNA or RNA strand. Class Order Family Ø This is covered by a protein coat called capsid. ü ï ï ý (1) ï ï (2) þ Genus Species q Species Concept : Ø Species is the basic unit of taxonomy. ü (3) ï ï ý ï ï þ Ø Mayr defined species as groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from each other group. (4) q Sympatric : Species inhabiting the same geographical area are sympatric. (5) q Allopatric : Spcies inhibiting different geographical areas are allopatric. (1) Head (DNA covered With protein coat) (2) Collar, (3) Neck, (4) Tail, (5) End plate FIG - STRUCTURE OFA BACTERIOPHAGE 38 Biology - Diversity in Living Organism
  3. 3. (C) Kingdom Fungi : Ø The viruses do not have any cytoplasm or other metabolic machinery. They depend entirely on the metabolic enzymes of the host cell. Hence they are termed obligate parasites. Ø Fungi are multicelled, non photosynthetic organism. Ø Some fungi are microscopic while others can be seen with the naked eyes. Ø Viruses infect almost every kind of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Ø Some fungi are unicellular while others are multicellular consisting of numerous filaments known as hyphae. Ø Inside the living cells, the viruses behave as living structures as they multiply and grow. Ø Once outside the organisms, viruses behave as non-living entities. Ø The hyphae branch profusely and from a network called mycelium. Ø Viruses infect a variety of organisms. Viruses infecting blue green algae are called Cyanophages . Ø Since fungi Lack chlorophyll they can’t synthesise their own food and therefore they either lead a parasitic or sporophytic life. Ø Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and mycophages infect the fungi. Ø The Parasitic fungi may infect the host superficially or they may penetrate the host tissues (Ectoparasite and endoparasite). Ø Some example are in man, Rhinovirus is the common cold virus. The dreaded AIDS disease is also caused by HIV (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus). Ø The fungi develop haustoria which help in absorption of nutrients from the host. Ex. mucor (D) Kingdom Animalia : 5. FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION :: Ø It includes multicellular animals. (A) Kingdom Monera : Ø Example : Salpa, doliolum, lamprey, shark, lizard, snake, frog, parrot, whale, bat, man, cow kangaroo. Ø It consists of unicellular prokaryotic organisms. Ø Ex. - blue green algae and bacteria. (B) Kingdom Protista : 6. PLANT K INGDOM PLANTAE) :: Ø Kingdom protista include unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Protists are mostly aquatic eukaryotic microorganisms. (KINGDOM Plant Kingdom Sub kingdom Ø They possess cilia, flagella or pseudopodia for Locomotion. Ø Protists have immense reproductive potential. The reproduce asexually or sexually. Cryptogamae (Naked Embryo called spores) Ø Ex - Diatoms (Navicula), Dinoffagellates (Gonyaulax), Slime moulds (fuligo) and Protozoans (Amoeba, Paramecium etc.) Phanerogamae (Seed with embryo and food) 6.1 Sub Kingdom - Cryptogamae : Ø It includes multicelled green plants and algae. Ø It includes - Flowerless, Seedless plants. Ø The members of this kingdom are nonmotile, terrestrial, multicellular that contain chlorophyll and produce their own organic compounds. Ø Cryptogamae further divided into three division Cryptogamae Ø All plant cells have a cellulosic cell wall. Ex. Spirogyra, Selaginella, Pinus, dicot or monocot plant, liverworts, mosses. Biology - Diversity in Living Organism Thallophyta 39 Bryophyta Pteridophyta
  4. 4. (A) Division Thallophyta : ALGAE Ø Most primitive and simple plants. The plant body is not differentiated into stem, root and leaves, but it is in the form of an undivided thallus. 1 Cell wall is made up of cellulose. Lichens q Algae - Grows fast in dark or dim light. 5 All the members are autotrophic. Fungi Chlorophyll is absent 4 Grows fast in bright light. Thallophytes Food material is stored in the form of glycogen or oil. 3 Members contain chlorophyll. Ø Sex organs are simple, single-celled and there is no embryo formation after fertilization. Cell wall is made up of fungal cellulose and chitin 2 Food material is stored usually in the form of starch. Ø Mechanical and conducting tissues are absent (i.e., there is no vascular system) Algae FUNGI Fungi are heterotrophic, i.e. either saprophytic or parasitic Ø Most algae are water-growing or aquatic, both marine and fresh water, some are terrestrial, i.e. live on land near moist places. q Lichens - Ø They are autotrophic, i.e., manufacture their own food. Reserve food is generally starch. Ø Lichens grow on rocks, tree-trunks, and even on the ground. They are very hardy. Ø The plant body may be unicellular (Chlamydomonas), colonial (Volvox), filamentous (Ulothrix, Spirogyra). Ø In lichens, algae and fungi live in symbiosis, (mutualism), i.e., they coexist for mutual benefit. Ø The algae component of the lichen is known as phycobiont and the fungal component as mycobiont. Ø The fungus absorbs water and mineral matter and supplies it to the algae. The algae, in true, prepares food and supplies it to the fungus. Chlamydomonas Ø Lichen are most sensitive to SO2 Foliose lichen pollution. q Fungi - Ø Crustose lichens (e.g. Rhizocarbon, Graphics); foliose lichens (e.g. Parmelia, Collema) and fruticose lichens (e.g. Aletoria, Usnea) Ø Simple non-green plants which are not photosynthetic. They are heterotrophic. Ø They may be unicellular (yeast) or filamentous (most fungi). The body of a multicellular and filamentous fungus is called a mycelium. (B) Division Bryophyta : Ø Bryophytes are small multicellular green land plants. Ø Fungi have a cell wall containing a mixture of chitin and cellulose. Ø These simplest land plants are confined to shady damp places. Ø The reserve food is glycogen. Ø They Ø Slime mold; Bread mould (Rhizopus, Mucor, yeast). are also called amphibians of the plant kingdom. Rhizopus 40 Riccia Biology - Diversity in Living Organism
  5. 5. Ø Their plant body is a flat, green thallus in liverworts (Riccia, Marchantia) PTERIDOPHYTES 1 Vascular tissue are present but secondary growth is absent. Ø Examples : Riccia, Marchantia, Anthoceros. (C) Division Pteridophyta : Ø They are found mainly in shady or damp places. Ø The plant body is made up of root, stem and leaves. Ovule and seeds are formed. (E) Angiospermae : developed Ø Angiosperms are highly evolved plants and they produce seeds that are enclosed within the fruit. Ø These plants have no flowers and do not produce seeds. Ø The reproductive organs are aggregated in a flower. Angiosperms Ø Sex organs are multicellular and jacketed by sterile cells. Ø Club mosses - Selaginella, Dryopteris Lycopodium (“ground pine”); horsetails - Equisetum; and ferns - Marsilea. Ø Sub kingdom- Phanerogamae Spermatophyta Dicotyledonae (Dicots) or Monocotyledonae (Monocots) q Dicotyledonae Ø The seeds produced by these plants have embryos with two fleshy leaves, the cotyledons. Ø Phanerogamae includes higher plants that bear flowers and seeds. Ø The plant body is differentiated into root, stem and leaves. Ø Their leaves have reticulate venation, with a network of veins. Ø Vascular system are well developed. Ø The root system has a prominent tap root. Ø Sex organs are multicellular. Examples : Pea (Pisum sativum), potato Ø An embryo develops from fertilized egg. (Solanum tuberosum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), rose (Rosa indica), banyan (Ficus religiosa), neem (Melia indica), apple (Malus silvestris). Spermatophyta Sub kingdom Gymnospermae Vascular tissues are present and secondary growth is present. 2 Ovule and seeds are not formed. Ø In them a true vascular system is absent. Ø They have well vascular system. GYMNOSPERMS Angiospermae (D) Gymnospermae: Ø The seeds produced by these plants are naked and are not enclosed within fruits. (i) Cycadae, e.g. Cycas etc. (ii) Coniferae, e.g. Pinus, Cedrus, Ginkgo, etc. Parallel Pinnate Reticulate Pinnate VENTION IN LEAVES Cycas Biology - Diversity in Living Organism 41
  6. 6. q Monocotyledonae - Ø Solitary or colonial, free living or parasitic or symbiotic. Ø The seeds of these plants have only one cotyledon. Ø Osmoregulation by contractile vacuole. Ø Body shape may be irregular, spherical, oval, elongated or flattened. Ø Their leaves have parallel venation. Ø The root system consists of similar fibrous roots. Ø Cytoplasm differentiated into outer ectoplasm and inner endoplasm. Ø The vascular bundles are scattered and closed (i.e. lack cambium). Secondary growth does not occur. Ø Locomotion by finger-like pseudopodia, flagella or cilia. Ø Examples - Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium and Plasmodium. Ø Examples : Maize (Zea mays), Wheat (Triticum vulgare), rice (Oryza sativa), onion (Allium cepa), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), banana (Pandanus), Coconut and grasses. MONOCOTS Fig - Amoeba DICOTS 7.2 Phylum - Porifera : 1. Parallel venation is present in leaf. Reticulate venation is present in leaf. 2 Embryo consists of only one cotyledon. Embryo consists of two cotyledons. Ø Sessile (stalk-less), sedentary (attached to the substratum), and marine except one group that lives in fresh water. 3. Example - Maize Example - Pea Ø Simplest multicellular, diploblastic animals. Ø Have organisation at cellular colony level. Thus, cells are loosely held together and do not form tissues. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS :: Animal Kingdom Protozoa (Unicellular or cellular organisms) Ø Asymmetrical or radially symmetrical. Sponges may be vase-like, rounded, sac-like branched. Metazoa (Multicellular organisms) Ø Body is perforated by numerous pores, the ostia that open into a canal system having canals and chambers lined with collared flagellated cells or choanocytes. Terms : Protostomia - Blastopore forms mouth. Deuterostomia - Blastopore forms anus. Coelom - Cavity between alimentary canal and body wall. Pseudocoelom - False coelom Eucoelom - True coelom lined with mesoderm. Fig- Sycon The Salient Features and Common Examples of Certain Main Phyla of Kingdom Animalia are as Follows : Ø Examples - Sycon, Euplectella, (Venus flower basket) Spongilla (Fresh water sponge). 7.3 Phylum - Cnidaria (Coelenterata) : 7.1 Phylum - Protozoa : Ø Aquatic, mostly marine, a few such as Hydra are fresh water solitary or colonial forms. Ø Unicellular mostly aquatic animals. 42 Biology - Diversity in Living Organism
