Research methodology 1


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Research methodology 1

  1. 1. Chapter No. 3 1. To review the models and practices of CSR. 2. To assess the contribution of CSR to organizational performance. 3. To review the current CSR policies of BSNL. 4. To evaluate the contribution of CSR to the organization’s stakeholders needs Research Methodology and Methods3.1 IntroductionThere are three different kinds of studies that are helpful to summarise the research. Yin (2007)states that the analytic strategy is helpful for a researcher in research study, since it supports toresearchers use evidence for study fairly and create convincing analytic conclusions. The threediffer studies are explanatory, descriptive and exploratory. (Yin, 2007; Saunders, 2007)Saunders (2007) explained that the exploratory research approach is get start by a broad focusand then becomes narrow when knowledge is raised on very high level. The purpose of thisresearch is to find out new insights, weigh up phenomena in new light and what are the newhappenings Saunders, (2007). Saunders also suggested that this kind of study is helpful tounderstand a problem and to clarify it.Yin (2007) suggested that the descriptive approach is beneficial when researchers do not get theanswers but they know about study as they going to examine, as the study of this kind is helpfulto classify and test opponent explanations. The main objective of research study is “to representan exact profile of events and persons”. (Saunders, 2007)The explanatory study is related to informal relationships that are established between focusesand variables on a problem in order try to define the relationships between cited variables.(Saunders, 2007)According West et al (2008) the details should be given in the research papers about datacollection and analyses to understand the issues related to research. Therefore, the researcher inthis chapter has initiated the research methodology design and those research methods that are
  2. 2. used into the collection of requisite information from the BSNL Ltd managers to deal with thequestionnaire that is raised into the current research.According to this chapter with the adopted techniques of the present research and the chosenresearch methodologies, for the understanding of various paradigms, research strategies, researchmethodologies and differ research approaches for the all data analysis and data collection arediscussed.Moreover, the explanation is given for the adoption of the used qualitative researchmethodology, Inductive approach, Interpretivism, analysis of grounded theory and the formlessquestionnaires in between the familiar interviews beside by the cause at the back of the rejectionof the other techniques and quantitative research methodology. At the end the researcher hasenrolled the measurement scales to judge CSR, organizational performance attraction ofstakeholders and benefit to organization and stakeholders.The research methodologies that are conducted to research within the task are an essential part.The main aim of this research method is to define the literature recitation to studies accomplishon the collisions of CSR at workplace in organization. To having this title of study it was verycrucial to originate a appropriate process to re-evaluate and produce autonomous study on thissubject. The research methods that are used in this paper are conversed below:3.2Research ParadigmsThe research paradigms raise ups for the rational structure and underlying hypothesis aheadwhich development and research is based in a pitch of inquiry (Mason & Salter, 2007). There isan essential area of research by living in which the results are raised. The positivismparticipatory Framework of action, constructionism, Interpretivism, Feminism,phenomenological and critical theory are the major paradigms in the qualitative researchmethodology. The positivism is conducted to the quantitative method when a researcher wants topresent his research through the quantitative way it is based on the percentage, statistically,figures and charts. The chosen paradigm is depended on the essential area of concerned research(Sanders et al, 2007). At this level of the research the researcher described only positivism andinterpositivism in the following segments.