  7. 7. KINGDOM ANIMALIA Protozoa Metazoa Eumetazoa Parazoa Protozoa Porifera Radiata Bilateria Cnidaria Ctenophora Protostomia Acoelomata Pseudocoelomata Aschelminthes Platyhelminthes Deuterostomia Coelomata Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata Annelida Arthropoda Mollusca Ø Cnidarians or coelenterates are multicellular, diploblastic animals with tissue grade of organisation. Ø Digestive cavity (when present) with a single opening, the mouth (anus is absent). Ø Body shows radial symmetry. Ø Circulatory and respiratory system and skeleton are absent. Ø Suckers and hooks are usually present. Ø Possese speci a li zed cell s (cnidoblasts) bearing stinging organoids called nematocysts. Nematocysts serve the functions of pa ra l ysin g t he pr ey by injecting poison or to hold the Fig - Hydra prey. Ø Excretory system consists of blind tubules called protonephridia. Ø Examples : Dugesia (Planaria), Fasciola (liver fluke), Schistosoma (Blood fluke), Taenia solium (Pork Tape worm). Ø Exhibit the phenomenon of polymorphism (Ex- Physalia). Ø Body shows two main forms, the polyps and the medusae. Ø Examples - Hydra, Obelia (sea fur) , Aurelia(jelly fish), Metridium (sea anemone). 7.4 Phylum - Platyhelminthes : Fig - Taenia solium Ø Bilaterally symmetrical and dorsoventrally flattended animals. 7.5 Phylum - Aschelminthes or nematoda Ø They are parasitic or free-living. Ø Body thin, soft, leaf-like or ribbon-like. Biology - Diversity in Living Organism 43
  8. 8. Ø Example : Palemon (Prawn), Daphnia (water flea), Limulus (King crab), Palamnaeus (Scorpion) Ø They are triploblastic, unsegmented and show bilateral symmetry. 7.8 Phylum - Mollusca : Ø Body cavity is not a true coelom. Ø They have soft, unsegmented body. Ø Alimentary canal is complete. Ø Body is divided into three regions (head visceral mass and ventral foot). Ø Sexes are separate. Ø Examples : Ascaris (Round worm), Enterobius (Pin worm), Wuchereria (filaria worm) Ø Outer surface is covered by a hard calcareous shell. Ascaris lumbricoides Ø Respiration is by gills called ctenidia. Ø They occur in moist soil, fresh water and sea. Ø The sexes are usually separate. Ø They are elongated, with segmented body and bilateral symmetry. Ø Examples : Chiton, Pila (Snail), Unio (Fresh water mussel), Octopus (Devil fish). 7.6 Phylum - Annelida : Ø First animals with true body cavity (coelom). Fig - Pila 7.9 Phylum - Echinodermata : Ø Body bears lateral appendages for locomotion in the form of chitinous setae or parapodia. Ø They are marine, gregarious (live in groups) and free-living animals. Ø Shape may be star-like, spherical or elongate. Ø Examples : Nereis (sand worm) Aphrodite (sea mouse), Pheretima (earthworm), Hirudinaria (Cattle leech) Fig - Earthworm Ø Body surface is covered all over by calcareous spines. Ø Aristotle’s lantern for mastication. Ø Their symmetry is radial in adults but bilateral in larvae. 7.7 Phylum - Arthropoda : Ø Tube feet for locomotion. Ø Body is covered with a thick chitinous covering. Ø These are unsegmented. Ø Respiration through general body surface, by gills, air tubes (tracheae) or book-lungs. Ø Body cavity is modified into a water-vascular systemor ambulacral system with tube like outward extension for locomotion, called tube feet. Ø Body segments are grouped into two regionscephalothorax (head and thorax together and abdomen, or three regions-head, thorax and abdomen. Ø Examples : Asterias (Star fish), Echinus (Sea urchin), Holothuria (Sea cucumber), Fig- Star fish Antedon (Feather star) Ø Triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical and metamerically segmented animals. Ø Each body segment usually bears paired lateral and jointed legs or appendages. 7.10 Phylum - Chordata Ø Chordata are characterized by following basic features : Ø A dorsal, hollow, tubular nerve cord. Ø Notochord present. Ø Gill slits in the pharynx. Ø Tail behind the anal opening. Ø Ventral heart. Fig - Prawn 44 Biology - Diversity in Living Organism
  9. 9. Fig - Herdamania CHORDATA 7.13 Subphylum - Cephalochordata : Hemichordata Cephalochordata Urochordata Ø Fish-like, metamerically segmented, headless coelomate animals which retain notochord, dorsal tubular nerve cord and pharyngeal gill-slits throughout life. Vertebrata Acraniata Agnatha Gnathostomata 7.11 Phylum Hemichordata : Ø Notochord and nerve cord (without a distinet brain) extend the entire length of body possess post anal tail. Ø Body soft, unsegmented worm-like and bilaterally symmetrical. These animals possess a combination of invertebrate (nonchordate) and chordate characters. Ø Exoskeleton, head, jaws and paired fins are absent. Ø Body is divided into proboscis, collar and trunk. Ø Pharynx large and perforated by numerous gillslits. Ø These animals resemble chordates only in having pharyngeal gill-clefts and they lack notochord and true dorsal nerve cord. Ø Examples : Amphioxus or Branchiostoma (lancelet) Ø Buccal diverticulum earlier regarded as “notochord” is present in proboscis. Þ Exclusively marine, solitary or colonial, mostly tubicolous and detritus feeders like the earthworms. Þ Example : Balanoglossus (acorn worm or tongue worm). Fig - Amphioxus 9. GROUP - VERTEBRATA :: Ø It includes the majority of chordates. Ø Head is well differentiated. Fig - Balanoglossus Ø Nervous system and endoskeleton are highly developed. Ø Notochord is replaced by a jointed vertebral column. There are two pairs of appendages. 7.12 Subphylum - Urochordata : Ø Respiration is by gills in aquatic animals and by lungs in land animals. Þ Body is unsegmented and usually adults lack tail. Þ Body is covered by a tunic. Notochord occurs in tail in larval forms only. 9.1 Subgroup - Agnatha : Ø Animals having vertebral column and cranium. Most primitive vetebrates. Þ Pharynx has several gill slit. Þ Examples : Herdmania (Sea squirt). Ø No jaws; mouth suctorial. Ø No lateral appendages or fins. 9.2 Subgroup - Cyclostomata : Ø Body long, elongated and eel-like. Ø Skin, soft, slimy, smooth and scaleless. Ø Mouth round, suctorial and without jaws. They are ectoparasites and use mouth to stick to the back of the other fish. Biology - Diversity in Living Organism 45
  10. 10. Ø Single and median nostril present. Ø Body is generally spindle-shaped. Ø Examples : Petromyzon (lamprey), Myxine (hagfish). Ø Skin is either naked or covered with cycloid or ctenoid scales. Ø Mouth is usually terminal (anterior) in position. Fig - Ø Example : Labeo (rohu, carp), Catla (katla), Hilsa, Ophiocephalu (channa or snakeheads), Clarias (mangri) Myxine Gnathostomata Pisces Tetropoda Fig - Clarias Aves Chondrichthyes Amphibia Mammalia Reptilia Osteichthyes 10.3 Class - Amphibia : Ø In evolutionary terms, amphibians form the first group among the chordates to live out of water and to comprise first four-legged (tetrapod) land vertebrates. They live on land but lay their eggs in water. Amphibians are vertebrates leading two lives. 10. PISCES :: Ø Aquatic vertebrates which respire by gills and move with help of fins. Heart 2 chanbered. 10.1 Class - Chondrichthyes : Ø Marine fishes with completely cartilaginous endoskeleton. They are generally large in size (up to 10-20 meters long) Ø These cold blooded animals live partly in fresh water and partly on land (moist places). Ø Skin is smooth or rough, moist, slimy, glandular and mostly without scales. Ø Body is either laterally compressed and spindleshaped or dorsoventrally flattened and disc shaped. Ø Heart 3 chambered. Ø Mouth ventral in position. Ø Body with distinct head and trunk, no neck. Ø Skin is tough and covered with minute placoid scales. Ø Two pairs of pentadactyl (five digit) limbs are present. Digits or toes without claws. Limbs may be absent in some cases. Ø Respiration by gills. Five or seven pairs of gills open outside by means of gill-slits. The gill-slits are not covered by gill-cover or operculum. Ø Example : Ichthyophis, Amphiuma (congo ell), Salamandra, Ambystoma, Fig - Bufo Necturus, Rana (bull frog), Bufo (toad), Hyla (tree-frog). Ø Example : Scoliodon (dog-fish, Indian shark), Sphyrna (hammer-headed shark), Torpedo (electric ray), Trygon (sting ray), Pristis (saw-fish) 10.4 Class - Reptilia : Ø Cold-blooded, terrestrial or aquatic vertebrates with body covered with dry water-proof skin having horny scales or scute plates. Fig - Scoliodon 10.2 Class - Osteichthyes : Ø Heart 3½ chambered. Crocodyles have 4 chambered heart. Ø Marine and fresh-water fishes with partly or wholly bony endoskeleton. Ø Body varies in form and is usually divided into Ø Size varies from 10 mm to 4 meters. 46 Biology - Diversity in Living Organism
  11. 11. head, neck, trunk and tail. Ø Limbs tetrapodous pentadacytle (five-toed) type with clawed digits (limbs are absent snakes and some lizards). Ø Tympanum small and depressed. Ø Teeth are present in all reptiles except in tortoises and turtles. Fig - Passer (house sparrow) 10.6 Class - Mammalia : Ø Example : Kachuga (roofed-terrapin), Testudo (land-tortoise), Uromastix (sand-lizard), Hemidactylus (wall lizard), Calotes (gardenlizard), Draco (flying-lizard) Chamaeleon, Cobra etc. Ø Mammals are warm-blooded and most evolved animals of Animal kingdom. Ø Heart 4 chambered. Ø Hairs and subcutaneous fat form an insulating layer. Cutaneous glands such as sweat glands and sebaceous (oil) glands are abundant. Ø Diapharg present. Ø Females have milk-producing mammary glands which secrete milk for the nourishment of the young. Fig - Cobra 10.5 Class - Aves : Ø 7 servical vertebrae (except whale, dolphin). Ø External ear (pinnae) present. Ø Warm-blooded, tetrapodous vertebrates (birds) with various flight adaptations. Ø Example : Macropus (kangaroo), Erinaceous (hedgehog), Talpa (mole), Sorex (shrew), Pteropus (flying fox), Bat, Manis (scaly ant-eater), Hystrix (porcupine), Funambulus (squirrel) Rattus (rat), Oryctolagus (rabbit), camel (ship of dbert). Ø Size ranges from smallest humming bird to largest ostrich. Ø Heart 4 chambered. Ø Horny scales persist on the feet but feathers cover most of the body. Cutaneous glands are absent. Ø Boat-shaped body is divisible into head, neck, trunk and tail. Ø Fore-limbs modified into wings for flight. Kiwis have vestigial wings. Ø Example : Gallus (chicken), Passer (house sparrow), Corvus (crow), Columba (pigeon), Psittacula (parrot), Pavo (peafowl peacock), Eudynamys (koel), Bubo (owl) Biology - Diversity in Living Organism Fig - Camel 47
  12. 12. EXERCISE - 1 Q.16 Q.1 Name the kingdoms according to the Linnaeus classification ? Q.2 Who introduced the Five-kingdom classification ? Q.3 What is the causal agent of AIDS ? Q.4 What type of animals are included in monera ? Q.6 Distinguish pteridohytes and Gymnopserms with exaples ? Who proposed Binomial nomenclature ? Q.5 Give the general characters and classification of Phanerogames ? Q.17 A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS Name two Gymnosperm plants ? D. FILL IN THE BLANKS Virus is connecting link between ................ and ...................... Q.19 ................ is remembered as the father of taxonomy. Q.20 Ambulacral system is characteristic of ................ Q.21 Q.7 Q.18 Non-seed bearing vascular plant are ............ Q.22 Protozoa are .................. and ............. animals. Give two example of Arthropoda ? B. SHORT ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS (About 30–40 words) E. TRUE OR FALSE Q.8 What are bryophytes ? Q.9 Write important characters of viruses ? Q.23 Viruses do not have an independent metabolism. Q.10 What are lichens ? Q.24 Aves are cold - blooded animals. Q.11 Differentiate between dicotyledonae and monocotyledonae plants ? Q.25 Kiwis is flightless birds. Q.26 Hedgehog belongs to class mammalia. Q.27 In thallophyta mechanical and conducting tissues are absent. Q.28 Fungi are Autotropic. Q.29 Pteridophyta plants have no flowers and do not produce seeds. Q.12 What are the sub phyllum of chordata ? Give examples. C. LONG ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS (More than 60–70 word) Q.13 Write down the main characters of the kingdom monera or protista ? Q.14 List the distinguishing features of the phylum chordata ? Mention its classes with one example each. Q.15 F. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Q.30 Write down important characters of the phylumPlatyhelminthes ? 48 Whittaker failed to give any place to one of the following in his classification (a) Cyanobacteria (b) Virus (c) Slime moulds (d) all above Biology - Diversity in Living Organism
  13. 13. Q.31 Q.32 Parazoa of includes (a) Protozoans (b) Porifera (c) Parasites of invertebrates (mosozoa) (d) None above G. MATCH THE COLUMNS Q.40 Column - I Column - II 1. a. Lamprey 2. Jawless vertebrate b. Salamander 3. Amphibian c. Salmon 4. Cartilaginous fish d. Snake 5. Flightless bird e. Shark f. Viruses are essentially made up of (a) Proteins and nucleic acid (b) Proteins and carbohydrates (c) Lipids and nucleic acids (d) Starch, proteins and lipid Limbless reptile Ostrich H. FILL THE BOX WITH APPROPRIATE WORD Q.33 Q.34 Q.35 Prokaryotes are included in the group (a) Monera (b) Basidiomycetes (c) Bryophytes (d) Tracheophyta Q.41 Q.42 Four kingdom system of classification was given by (a) Copeland (b) Whittaker (c) Linnoeus (d) Von mohl Q.43 A branch of biology which deals with the identification, nomenclature and classification of organisms is called (a) Morphology (b) Ecology (c) Taxonomy (d) Phytogeography Q.39 The following questions consist of two statement each : assertion (A) and reason (R). To answer these questions, mark the correct alternative as described below : (a) If both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. (b) If both A and R are true but R is not correct explanation of A. (c) If A is false but R is true. (d) If both A and R are false. Q.45 Binomial nomenclature was introduced by (a) John Ray (b) A. P. deCandolle (c) A. L. de Jussion (d) Carolus Linnaeus Biology - Diversity in Living Organism Kiwi is found in - I. ASSERTION-REASON TYPE QUESTIONS Vascular bundle are found in (a) Thallophyta (b) Bryophyta (c) Pteridophyta (d) Lichens Q.38 Petromyzon is example of - Q.44 Which of the following organism has characters of both animals and plants (a) Blue-green algae (b) Euglena (c) Moss (d) Cycas Q.37 Segmented worms with complete digestive tract originated in phylum - Which group of plants are called “Amphibians of plant world” (a) Bryophyta (b) Gymnosperms (c) Algae (d) Fungi Q.36 Agnatha has no - 49 A : Scoliodon is called dog fish. R : It has a developed sense of smell.
  14. 14. EXERCISE - 2 A. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Algae are (a) Autotropic (c) Both Q.9 (b) Heterotropic (d) None In larval stage which symmetry is present in echinodermata (a) Radial (b) Biradial (c) Bilateral (d) None of these B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Chlamydomonas is the example of (a) Algae (b) Fungi (c) Lichens (d) None Q.10 Q.11 Which class is called amphibians of the plant kingdom (a) Thallophyta (b) Bryophyta (c) Pteridophyta (d) Gymnosperm Which of the following groups of animals is found in marine habitat (a) Some fishes (b) Echinoderms (c) Whale (d) None of these Which statement is correct (a) Thallophyta has no vascular system (b) Fungi have a cell wall containing a mixture of chitin and cellulose (c) Cycas is the example of pteridophyta (d) Rose is the example of monocotyledonae Q.4 Example of pteridophyta is (a) Selaginella (b) Cycas (c) Pinus (d) None Q.5 Cnidoblasts is characterstic feature of (a) Coelenterata (b) Porifera (c) Protozoa (d) Arthropoda Q.12 True coelon is found in (a) Annelida (b) Nematoda (c) Cnidaria (d) All above Q.6 Palemon (prawn) is the example of (a) Arthropoda (b) Annelida (c) Coelenterata (d) Protozoa Q.13 Q.7 Four chambered heart is found in (a) Draco (b) Hemidactylus (c) Tortoises and turtles (d) Rocodyle In the five kingdom system of classification developed by Robert Whittaker, members of the kingdom animalia are heterothophic, eukaryotic and (a) Multicellular (b) Motile (c) Either unicellular and multicellular (d) None of these Q.14 Which mammal can fly (a) Bat (b) Lizard (c) Sparrow (d) None Q.15 Which does not belong to class coelenterata (a) Hydra (b) Aurelia (c) Metridium (d) Euplectella Q.8 In mollusca respiratory organ is called (a) Ctenidia (b) Lungs (c) Book-lungs (d) All the above 50 Biology - Diversity in Living Organism
  15. 15. Q.16 Which animal is included Aves (a) Kangroo (b) Hedgehog (c) Penguin (d) Bat Q.17 PASSAGE 1 (Q.20 TO Q. 23) An amimals are marine and have tube feet for locomotion. A well developed system of camals is present for movement of water in the body. Larva and adult have different symmetry. Warm - blooded animals are (a) Reptilia (b) Fish (c) Aves (d) Amphibia Q.18 C. PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS Example of Amphibia is (a) Amphioxus (b) Myxine (c) Amphicma (d) Ambyostoma Q.19 Q.20 Q.21 Biology - Diversity in Living Organism What is the symmetry in larva and adult of such animals ? Q.23 51 What is name of the system of canals ? Q.22 Respiration in arthropods occurs through (a) Body surface (b) Booklungs (c) Gill (d) Lungs Animals with alive character belong to which phylum ? Name two examples and their common names ?
  16. 16. v ANSWER v EXERCISE -1 A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS F. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 30. b 34. a 38. c 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Plant kingdom, Animal kingdom. Robert H. Whittaker AIDS is caused by Human Immuno-deficiency virus (HIV). Monera Plantae Unicellular, eukaryotic organisms Cycas, Pinus Palemon (Prown), Limulus (King crab) 32. a 36. b 33. a 37. c G. MATCH THE COLUMNS 40. 1-d, 2-a, 3-b, 4-e, 5-f H. FILL THE BOX WITH APPROPRIATE WORD 41. Jows 43. cyclostomata D. FILL IN THE BLANKS 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 31. b 35. a 39. d An living world, non-living world. Carolus linnaeus Echinodermata Pteriophyte Unicellular and aquatic. 42. Annelida 44. New Zealand I. ASSERTION-REASON TYPE QUESTIONS 45. a E. TRUE OR FALSE 23. True 26. True 29. True 24. False 27. True 25. True 28. False EXERCISE -2 A. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS C. PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS 1. a 2. a 3. b 4. a PASSAGE 1 (Q.21 TO Q. 24) 6. a 7. d 8. a 9. c 5. a 20. Echinodermata 21. Ambulacral system or water vascular system. 22. Larva - Bilateral and Adult - Radially symmetrical. 23. Asterias (star fish) Echinus (sea urchin) B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 10. a, b, c 11. a, b 14. a 15. d 18. c 19. a, b, c 12. a 16. c 13. a, b 17. c 52 Biology - Diversity in Living Organism
  17. 17. IMMUNITY AND HUMAN DISEASES Edward Jenner is known as father of Contents immunology. Antigen - Foreign substance which initiates Introduction imume respouse. Types of Immunity Types of Immunity : Diseases Immunity is of two basic types, innate and acquired. (A) Innate Immunity : Protozoan Viral Innate immunity is also known as inborn immunity. It is present from birth. Bacterial Innate immunity is the first line of defence in most organisms, whether plants or animals. Deficiency The immunity remains throughout life. Contact with pathogen or its antigen is not essential. Innate immunity is inheritable. 1. IMMUNITY :: It protects the individual from contraction of diseases of other organisms. Definition : Immunity (L. Immunis = free), is a natural or acquired resistance of an individual to development of pathological condition even after having received infective dose of virulent pathogen, its or an allergen. “Immunity is the resistance of body to effect of certain pathogenic microorganism.’’ (B) Acquired Immunity : Acquired immunity develops only on exposure to the concerned microorganism. It develops during life time. The acquired immunity can be short lived or life long. Immune System : Is a complex system of the Contact with pathogen or its antigen is essential. body including cellular and molecular components which has the primary function of distinguishing self from nonself and defence against infections agents, foreign substances and cancer. Acquired immunity cannot be passed to the next generation. 2. COMPONENT OF IMMUNCE SYSTEM Immunology : (L. Immunis free, logos-study) is Immune system has two components, humoral and cell mediated. the branch of biology which deals with the study of immune system and immune responses. Study of structure and function of immue system is called immunology. (A) Humoral Immune System : The antibodies are formed by B-Lymphocytes. These are specific for antigens. Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases 53
  18. 18. Some of the diseases caused by intrinsic sources are - (B) Cell Mediated Immune System : This system defends the body against pathogens including fungi and protists which enter the body. This system also reacts against tissue transplants and against body’s own cells that have become cancerous. Cardiac failure Kidney failure Osteoporosis (Pore in bones) Myopia or short sightedness It is component of Immune system which consist of T-Lymphocytes. Sickle cell anaemia etc. The system provides cellular Immunity. It functions against pathogen which pass into host cells, the Immune system also operates against cancer cells and transplants. It also activates B-Lymophocytes. (B) Extrinsic or Internal Factor : The factors causing diseases and existing outside the human body are called extrinsic or external factors. The important extrinsic factors which upset human health are the following - 3. DISEASE :: Unbalanced diet Disease is defined as the malfunctioning of the organs of the human body. Diseases causing micro-organism such as viruses, bacteria, fungi etc. Sickness, illness, ailment as disease is a disorder that affects an organism. Environmental pollutants. Tobacco, alcohol and narcotic drugs. The term disease means DIS-EASE or without ease or discomfort. Extrinsic factors affect the health of our body by interfering with normal fuctioning of the body system. 3.1 Sources of Disease : Generally, factors affecting health may be divided into following groups - Some of diseases caused by extrinsic factors are– Kwashiorkor (a) Intrinsic factors and Marasmus (b) Extrinsic factors Night blindness (A) Intrinsic or Internal Factors : Beri Beri etc. The disease causing factors which exist with in the human body are called intrinsic factors. Types of Diseases : The important intrinsic factors which affect human health are the following - Diseases Malfunctioning or improper functioning of various body parts. Congenital diseases Acquired diseases Genetic disorders Hormonal imbalances Malfunctioning of immune system Communicable or infectious diseases The diseases caused by intrinsic sources or factors are called organic or metabolic diseases. 54 Non-communicable or non infectious diseases Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases
  19. 19. 4.1 Diseases Caused by Protozoans : Human diseases are broadly grouped into two categories - (A) Malaria : (A) Congenital Diseases : General Introduction - These diseases are those which are present since birth. Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite Plasmodium. This disease spreads through the bite of an insect vector-the female Anopheles mosquito which feeds on human blood. (Male Anopheles mosquito feeds upon nectar. Thus does not spread malaria). (B) Acquired Diseases : These diseases are those which develop after birth. (B) Acquired Diseases : Acquired diseases can be broadly classified into two types Communicable Symptoms Main symptom of malaria include headache, nausea, muscular pain and fever at regular intervals. Non-communicable Communicable or-Infectious Diseases These diseases are caused by some biological agents or pathogens. Prevention - We can protect us from the bite Pathogens such as Virus, Bacteria, Protozoans and Fungi. Wire-gauze should be used on doors and windows of our houses to prevent entry of mosquitoes. of mosquitoes by following methods : Those infectious diseases are communicated from diseases person to healthy person they are known as communicable diseases. Insect-repellents (e.g., Odomas) should be used to prevent mosquito-bite. Mosquito larvae should be killed by sprinkling kerosene oil on large-sized water bodies. Some larvivorous fishes such as Gambusia, Minnows or trouts or birds (e.g., ducks) can be introduced in water bodies. Examples - Malaria, Influenza, Jaundice, AIDS etc. Non-Communicable Infectious Diseases : Diseases or Adult mosquitoes can be killed by spraying insecticides (e.g., BHC, Malathion) on the walls of human dwellings. These are not spread from infected person to healthy person. Non communicable diseases may be caused from deficiency diseases, degenerative diseases, cancer and metabolic disorders. Treatment A drug named Quinine, which is extracted from the bark of Cinchona tree, is used to treat a person suffering from malaria. Several non communicable diseases caused due to the deficiency of nutrients are called nutritional deficiency diseases or nutritional disorders. (B) Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness) - Examples - Marasmus and Kwashiorkor (deficiency of proteins) Rickets, Goiter, Beri-Beri etc. Cause - Trypanosomiasis is caused by Trypanosoma. Life Cycle of Trypanosoma - Life cycle of 4. DIFFERENT TYPES OF DISEASES CAUSED DUE TO INFECTION BY MICRO ORGANISMS :: Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases Trypanosoma is digenetic. 55
  20. 20. Primary host is Man (Dogs and pigs are also found with Trypanosoma) Symptoms of trypanosomiasis varies according Secondary host is Glossina (Tse - Tse fly) to presence of Trypanosoma in blood, lymph and cerebrospinal fluid. Glossina is a blood sucking insect. Trypanosoma in blood causes very high fever. Trypanosoma in lymph results in swelling of neck and armpit. (C) Kala-azar : Kala azar is caused by Leishmania donovani. Trypanosoma in cerebrospinal fluid causes, weakness mental dullness, severe headache, muscle spasm, fremor of hands, pain stiffness in neck, excessive drowsiness etc. L.donovani is a parasite in human blood mainly found in blood capillaries of visceral organs. Note : The parasite mainly attacks the endothelial cells of blood vessel and lymphatics Following are the medicines used in the treatment of trypanosomiasis. Epidemiology - Kala azar spread from infected person to healthy person through vector sandfly (i) Suramine Following are the symptoms of Kala azar. (ii) Lomadine (iii) Bayer 205 (Phlebotomus). (iv) Pentamidine Note : Yet no vaccine is available for (i) Fever trypanosomiasis. (ii) Enlargement of the spleen and liver 4.2 Diseases Caused by Viruses : (iii) Rheumatic pain General Introduction - Note : Leishmania tropica causes oriental sore. Influenza is commonly called flu. Types of Fever : Mainly of two types which are as follows : It is an international disease and is caused by influenza virus (Myxovirus influenzae). (I) Gambian fever Symptoms - (II) Rhodesian fever The common symptoms of influenza disease are sudden onset of chills, discharge from the nose, sneezing, fever, muscular pains and general weakness. Fever last three days in adults. Gambian Fever Gambian fever is also called west African sleeping sickness. Prevention - Gambian fever is caused by- Trypanosoma gambiense We should try to keep away from flue patients. Gambian fever spread by both sexes of Tse-Tse fly (Glossina palpalis) Control - Gambian fever mainly occurs in west and central Africa Ammantadine and Rimatidine are recommenede for the treatment of influenza. (A) Jaundice/Hepatitis : Rhodesian Fever Rhodesian fever is also called East Africans sleeping sickness. General Introduction Jaundice or hepatitis is the disease of liver. Rhodesian fever is caused by T. rhodesiense. Jaundice is caused by viral infection. R.fever spread by Glossina moisitans The types of hepatitis are : Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E or Hepatitis G. Epidemiology - From infected man to healthy man by Tse-Tse fly. 56 Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases
  21. 21. Hepatitis is spread mostly by food and water contaminated with hepatitis virus. Compulsory immunization of dogs and cats should be done. Pet dogs should be vaccinated with anti rabies vaccine. Symptoms - A rabid animal shows excessive salivation and tries to seek isolation after bite and so such an animal should be killed. High temperature, headache, fatigue, general weakness, and joint pains. Loss of appetite (called anorexia) with a feeling of nausea and vomiting. Rabies can be treated by “Pasteur’s treatment” (discovered by Louis Pasteur) in which a course of 14 vaccines was given. Appearance of irritating rashes on body. Dark yellow urine. Currently five anti-rabies vaccines are prescribed at an interval of 0-3-7-14-30 days of dog bite. Light coloured stool after 3 to 10 days of infection. (C) AIDS (Acquired Immuno deficiency syndrome) : Prevention Use chlorinated, boiled and ozonized water. General Introduction - Proper cleaning of hands after handling bed and vessels of the patient. AIDS stands for “Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome” (It is a fatal disease). The disease of AIDS is caused by retrovirus (a RNA virus) known as Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Control Application of interferon injection on the advice of the doctor will control the diseases. AIDS virus attacks white blood cells, (WBCs) or lymphocytes (T4 helper cells) of human beings and weakens the human body’s immunity or self-defence mechanism. For an early cure, it is essential that patient of jaundice should take adequate rest. (B) Rabies/Hydrophobia : General Introduction - Transmission - The bite of a rabid dog (mad dog) and some other rabid mammals such as monkeys, cats or rabbits may cause rabies, which is fatal. The AIDS disease usually spreads through unprotected sexual contact with an infected person carrying AIDS virus. Thus, AIDS is a sexually transmitted viral disease. Rabies is a viral disease caused by a rabies virus which is present in the saliva of the infected animals. internal viral protein Symptoms - protein of envelope Rabies is characterized by severe headache, high fever, painful contraction of muscles of throat and chest (due to which there is difficulty in swallowing). The patient feels restless, does excessive salivation, has a chocking feeling and finds difficulty in taking in even liquid food. reproductive enzymes (reverse transcriptase) Prevention Wash the wound with carbolic soap and clean water immediately after the bite. Apply antiseptic medicine. Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases RNA (Genetic material) Structure of HIV or AIDS virus 57
  22. 22. Without nerve impulse the muscles fail to work and Shrink in children, so commonly called “Infantile paralysis”. The AIDS disease also spreads through the transfusion of blood contaminated with AIDS virus. The AIDS disease also spreads through the use of infected needles for injections (i.e., sharing of infected injection needles which have not been sterilized). Control : Oral vaccines are available (developed by Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin, 1940) to Protect babies from polio attack. An AIDS infected mother can transmit the virus to her child during pregnancy or during birth (i.e., by mother’s blood). Public pulse polio Immunization programe is organized in India for eradicating polio. Symptoms - 4.3 Diseases Caused by Bacteria : Swollen lymph nodes. (i) Tuberculosis (T.B.) Decreased count of blood platelets causing haemorrhage and fever. (ii) Cholera (iii) Typhoid (iv) Diarrhoea (v) Anthrax Sweating at night and weight loss. (i) Tuberculosis : Severe damage to brain which may lead to loss of memory, ability to speak and even think. General Introduction - Prevention - Tuberculosis was first discovered by German scientist Robert Koch in 1882. The common razor at the barbers shop should not be used. T.B. is an infectious disease which is communicated from one person to another directly or indirectly. A blood donor should be first tested HIV negative. Tuberculosis is caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Disposable needles and syringes should be used. Sexual contact with unknown people should be avoided. The bacterium releases a toxin called tuberculin. T.B. can affect all parts of body such as lungs, lymph glands, bones, intestine, etc. Control Till date there is no effective treatment for AIDS. Indinavir drug is used. Symptoms The patient of tuberculosis feels sick and weak. (D) Poliomyelitis (Polio) : There is a loss of appetite and weight. Poliomyelitis has been found throughout the world since ancient times and occurs only in humans. There are following two specific sites of tuberculosis infection. Prevention - The polio virus (with single stranded RNA) belong to picornavirus group and is one of the smallest known (10mµ is in diameter) virus. Immunization with BCG (Bacillus-Calamite-Guerin) vaccination is the best way to prevent from tuberculosis. Polio virus enters the body through food and water, multiplies in the cells of the intestinal wall and the infection spread to the lymphatic System and blood stream. Patient should be kept in properly ventilated room. Control : The tuberculosis can be cured by the following six essential drugs. On reaching the CNS, the virus destroys the dorsal horn cells of the spinal cord which control the activities of the muscles. 1. Rifampicin (RMP), 2. INH, 3. Streptomycin, 4. Pyrazinamide, 5. Ethambutol and 58 Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases
  23. 23. 6. Thiacetazone. The bacteria spread through faecal matter by house flies. Thus, T.B can be controlled by the use of antitubercular therapy (ATT). Symptoms - (ii) Cholera : Headache and typhoid fever which rises maximum in the afternoon. The temperature increases each day in the first week. General Introduction Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by a bacterium Vibrio cholera. High fever in the second week. Fever gradually decline during 3rd and 4th day. It is caused due to neglection in personal hygiene and sanitation. It is common during the days of floods. Prevention Proper sanitation and disposal of faecal matter prevents infection. Flies, contaminated water and contaminated food are the main transmitting agents of cholera. TAB-vaccination provides immunity for 3 years. Typhoral oral vaccine also prevents typhoid. Symptoms - (iv) Diarrhoea : Frequent vomiting with feeling of nausea. Painless watery diarrhoea. General Introduction - Diarrhoea, results in dehydration, weight loss and cramps in the muscles. Diarrhoea is an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid faeces. Patient’s eyes becomes sunken. There may be blood and mucus in the stools. Prevention - Persistent vomiting and loose stools cause dehydration and shock. Persons should be immunized by standard cholera vaccine. Blood pressure may fall, pulse rate increases and temperature rise. Only boiled water and well-cooked food should be used in areas which are chloroprene. ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution) should be used immediately The causative agents of diarrhoea are mainly bacteria such as. E. coli, Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella etc. Careful personal hygiene should be maintained. Symptoms - Control - Patients become irritable due to frequent loose motions and vomiting. ORS should be fed to the patient immediately. Sunken eyes with a pinched nose. Effective antibiotics under the proper medical supervision should be used. Tongue appears to be dry. Sudden weight loss with weak pulse rate. (iii)Typhoid : Little or no urine; urine starts becoming dark yellow. General Introduction - Prevention - Typhoid is most common infectious or communicable disease of India. Boil water before drinking. This kills bacteria and other organisms responsible for causing diarrhoea. Typhoid is caused by a rod-shaped and motile bacterium, called Salmonella typhi. Protect eatables from dirt, flies and cockroaches, etc., by covering them. Infection takes place by the oral route through ingestion of food, milk or water contaminated by contact with faecal matter of the typhoid patient. Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases 59
  24. 24. Wash all vegetables and fruits properly before use. 5. NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS DEFICIENCY DISEASES :: OR Use clean air-tight containers for the storage of food. During diarrhoea, infants should be breast-fed, if possible. Control : Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) should be given continuously to prevent dehydration. Consult a qualified doctor at the earliest to start anti-microbial and anti-diarrhoeal drugs. Give complete bed rest to the patient. Use isbagol husk with water or curd. (v) Anthrax : General Introduction : Anthrax is a bacterial disease affecting several wild and domestic animals, e.g. cattle sheep, goat, etc. A disease which is caused due to lack of a nutrient such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals or vitamins in our diet is called a deficiency disease. It can also infect human beings when exposed to infected animals and is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. In other words it can be said that a disease which arises due to the lack of adequate and balanced food is called a deficiency disease, Deficiency diseases are also called nutritional Symptoms and forms of anthrax : Cutaneous : It is not a common infection, however, if not treated timely and properly, it man result; into death. disorders. Inhalation : Anthrax may also be caused due The deficiency diseases are of following three types – to inhalation. Initial symptoms are similar to that of common cold. Protein-Energy deficiency diseases or ProteinEnergy Malnutrition (PEM); Intestinal : Symptoms of this form of anthrax are excessive pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and ultimately blood vomiting. Vitamin deficiency; Mineral deficiency. Prevention : A complete course of anthrax 5.1 Protein-Energy deficiency diseases vaccination which includes four subcutaneous injections should be taken. 5.2 Vitamin deficiency diseases 5.3 Mineral deficiency diseases Control : Proper antibiotic, as per the advise of a qualified doctor, should be taken. 5.1 Protein-Energy Deficiency Diseases : Deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats result’s in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) . 60 Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases
  25. 25. PEM occurs more frequently among infants and young children between 1 to 5 year of age. Two common forms of PEM are Kwashiorkor and Marasmus. (A) Kwashiorkor : General Introduction : Kwashiorkor is the common protein deficiency disease of children. Fig. Marasmus Kwashiorkor is an African word from Ghana which means ‘neglected child’. Symptoms : Wasting of muscles observed. Ribs becomes prominent. Dry, thin and wrinkled skin is observed. Diarrhoea is a very common symptom. Prevention : A protein-rich diet should be given. Besides this, the diet should also contain sufficient amount of carbohydrates and fats. In case of unavailability of mother’s milk, the child should be given pure and undiluted cow’s milk. Fig. Kwashiorkor Symptoms - Control : Swollen abdomen with cracked and scaly skin. Babies should be breast-fed as long as possible. Limbs become thin. 5.2 Vitamins Deficiency Diseases : Oedema and Diarrhoea. Retardation in brain and mental development. Prevention - Vitamins are organic compounds which are always taken along with food in small amounts. Sufficient amount of protein-rich diet should be given. Absence of these in diet for prolonged periods may cause deficiency diseases. A diet with a combination of wheat, gram, peanuts, soybean and jaggery gives satisfactory results to cure Kwashiorkor. Diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamins are Scurvy, Rickets, Beri Beri, Pellagra and Xerophthalmia. On the vitamins solubility vitamins deficiency diseases are two types – (B) Marasmus : General Introduction : (A) Deficiency of Fat Soluble Vitamins : Like Kwashiorkor, Marasmus is also a disease affecting children below the age of five. (B) Deficiency of Water Soluble Vitamins : (A) Diseases Caused by Deficiency of Soluble Vitamins A & D - It is caused due to protein-energy malnutrition which develops in infants during the first few months. Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases (I) Xerophthalmia 61 (II) Rickets
  26. 26. (I) Xerophthalmia or Night Blindness : General Introduction Xerophthalmia is caused by the deficiency of a fat-soluble vitamin, called vitamin A or retinol. Retinol is a fat-soluble vitamin and is required to maintain general health and vigour of epithelial cells of our eyes, skin and hair and thus, contributes to general growth our body. Fig. Rickets (bow leg) Symptoms : Prevention/Control : Retarded growth, atrophy, keratinization, in the epithelial cells. Vitamin D prevents rickets by helping the body to absorb calcium. Dry and scaly skin (dermatosis). Human skin contains a large amount of a compound called 7-dehydrocholesterol . When ultraviolet rays of sunlight falls on our skin, then this compound is converted into vitamin- D. In our country the new born babies are exposed to sunlight every day. This is done to produce vitamin D which will prevent rickets. Shortage of vitamin A disables a person from seeing in dim light or in dark, a condition called Nyctalopia or Night blindness. Eye disease due to retinal deficiency, called keratomalacia. Prevention/Control : (B) Diseases Caused by Deficiency of Water Soluble Vitamins B and C : Carrot and milk are the two best available sources of vitamin A, and are thus highly useful for the improvement of vision and in curing night blindness. (Ι ) Ι Beri-beri (Ι Ι ) Ι Pellagra or 4D-Syndrome (ΙΙΙ) Scurvy Ι Other good sources of vitamin A are green leafy vegetables, pumpkin, mango, fish liver oil and liver. (Ι ) Beri-beri : Ι General Introduction - (Ι Ι ) Rickets : Ι Beri-beri was first observed amongst Japanese seamen who generally fed with a diet of polished rice. General Introduction Deficiency of vitamin D or Calciferol in the diet causes increased loss of Ca 2+ in urine therefore, no calcium ion (Ca2+) gets deposited in the bone. It was then investigate that the polished or dehusked rice is deficient in vitamin B. Beriberi occurs mainly in areas where polished rice is the staple diet of the people. Disease of bones called rickets in children and Osteomalacia in adults. Polished rice since it causes a deficiency of vitamin B1 or Thiamine in our body. Symptoms Bones of children suffering from rickets become thin, soft and weak due to poor deposition of calcium and phosphorus in them. Symptoms - The signs of rickets in children are bow legs (bent legs) due to deformation in long bones (leg bones). Extreme weakness, headache and dizziness. Waterlogging of the tissues resulting in severe pain in legs, and oedema. Loss of appetite is also occur. Paralysis of some body parts may also occur. 62 Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases
  27. 27. Prevention/Control : Prevention/Control - A-diet rich in vitamin B1 should be taken. Diet supplemented with following plant sources viz., cereal husk, peas, beans, green leafy vegetables, coffee and animal sources viz., liver, fish, milk, egg yolk will either prevent or control the disease. The food items rich in vitamin B1 include grain cereals, beans, groundnuts, green vegetables, soybean, milk and seafood. (Ι Ι ) Pellagra or 4D-Syndrome : Ι (ΙΙΙ) Scurvy : Ι General Introduction - General Introduction : The deficiency of vitamin B4 or niacin Deficiency of vitamin-C in the diet causes a deficiency disease, called scurvy. (= nicotinic acid) in the diet causes a disease called pellagra. Vitamin C deficient persons usually include the homeless, alcoholic, lonely house bound women and bottle fed babies. Pellagra is an Italian word which means rough skin. Symptoms - Vitamin C promotes collagen (= protein) synthesis and collagen is a main component of connective tissues which are present in the walls of blood vessels. Pellagra disease is characterized by four D’s (called 4D syndrome). i.e. four grouped of symptoms are(i) Dermatitis (ii) Diarrhoea (iii) Dementia (iv) Death Symptoms : Swelling and bleeding of gums. Loosening of the teeth, which eventually may fall out. Pain in the joints. pigments General weakness and fatigue. A B with pellagra normal Fig. Symptoms of pellagra on the skin of hands of a patient. Fig. Swollen, spongy gums and loose teeth as a result of chronic vitamin C deeficiency. Dermatitis means inflammation of the skin and it is characterized by skin eczema. Prevention/Control : Diarrnoea means loose motion which is due to disturbances of digestive tract. Scurvy can be cured by giving vitamin C-rich diet. Dementia means psychological disturbances or mental degeneration and its symptoms include depression, irritability and delirium. All citrus fruits, e.g. lime, lemon, oranges, amla, etc., are a good source of vitamin C. Vitamin C is destroyed by heating and, therefore, uncooked vegetables are very rich in vitamin C. Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases 63