  3. 3. (a) PositivismPositivism is based on the scientific nature as it is conducted with the factual reality, figures,facts and surveys (Saunders et al, 2007). This presents percentage, numbers, charts, statistics,tables etc during the data analysis and collection. This does not affected by other researcherswork (Garner et al, 2009). The paradigm stands on the ontology which describes what isreasonable and valid in the existing globe rather than epistemology which underlines a degree ofbelief or the knowledge of someone’s own. Moreover, the positivism results look like that of thenatural sciences, law-like generations and physical sciences. (Rose, 2009)(b) InterpretivismThe Interpretivism is related to the phenomenological and philosophical way to comprehend theglobe around us. According to the fundamental assumption there is huge opportunity torecognize the people sensitivities through getting them into the social context. (Garner et al,2009)In this research study the researcher has used this essential paradigm to understanding theenvironment in the selected organization from the distinctive managers point of view the reasonbehind implementation of interpretivism is to understand the CSR procedures and the philosophyin an organization (Claydon & Beardwell, 2010). The whole research stands on the unstructuredquestionnaire and interviews asked from HR and marketing managers about the CSR policiesimplemented in BSNL and their contribution in the organization. (Saunders et al, 2007)3.3 Research StrategyUsually there are two kind of research approaches used for the research area namely inductiveapproach that is concerned to the qualitative method of research and the second one is deductiveapproach that is concerned to the quantitative method of research (Fisher, 2004). Theseapproaches are defined as follow3.3.1Inductive
  4. 4. The inductive approach has used in the research area because it is concerned to the qualitativeresearch methods. On the other hand this approach is concerned to an important observation or asolo case study to the wider theories and generations. This approach is also known as bottom-upapproach (Lincoln and Dengin, 2006). This approach is used because this will give the logicalconclusion from the information given by the employees and managers of the organization.Notably the conclusion of this topic could not be used in the other organizations. Due to theirimplementation of various CSR policies, firm locations, operating environment and HR policies.(Salter and Mason, 2007)3.3.2 DeductiveThe deductive approach hasn’t assumed by researcher because it directs from huge simplificationto further specification. The research on current study is resolute on an explicit solo case study ofBSNL Ltd and finally there would be comprehensive results of current study in this chapter. Thisapproach is also known as top-down (Fisher, 2004). It progresses from a theory to hypothesis,from hypothesis to observation and finally from observation to the confirmation. (Salter andMason, 2007)3.4 Research Approach: QualitativeDenscombe, (2000) states that the qualitative and quantitative two major methods that are usedin social science. The qualitative study is concerned with the aims of a researcher to transformwhat is reported and observed in written words. The qualitative research is helpful to transformrecorded interviews into transcripts, the descriptions of pictures in words and observations areconverted into field notes. That is the reason the words are work as central unit in qualitativemethod. Furthermore, the studies of these kinds always related to small scale study and as due tothe piercing nature it’s measured as an excellent tool into managing intricate situations(Denscombe, 2000). It does not endeavour towards simplifying the problem. The qualitativeresearch is connected with deeper understanding to solve the problem area. (Saunder, 2007)The main intention of this study is to understand deeply of BSNL Company success in raisingbetter organization performance, attracting talented employees and raising competitive advantagethrough CSR. Therefore, in this study the author has determined to apply the qualitativeapproach. A small scale study can be helpful to raise better understanding and to examinepositive variables in deepness into research field.
  5. 5. As the researcher has selected the qualitative research methods in current study because it standson the critical review of the study and researches have done or already exist in the particularregion of study to produce an nearby of the previously explored study. The study involves anddefines the knowledge’s bandwidth administration literature concerning the researches, books,journals, recent papers and available recourses on internet.To carry out the research the reliable and limited databases are used in current study. The onlinerecourses given by university are also used in present study. Most of the journals are used fromthe Athens online through university resources. That is very important during the research to usethe limitations in the research criteria to get a huge amount of relevant material form sources.The use internet resources are also useful to get full information about the organizationconcerned with CSR policies.There are lot of researchers have done their study about the CSR programmes in organizations.So that’s the reason behind this the researcher