  28. 28. 5.3 Minerals Deficiency Diseases : Deficiency or lack of various minerals in the human diet gives rise to different diseases. Some of the mineral deficiency diseases are : Anaemia, Goitre. (I) Anaemia : General Introduction : This is the disease caused by deficiency of iron, which is required to form the protein– Haemoglobin present in red blood cells in our body. Fig. Goitre In children, deficiency of iodine results in a disease called cretinism or infantile Anaemic patients, percentage haemoglobin (Hb) will be low in blood. myxedema. The main function of Hb is to transport O2 from lungs to various parts of the body. Deficiency of dietary iodine in adults leads to a disease is called goitre. Symptoms : Prevention/Control - A person suffering from anaemia, becomes pale, loses appetite and feels tired. Sea food, leafy vegetables, water, iodized salt, etc. are rich in iodine, diet supplemented with them will restore normal function of thyroid. Prevention/Control : Liver, eggs, molasses, cereal, pulses, leafy vegetables, egg plant, apple, banana, guava are rich in iron. Besides, intra muscular injection of iodized oil (mostly poppy-seed oil) or oral sodium iodate tablet developed by ICMR has been found to be effective against goitre. Disease can be prevented or can be controlled, by including iron containing vegetables and fruits in the daily diet. Efforts of ICMR are also on to develop common salt fortified with iron and iodine, i.e. “two-inone’ salt to check the disease. (II) Goitre : General Introduction - 6. VACCINATION : Goitre is an endemic disease which is caused due to deficiency of a mineral, called iodine in human diet. The first true vaccine consisting of weakened micro organisms against chicken cholera was developed in 1880 by the french Scientist Louis Iodine is an important constituent of a hormones called thyroxin which is secreted by an endocrine gland called thyroid gland. Posteur. Vaccine is a preparation of killed, inactivated or attenuated (weakend) microorganism or toxoids induce immunity. Symptoms Retarded growth. The vaccination is a process of conferring immunity by administering a vaccine. Mental disability. Vaccination is a technique to develop immunity without infection. Weakend (attenuated) or dead pathogens, or portion of pathogens, are injected Abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland (called goitre). 64 Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases
  29. 29. into a person who is required to be made immune. The pathogens given in a vaccine are unable to cause the disease, but are sufficient to stimulate the formation of antibodies by the host’s immune system that recognize the antigens. Thus, a vaccinated person develops immunity against the pathogen without contracting the disease. Often 2 or 3 additional doses needed to generate adequate immunity. There are called booster doses. Small pox was the first disease to be eliminated by vaccination. It is also the first disease to be officially declared wiped out by human efforts. Todays, vaccines are available against small pox, cholera, measles, mumps, polio & rabies. Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases 65
  30. 30. EXERCISE - 1 A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS Q.20 Q.4 What is Immunity. Q.5 What is the cause of rabbies ? Q.6 Name the disease the child will not suffer from if BCG vaccine is given. Give an account of malaria, giving its cause, vector, symptoms and control measures. Q.21 Name two diseases caused by bacteria. What is beri-beri, mention its symptoms and how can it be prevented. Give two minerals deficiency diseases. Name the causal organism of AIDS. Q.3 What is rickets ? how can it be prevented ? Q.19 Q.2 What do you understand about Intrinsic or Extrinsic factors of disease. Q.18 Name the pathogen of Cholera. What is communicable and non-communicable diseases. Give example of each. Q.17 Q.1 Q.16 Q.7 What is the full form of PEM. Q.8 Deficiency of Xerophthalmia. D. FILL IN THE BLANKS which Vitamin causes Q.22 Q.23 Anaemia is caused by the deficiency of ........ Q.24 Deficiency of vitamins D in adults causes ......... Q.25 Deficiency of thiamin leads to a disease called ............. Q.26 B. SHORT ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS Deficiency of riboflavin results in ......... Deficiency of iron in the food leads to ........ (About 30–40 words) Q.9 What are the cause (i.e., causative organisms) of the following diseases : (i) Flu (ii) Hepatitis (iii) Rabies (iv) T.B. Q.10 What are congenital diseases. Q.11 What are the symptoms of Influenza. Q.12 Name the disease caused by Vitamin C deficiency. What are the sources of this Vitamin ? E. TRUE OR FALSE Q.27 Children need not be immunized. Q.28 Tuberculosis was first discovered by Robert koch. Q.13 Name the source of Vitamin A. Q.29 Congenital diseases are present since birth. Q.14 What is the symptoms of typhoid. Q.30 Anthrax is a bacterial disease. C. LONG ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS Q.31 AIDS spreads by handshake with infected person. Q.32 Vitamin C is obtained in excess from milk. Q.33 Rickets is a PEM disease. (More than 60–70 words) Q.15 Describe types of immunity. 66 Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases
  31. 31. Q.34 Q.35 Q.45 Deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in diet of a child leads to osteomalacia. Q.36 BCG-vaccine is used for preventing (A) Cholera (B) Tuberculosis (C) Measles (D) Tetanus Q.46 Beri-beri disease occurs due to deficiency of thiamine in diet. Which of the following is not a sexually transmitted disease (A) Tuberculosis (B) Syphilis (C) Gonorrhoea (D) AIDS We should always eat polished rice to stay healthy. F. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS G. MATCH THE COLUMNS Q.37 Jaundice is disease of (A) Kidney (B) Liver (C) Pancreas (D) Duodenum Q.39 Column - II 1. Pellagra a. Thiamin Rickets b. Retinol 3. Xerophthalmia c. Cyanocobalamine 4. Pernicious anaemia d. Calciferol 5. Beri-beri e. Niacin f. Immuno–deficiency syndrome could develop due to (A) Defective liver (B) Defective thymus (C) AIDS Virus (D) Weak immune system. Column - I 2. Q.38 Q.47 Ascorbic acid H. FILL THE BOX WITH APPROPRIATE WORD Lack of Iodine causes (A) Goitre (B) Fluorosis (C) Anaenia (D) Osteomalacia Q.48 Other name of rabies - Q.49 Q.40 Q.41 AIDS virus attack - AIDS virus cannot be transmitted to another person by (A) Blood transfusion (B) Shaking hands (C) Sexual contact (D) Infected needles Q.50 Vitamin-C deficiency causes - Q.51 Iodine deficiency causes - T.B. is cured by (A) Steptomycin (C) Griseofulvin I. ASSERTION-REASON TYPE QUESTIONS (B) Ubiquinone (D) Encitol Q.42 Which of the following is a bacterial diseases (A) Sickle-cell anaemia (B) Cholera (C) Cancer (D) Goitre Q.43 Among the following a communicable disease is (A) Diabetes (B) Diphtheria (C) Hypertension (D) Kwashiorkor. Q.44 The following questions consist of two statement each : assertion (A) and reason (R). To answer these questions, mark the correct alternative as described below : (a) If both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. (b) If both A and R are true but R is not correct explanation of A. (c) If A is false but R is true. (d) If both A and R are false. One stands the risk of dehydration in (A) Jaundice (B) Pneumonia (C) Malaria (D) Diarrhoea Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases Q.52 67 A : Iodine is an important component of diet. R : Deficiency of iodine causes Goitre.
  32. 32. Q.53 A : Deficiency of vitamin B1 causes Beri-beri Q.55 R : Whole wheat bread and dalia are the richest source of vitamin B1. Q.54 A : Anthrax is caused due to vibrio cholerae. R : Symptoms of anthrax includes loose motion vomiting leading to dehydration. A : Vitamin C is called ascorbic acid. Q.56 R : Cod liver oil is a rich source of vitamin C. A : Communicable diseases can spread by means of air, water, food & physical contact. R : Malaria is an example of communicable diseases. 68 Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases
  33. 33. EXERCISE - 2 A. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Q.1 Q.9 Q.10 The opposite to innate Immunity is (A) Phagocytosis (B) Passive immunity (C) Acquired immunity (D) None of these. Q.2 The study of resistance to disease is called (A) Pathology (B) Ccytology (C) Immunology (D) None of these. Which one is correct statement (A) Sunshine vitamin is vitamin C (B) Antixerophthalmic and undisturbed vitamins are B and C (C) Prolonged deficiency of nicotinic acid produces pellagra (D) Vitamins A, D, E, K are water soluble Humoral-immune system comprises (A) B lymphocytes (B) Blood (C) T Lymphocyte (D) Monocytes. Q.3 Blood capillaries can easily rupture due to the deficiency of (A) Vitamin A (B) Vitamin C (C) Vitamin D (D) Vitamin K B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Q.4 Oral vaccine prevents the attack of (A) Typhoid (B) Polio (C) Tetanus (D) Cholera Q.11 Which one of the diseases is not communicable (A) Typhoid (B) Cancer (C) Measles (D) Leukemia Q.5 Causative agent of T.B. is (A) Salmonella (B) Mycobacterium (C) Streptococcus (D) Pneumococcus Q.12 Q.6 Which of the following is a bacterial disease(A) Poliomyelitis (B) Filariasis (C) Tetanus (D) Malaria AIDS is mainly caused by (A) Sexual intercourse (B) Bacteria (C) Through placental transfusion (D) Protozoa Q.13 Which is insoluble in water - Q.7 Q.8 (A) Retinol (C) Calciferol Typhoid is caused by (A) Escherichia (B) Giardia (C) Salmonella (D) Shigella Q.14 69 Which of the following is water soluble (A) Vitamin A (B) Vitamin B (C) Vitamin D (D) Vitamin C Q.15 Which of the following pairs is characterized by swollen lips, thick pigmented skin of hands and legs and irritability (A) Thiamine deficiencies - Beri-beri (B) Protein deficiency - Kwashiorkor (C) Nictoinamide deficiency - Pellagra (D) Iodine deficiency - Goitre Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases (B) Thiamine (D) Ascorbic acid Anaemia is caused due to deficiency of (A) Sodium (B) Iron (C) Calcium (D) Cyanocobalamin
  34. 34. Q.17 AIDS virus attacks on (A) Red blood cells (R.B.Cs) (B) T4 helper cells (C) Both (D) None of these. Q.18 Immuno-deficiency syndrome could develop due to (A) HLA (B) HCG (C) HIV (D) MHC Q.19 C. PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS AIDS spread by (A) Homosexuality (B) Immoral way of life (C) Infected needles and syringes (D) All the above PASSAGE 1 (Q.16 TO Q. 19) AIDS stands for “Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome” (It is a fatal disease). The disease of AIDS is caused by a pathogen. Causal organism of AIDS attacks white blood cells, (WBCs) of human beings and weakens the human body’s immunity or self-defence mechanism. The AIDS disease usually spreads through several means including unprotected, sexual contact.The disease can also spreads through the transfusion of blood contaminated with AIDS virus. Q.16 The disease of AIDS is caused by (A) Bacteria (B) Virus (C) Fungi (D) None of these 70 Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases
  35. 35. ANSWER EXERCISE -1 A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS F. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Vibro–chloera 37. B 38. C 39. A 40. B 2. HIV (Human Immuno–deficiency Virus). 41. A 42. B 43. B 44. D 3. Cholera, Tuberculosis (T.B.). 45. B 46. A 4. The resistance of the body to the effect of certain pathgenic micro organism. G. MATCH THE COLUMNS 5. Bite by a rabid dog. 6. Tuberculosis (TB). 7. Protein-energy malnutrition. 8. Vitamin A 47. 1-e, 2-d, 3-c, 4-b, 5-a, H. FILL THE BOX WITH APPROPRIATE WORD 48. Hydrophobia 49. T4 helper cell D. FILL IN THE BLANKS 50. Rickets, Beri-beri 51. Goiter, Anaemia 22. Cheilosis 23. Iron I. ASSERTION-REASON TYPE QUESTIONS 24. Osteomalacia 25. Beri-beri 52. A 53. B 55. D 26. Microcytic anaemia 54. C 56. A E. TRUE OR FALSE 27. False 28. True 29. True 30. True 31. False 32. False 33. False 34. True 35. False 36. False EXERCISE -2 A. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS C. PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS 1. C 4. B 7. C 10. C PASSAGE 1 (Q.16 TO Q. 19) 2. A 5. B 8. C 3. C 6. C 9. B 16. B B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 11. B, D 14. B, D 12. A, C 15. B, D 13. A, C Biology - Immunity and Human Diseases 71 17. B 18. C 19. D
  36. 36. NATURAL RESOURCES 3. EXHAUSTIBLE RESOURCES :: Contents Ø These resources have limited supply on the earth are therefore, liable to be exhausted if used in discrimately. Introduction Exhaustible resources are of two types : Inexhaustibel Resources (A) Nonrenewable energy resources Exhaustible Resources (B) Renewable energy resources. Wild Life Resources (A) Non-Renewable or Conventional Energy resources - Biogeochemical Cycles Ø It is directly or Indirectly from the sun and present in limited quantity. Ex. Coal & Petroleum (Fossil fuels) which cannot be renewed and produce a lot of air pollution and water pollution. 1. INTRODUCTION :: (B) Renewable or Non-Conventional Energy Resources : Definition : The stock of the nature such as air, water, soil, coal, minerals, animals and plants are useful to mankind in many ways. They are termed as natural resources. Ø These are solar radiation, wind power, hydel power, biomass and nuclear power. They are pollution free sources of energy which can be renewed in nature. Types of Natural Resources : “The energy received from sun in the form of heat and light is known as solar energy.” Natural resources are broadly classified into following two categories : Inexhaustible Resources q Fossil fuel - Exhaustible Resources Ø Fossil fuels are remains organisms embedded in the surface of the earth with high carbon, hydrogen contents which are used by man as fuels. 2. INEXHAUSTIBLE RESOURCES :: Ø These resources are present in unlimited quantity in the nature and they are not likely to be exhausted by human activities. Ø These are those energy resources which are extracted from the earth eg. coal, oil, natural gas and petroleum have resulted from the decay of dead plants & animals in the absence of oxygen. Fossils means the remains of living things, so these fuels have been named as fossil fuel. Ø Solar energy, wind power, tidal power, rainfall and even atomic energy are classified as inexhaustible resources. 72 Biology - Natural Resources
  37. 37. Types of Inexaustible Resources : mainly of methane which is produced when organic matter decays under anaerobic conditions. Cow-dung, faecal matter and other biodegradable wastes are allowed to decay under anaerobic conditions in digesters equipped with device to collect methane thus formed. Biogas is produced by the degradation of biological matter by the bacterial action in the absence of free oxygen. q Air Ø Total volume of air present in atmosphere consists of 78 per cent nitrogen, 21 per cent oxygen and 1 per cent other gases such as carbon dioxide ammonia, methane, hydrogen, ozone and noble gases such as neon, helium, krypton, xenon and radon. q Water - q The average composition of biogas is : Ø The seas, oceans, rivers, streams, lakes, pools, polar ice caps, water vapour, etc. form the hydrosphere. Ø CH4 (Methane) 50 - 60 % Ø Water is of two types : Salt water (sea) and fresh water. Ø H2 (Hydrogen) 5 - 10 % Ø CO2 (Carbon di oxide) 30 - 40 % Ø N2 (Nitrogen) 2 - 6 % Ø Fresh water : It is an unlimited natural resource. Its quality is often degraded but not quantity. Fresh water is obtained from the following three naturel sources : Ø H2S (Hydrogen sulphide) traces 4. WILD LIFE RESOURCES : Flora term is used for plant species and fauna for animal species which occur in domesticated and living in a natural habitat and constitute important renewable natural resources. (a) Rain water, (b) Surface water (surface flow) or (c) Ground water. 4.1 Conservation of Wild Life : Types of Exhaustible Resources : Wild life plays an important role in biosphere, and thus be should be conserved. Some important measures for conserving wildlife are mentioned below: q Soil Ø The superficial layer that covers large areas of the earth’s crust is called soil. It consists of mineral particles, decaying and decayed organic materials, living organisms, air and water and acts as a medium for plant growth, supporting them and supplying them with nutrients. It is also a habitat for numerous animals and microorganisms. Soil is actually exhaustible but maintainable natural resource. Ø Natural habitat should be protected by bringing up more National Parks, Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves. Ø Successful captivity breeding programme should be introduced to maintain plant and animal species. Ø Public awareness programme like Van Mahotsava, should be taken with all sincerity. Ø The word ‘soil’ is derived from a Latin word ‘solum’ meaning earthly material in which plants grow. Soil is a stratified mixture of inorganic and organic materials, both of which are decomoposition products. The soil forming rocks by fragmentation or weathering. Ø Government should pass legislations to protect wildlife. Ø Poaching should be checked. Ø Heavy penalties should be imposed on traders of furs, skins and feathers. q Biogas - Ø Forests should be conserved by afforestation. Ø Biogas “A mixture of gases is produced by the anaerobic degradation of animal and agricultural wastes, it is called bio-gas.” Biogas consists Ø Agro-forestry programme should be implemented. Biology - Natural Resources Ø Ornamental and aesthetic trees should be planted more. 73
  38. 38. Ø Loss of habitat is major cause of dlotruction of wild life. Ø Some important Wildlife Sancturies are given in table : (A) National Parks : 4.2 Biosphere Reserves : These are strictly reserved area. At present there are 89 National Parks in India. It is about 1 % of India’s total geographical area. In National Parks activities (Forestry, Cultivation or grazing) are not permitted. The Biosphere Reserves are a special category of protected areas of land or coastal environment, wherein people are in integral component of the system. The Jim Corbett National Park near Nainital was the first National Park established in India. Notable among then are Kaziranga. National Park for Asiatic Lion, Corbett National Park & Kanha National Park. Roles of Biosphere Reserves : (A) Conservation : Ø To ensure the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic resources. It also encourages traditional resources use. Some important National Park of India are given in table : (B) Development : (B) Sanctuaries : Ø To promote economic development which is culturally, socially and ecologically sustainable. It is protection of fauna only. Operations such as collection of minor forest products & private ownerships rights, harvesting of timber are allowed provided they do not affect the animals adversely. At present there are 492 Wild life Sancturies in our countary. Out of 581 National Parks & Sancturies 17 havebeen selected for ‘Project Tiger’. The (C) Scientific Research, Monitoring and Education : Ø The aim is to provide support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange related to local national and global issues of conservation and development. Bharatpur Sanctuary is world famous for Avifaura. Some Important National Parks S.No. Name and Location 1. Kaziranga National Park 2. Corbett National park 3. Gir National Park State Area (sq km) Assam 430 Rhinoceros, Barking deer. U.P. 525 Tiger, Panther, Nilgai, Sambhar, King Cobra, 1,412 Asiatic lion, Panther, Sambhar, Nilgai, Chital, Gujarat Important animals found 4-horned antelope, Crocodile, Partridge. 4. Kanha National Park Madhya Pradesh 940 Tiger, Panther, Chital, Chinkara, Four horned deer, Langur, Sloth bear, Crocodile, Pea-fowl. 5. Bandipur National Park Karnataka 874 Elephant, tiger, Leopard, Chital, Panther, 6. Desert National Park, Jaisalmer Rajasthan 3,000 Great Indian Bustard, Black buck, chinkara. 74 Biology - Natural Resources
  39. 39. Some Important Sancturies of India S.No. Name and Location State Important Animals found 1. Annamalai Sanctuary Tamil Nadu Elephant, Tiger, Panther, Sambhar, Spotted deer, Sloth bear, 2. Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary, Bharatpur Rajasthan Siberian crane, Egrets herons, Spoons bill, Great indian bustard etc. 3. Dachigam Sanctuary, Jammu & Kashmir Hangul or Kashmir Stag, Musk deer, Black bear, Brown bear. 4. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu Elephant, Sambhar, Chital, Barking deer, Flying squirrel, Wild dog, Wild cat, Civet, Sloth bear, Monitor lizard 5. Nagarjuna Sagar Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh Tiger, Panther, Wild bear, Chital, Nilgai, Sambhar, Black buck, Fox jackal, Wolf, Crocodile 6. Periyar Sanctuary Kerala Elephants, Gaur, Leopard, Sloth bear, Sambhar, Hornbill, egret. It is famous for elephants 7. Chilka lake bird Sanctuary Orissa Water Dowls, ducks, Cranes, Golden plovers 8. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam Tiger, Panther, Rhino, Gaur, Wild buffalo, Sambhar, Swamp deer, Wild dog q Biosphere Reserve in India : q Endangered (E) : These species are in danger of extinction of the causal factors continue to operate. 14 Areas have been marked to be declared as Biosphere Reserves in India. Of these, the following 9 have been so far notified. q Vulnerable (V) : These species are likely to enter into endangered category if the causal factor continue operate. Ø Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Ø Nanda Devi in Uttar Pradesh q Rare species (R) : Species with small world Ø Nokrek Biosphere Reserve population that are not present endangered or vulnerable but are at risk. Ø Uttarakhand Biosphere Reserve Ø Kanger valley Biosphere Reserve Ø Manas Biosphere Reserve 4. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES :: Ø Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve Ø Biogenetic elements (macro-, micro- & other elements) flow from the environment into and out of the plant in a cyclic manner. Ø Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve Ø Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve q Red Data Book : Ø This flow of nutrients from abiotic to biotic components of the ecosystem and vice-versa constitute the biogeochemical cycles. Intenational Union of Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources (IUCN) has classified threatened species of plants & animals according to the degree of danger as - Biology - Natural Resources 75