has chosen the different studies to analyse anddescribe the research work that is done by other researchers on different time of periods.The Research approach Qualitative Methodology as it stands for Interpretivism which isimplemented to attain the conclusion of the research study. However, at assured levels, theauthor has changed a few evaluated data in tables, percentage and charts in the next part, todevelop the research paper that is showing rudiments of quantitative approach. Mostly, theinformation based on the answers of employees, so it can be say its qualitative approach that isrelated to the questions like how CSR contributes in an organization performance and how it isbeneficial for workforce of an organization. It is also related to how an organization executedduring the steady and energetic atmosphere. (Armstrong, 2010).Especially, under the Qualitative Research Approach, the information related to the researchquestionnaire is increased by the familiar interviews which are taken from employees of thecompany. The researcher tried to get deeper information for the understanding of research study.The main aim of the study is to scrutinize how actions associated to CSR impact on theperformance of organization. (Guest et al, 2009)3.5 Research Instrument: Case Study, Survey and Web study
  6. 6. A researcher should see three conditions during the selection of a research strategy such as theresearch question pretence kinds, the amount of organize an examiner has over definitebehavioural proceedings and the scale of spotlight on current as different to performanceproceedings. (Foster, 1998)The main intention of this study is to understand deeply of BSNL Company success in raisingbetter organization performance, attracting talented employees and raising competitive advantagethrough CSR. As follow to this purpose the three research questions are mentioned:What is the purpose of Corporate Social Responsibility?How does Corporate Social Responsibility benefits organization and its stakeholders?What are the effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on organizational performance?According to the Saunders, (2007) the research strategy would be explained as the common planto respond those research queries, Yen, (2007) states the five kinds of most important researchstrategies into the social science such as Surveys, History, Case Studies, experiments andarchival-analysis.In survey an author can concentrate on a small degree of research components. The majoradvantage of applying case study is for a researcher to make possibility to dedicate him todelicacies and problems into compound social circumstances (Denscombe, 2000). In exhibit 3.1Yen, (2003) shows that and through this exhibit Yin, (2003) explains a case study’s scope asstrategy that is helpful to investigate a current phenomenon into its actual life framework,particularly when the limitations between framework and phenomenon are clearly not evident. Strategy Form of Requires Control Focuses on Research Question of Behavioural contemporary Events ? Events ? Case study How? Why? Why not No Yes
  7. 7. Exhibit 3.1 relevant situations for case studySource: Yin, (2003)According to Saunders, (2007) states that the use of a case study like research strategy is work asvalid choice when investigating an existing theory and challenging to existing theory. Accordingto the model of Yin (2003) an author apply case study and the other research strategy since theauthor is concentrating on small degree of research components. The use of case study, webresearch and other research studies is the good source of research strategy for the whole researchwork for the research of study to get answers for research questions, since the study of this kindprovides the opportunity to raise understanding of the framework of research (Denscombe,2000). Furthermore, the researcher of this study wants to raise a deep perceptive of research areathrough this research study.The current study could be based on Experimental Approach, Grounded Theory Approach, andComparative Case through Case Scrutiny Approach, Culture Analysis Approach, EthnographicalApproach, Single Case Analysis Approach, Survey Analysis Approach, Archival ResearchApproach and Action Research Approach (Saunders et al 2007).The Qualitative Research Methodology is used and supplementary, the Grounded TheoryApproach is applied. The both theories are convoluted in the following parts3.6 Data Collection: Interviews and DocumentationThe researcher of this study is applying survey and web study is most appropriate study for thisresearch. There are six differ sources in the collection of data when using a case study. Thesources are known as interviews, physical artefacts, documentation, direct observations, archivalrecords and participant-observation (Yin, 2003). The collected data get from two sources in thisstudy interviews and documentation. The weaknesses and strengths of sources are mentioned inexhibit 3.2.The collected data in whole study is get from the interviews and documentation. The reasonbehind the utilization of sources as evidence is according to Yin, (2003) the collection of data bynumerous sources will helpful to raise the soundness of a thesis. “Any conclusion and finding incase study is more accurate and convincing if it stands on various information sources” thiswhole process is known as data triangulation.