  40. 40. Clouds Snow, Hail, Sleet, Rain Transpiration Evaporation Evaporation Local Rain Run off Ponds & Lakes Rivers Plants Sea Animals Ocean Soil GRAVITATIONAL WATER The Water Cycle 5.1 Hydrological or Water Cycle : Atmospheric Oxygen O2 A Wonder Liquid - Organic Molecules C6H12O6 Ø Water on earth is cycled by two processes, evaporation and precipitation. Ø The atmospheric precipitation occurs in the form of snow, hail or sleet etc. The run off water is finally collected in ocean through rivers. OXYGEN CYCLE Photosynthesis Respiration Ø Some water remains solid in the form of snow which gradually melts and reaches the sea. Ø Soil water is used by plants and most of it again reaches the atmosphere through transpiration. CO2 Ø Animals consume water directly from water bodies & also the gravitational water. H2O Ø By evaporation, the water returns to atmosphere and cycle is repeated. 5.3 Carbon Cycle : Ø CO2 is 0.03% in atmosphere, which is utilized by producers in photosynthesis for making food. 5.2 Oxygen Cycle : Ø From producers, it goes to consumers and then through decomposers into atmosphere. Ø Oxygen required for respiration is plants and animals enters into body from the sorrounding environment. Oxygen back to environment in the form of CO2 and water. Oxygen enters through plants as CO2 and water during photosynthesis. It is released in the form of molecular oxygen. Ø The producers, consumers & decomposers may be converted into fossil fuel (petrol, coal etc.) or form carbonate rock after death. Ø By way of respiration the biotic component returns CO2 to atmosphere. 76 Biology - Natural Resources
  41. 41. nthesis Photosy Chemosynthesis Producers Respiration Death Consumers Vo us n, tio Lime Rock n Decomposers ca l Comb us e mi tio n CO2 in water De co mp os iti o Ch o an lc th e rin g We a & CO2 in Atmosphere on usti omb thesis C n tosy Pho Death & Decay Co Fossil fuel Peat, Coal, Oil, Co2, Rock m b The Carbon Cycle Ø CO2 may get dissolved in water. The lime rocks also contribute to CO2 in water. The aquatic producer use this CO2 for photosynthesis and return it by respiration. Ø In living organisms nitrogen is important constituent of protein and nucleic acid. Ø The N2 cycle has five important steps - (A) Nitrogen Fixation : Ø By combustion of fossil fuel & also by volcanic activity, CO2 is returned to the atmosphere. Ø Conversion of N2 gas into its compounds like nitrates & nitrites is called N2 fixation. It is done either non-biologically by lightening or biologically by symbiotic or free- living bacteria. 5.4 Nitrogen Cycle : Ø The atmosphere is the source of N2 where it is about 79%. Plant cannot use N2 directly. De nit rifi cat ion Nitrate in Soil Nitrate in Plants NH3 in Plants Nitrification Combustion al gic on olo ti Bi Fixa N2 Nitrate & Nitrite in Soil l ica og n iol atio n B ix No N 2F N2 in Atmosphere Amino acid in Plants Protein in Plants NH3 in Soil Amm-onification Animals Organic Death Nitrogenous Compound in Soil The NitrogenCycle The Nitrogen Cycle Biology - Natural Resources 77 Death
  42. 42. (B) Assimilation of Nitrogen : (D) Nitrification : Ø N2 cannot be used by plants directly. They absorb it in the form of nitrate. Nitrate later on reduced to ammonia which provide amino (–NH2) group. It is important part of proteins. Ø Ammonia is converted into nitrite by Nitrosomonas bacteria, and Nitrobacter convert nitrite into nitrate. This nitrate again can be absorbed by plant & thus cycled back. (C) Ammonification : (E) Denitrification : Ø Dead plant & animal protein and their waste like urea & uric acid converted to ammonia by some ammonifying bacteria in soil. e.g. Bacillus mycoides, B. vulgaris & B. ramosus etc. Ø Some denitrifying bacteria like Pseudomonas reduce nitrate into nitrogen gas in soil. This gas is again back to environment. 78 Biology - Natural Resources
  43. 43. EXERCISE - 1 Q.18 A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS Q.1 Name any one denitryfying bacteria ? Q.3 Name any two biosphere reserve found in India ? Q.4 Define Sanctury ? Q.5 D. FILL IN THE BLANKS Write any two examples of fossil fuel ? Q.2 What is a Biosphere Reserve ? What are endangered species ? Q.19 Q.20 Natural resources are broadly classified into inexhaustible & ...................... Q.21 Biogas consists mainly of ..................... . Q.22 The superficial layer that covers large areas of the earth’s crust is called ................ . Q.23 B. SHORT ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS Most biotic resources are ................... Ammonia is converted into nitrite by ............. bacteria. (About 30–40 words) Q.6 Write a short note on fossil fuel ? E. TRUE OR FALSE Q.7 Distinguish between renewable & non-renewable resources ? Q.24 Nitrogen cannot be used by plants directly. Q.8 What are Biosphere Reserve ? Q.25 By evaporation, the water returns to atmosphere. Q.9 Distinguish between inexhaustible & exhaustible resources. ? Q.26 Pseudomonas convert nitrite into nitrate. Q.27 Minerals can be metallic or non-metallic. Q.10 Write a short note on oxygen cycle ? Q.28 Q.11 Expla in the va lue of Biogas as Na tural Resources ? Vulnerable species are with small world population. Q.29 Sanctuary is protection of fauna only. Give an account on water cycle ? Q.30 The Bharatpur Sanctuary is world famous for Avifauna. Q.31 Ammonifying bacteria are Bacillus mycoides & B. vulgaris. Q.32 Renewable Resources are coal & petroleum. Q.12 C. LONG ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS (More than 60–70 words) Q.13 Discuss carbon cycle ? Q.14 Give an account of nitrogen cycle in the environment ? F. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Q.15 Describe various renewable sources of energy ? Q.33 Q.16 What is Red data book ? Describe its significance. Q.17 Write a short note on Sancturies in India ? Biology - Natural Resources 79 Most of the water on the earth surface is found in (A) Oceans and seas (B) Underground (C) Rivers (D) Lakes
  44. 44. Q.34 Natural habitat can be protected by creating (A) National Parks (B) Sanctuaries (C) Biosphere Reserves (D) All of these Q.35 Biogas is a good fuel because it is (A) Cheap fuel (B) Non-polluting fuel (C) Convenient fuel (D) All of these Q.37 Q.41 Exhaustible resources are (A) Water (B) Fossil fuels (C) Minerals (D) All Q.36 G. MATCH THE COLUMNS National Park associated with Rhinoceros is (A) Kaziranga (B) Ranthambore (C) Corbett (D) Valley of flowers Q.38 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. H. FILL THE BOX WITH APPROPRIATE WORD Q.42 Q.43 – Gir forest is in – Which of the following is a non renewable source (A) Water (B) Forest (C) Wild-life (D) Fossil fuels Q.40 Conversion of N2 gas into its components like nitrates & nitrites First National Park of India is (A) Kanha National Park (B) Periyar National Park (C) Corbett National Park (D) Bandipur National Park Q.39 Match the column – Column - I Column - II Fe, Cu a. Nitrosomonas Denitrification b. Non-metallic minerals Nitrification c. Bacillus mycoides Alluvial soil d. Rich in Al(OH)3 Ammonification e. Pseudomonas Sand, Stone f. Metallic minerals Chilka lake is situated in (A) Andhra Pradesh (B) Orissa (C) Gujarat (D) Assam 80 Biology - Natural Resources
  45. 45. EXERCISE - 2 A. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Q.1 Q.10 The total earth covered by water is about (A) 73 % (B) 50 % (C) 92 % (D) 70 % Q.11 Fossil fuels and metallic minerals are (A) Renewable resources (B) Inexhaustible resources (C) Nonrenewable resources (D) None of these Floods can be controlled by (A) Replacement of trees (B) Deforestation (C) Reforestation (D) None of these Q.12 The renewable source of energy is (A) Coal (B) Petroleum (C) Biomass (D) Kerosene The important energy resource which originate from photosynthetic activity of green plants is (A) Dendrothermal (B) Biogas (C) Tidal energy (D) None of these Q.13 Inexhaustible, non-conventional energy source is (A) Coal (B) Tidal (C) Wind (D) None of these Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 One of the most important natural resources of energy is (A) Electricity (B) Fossil fuels (C) Biogas (D) Nuclear fission The Ranthambore National Park is located in (A) Maharashtra (B) Uttar Pradesh (C) Gujrat (D) Rajasthan C. PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS PASSAGE 1 (Q.14 TO Q. 19) Forest and wildlife are which kind of natural resources (A) Renewable (B) Non-renewable (C) Inexhaustible (D) None above Q.6 The ‘threatened species’ refers to the species which are (A) Endangered (B) Vulnerable (C) Rare (D) All of these Q.7 The most exploited nonrenewable resource is– (A) Water (B) Petroleum (C) Electricity (D) All above Q.8 The leguminous plants contain nodules in their roots which contain symbiotic (mutualistic) bacterium has enzymes to convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen salts (e.g. nitrates). These nitrogen salts persist in the soil and such a soil, which is enriched by the nitrogen, is ready to support the next cereal crop. The conversion of nitrogen gas of atmosphere into nitrogen compounds, which can be utilised by leguminous plants and other plants, is called nitrogen fixation. Nitrate is used by plant, animals and pass out as ammonia Ammonia is then turned to nitrites and then to nitrogen. The natural source of energy which is most important is (A) Atomic energy (B) Biogas (C) Sunlight (D) Fossil fuels Q.9 Q.16 Q.17 Biology - Natural Resources What is the role of Nitrosomonas ? Q.19 Name a bacteria which convert N2 ? Q.20 81 Name a free-living bacterium capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen ? Q.18 Identify the correct match between tiger reserve and its state (A) Corbett - Madhya Pradesh (B) Eriyar - Orissa (C) Manas - Assam (D) Bandipur - Tamil Nadu Name leguminous plants ? What is X ?
  46. 46. v ANSWER v EXERCISE -1 A. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPES QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 27. True 30. True Coal, Petroleum. Pseudomonas. Nilgiri, Nandadavi In is protection of Fauna. Danger of extinction. 28. False 31. True 29. True 32. False F. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 33. A 36. D 39. C 34. D 37. A 40. B 35. D 38. C D. FILL IN THE BLANKS G. MATCH THE COLUMNS 19. Renewable 21. Methane 23. Nitrosomonas 20. Exhaustible 22. Soil 41. 1-g, 2-f, 3-a, 4-d, 5-c, 6-b H. FILL THE BOX WITH APPROPRIATE WORD E. TRUE OR FALSE 24. True 25. True 42. Nitrogen fixation 43. Gujrat 26. False EXERCISE -2 A. SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS B. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. B 4. D 7. B 10. A,C 2. C 5. A 8. C 3. C 6. D 9. C 82 11. A,B 12. B,C Biology - Natural Resources