  8. 8. The interviews are the most essential source for the information of case study as it is directedconversation. Hence, an interview of case study is probable to be liquid rather than stiff if anauthor is following a reliable line of investigation. The usage of interviews like an evidencesource is also consent an author to concentrate on particular matter as well as the flexibility ofthis also consent a researcher to pose probable follow up question of implication (Yin, 2007).Yin, (2003) states that the interview section has three different kinds such as: the focused, theopen-ended and structured.In common, the interviews of case study are an open-ended character that represents theinterviewer be able to solicit key respondents in relation to facts about an exact topic as well asconcerning their individual views about assured events.As a respondent is interrogated for short time period, a focus interview is used by an interviewer.A focused interview may be still open-ended and may be also having conversational nature, butinterviewer is expected to chase a explicit sequence of questions that has initiated from theprocedure of case study. Source of Evidence Strengths Weaknesses Documentation + Targeted: focuses directly - Bias: due to poorly On case study topics constructed questions + Insightful: provides - Inaccuracies: due to Perceived casual inferences poor recall Interviews + Stable: can be reviewed - Retrievability can be Repeatedly low + Exact: contains exact names - Biased selectively: if References and details collection is incomplete +Broad coverage: long span of -Reporting Bias: reflects Many events and settings bias of author
  9. 9. Exhibit 3.2 two sources of evidenceSource: Yin, (2003)The primary data will be got for this thesis from interviews. The researcher will be concernedwith interviews and web study for his/her research since it’s necessary for the data collection thatwould be helpful for the correct answers of research questions. For the reduction of probablevalidity troubles, the detailed questions will ask in from an interview guide that is developed. Butthe researcher wants to remain flexibility in some characteristics during interviews of open-ended interviews. The combination of these two kinds of interviews gives permission to therespondent for freely discussion in limits which researcher settle down through pre-thoughtprocedure in the guide of interview. This is essential to raise more data collection for aresearcher to get deep answers for his the explicit research questions because the purpose of thisstudy is to raise the deeper understanding.The interviews held in BSNL’s headquarter in Punjab as person to person and the guidelines ofYin, (2003) are followed for the interviews. The interviews could be done through telephone butthe author would like to done interviews face to face for more data collection. The guidelines forthe interviews sent to the respondents in advance so they could be prepared for this. This ishelpful for researcher to get necessary data for the correct answers of the research questions. Theinterviews will be recorded and written carefully later on in computer file with the permission ofrespondents. For the improvement of validity and reliability of this research study the all thingshave done carefully.To explain the background of the case for the research study the data is collection has done fromthe annual reports, homepages and from the other written material according to this research areaof study like brochures about the organization’s CSR actions and their reports sustainability.According to Yin, (2003) the form of secondary data and data is overt importance when applyingcase study. Yin, (2003) states that the document should be use in conducting with a case studythose supplement and support to evidence compared with those sources which can shack freshlight on topic.3.7 Sampling for the Current Research
  10. 10. Smith et al, (2009) states that the sampling is stand for the method which is suitable forconcerning the research study. The sampling appraises how to determine and verify the sampleextent that is necessary for data collection actions of a researcher. (Hussey and Hussey, 2009)For the selection of a sample the two different ways are used: probability sampling represents theunits those are randomly selected and the non-probability sample that represents those unitswhich don’t have the similar opportunity to be selected (Saunders, 2007). The non-probabilitypreferred to work with tiny sample, like case study. Several differ strategies are used in the non-probability. (Blaxter et al, 2001)The researcher of the current study is applying purposive sampling that stands on judgementalconclusions this permits to researcher for the selections of case which is most important andsuitable for the research questions in the current study. The method of this kind is very generalwhen small samples are used like case study where the case has to be mainly edifying.(Saunders, 2007)When selecting the sample for current research such as which company is to study the researcherhas convinced measure that guides for the choice of suitable company. The major norms are tofind a national or multinational company with the experience of CSR actions. The companyshould also represent the information about the CSR actions on the corporate website of theorganization. Figure 4.1 below showing:  Well-Known BSNL Company from India  CSR Experience  Information from web sites Case 1 Case 2
  11. 11. Figure 3.1 Criterion for CaseThe websites of the organization is the first selection from where the data has been collectedabout the research work. The organization presented the data about their CSR activities on thewebsites through official websites and via news which proves that CSR has great contribute inthe performance of organization.The required sampling has been collected from BSNL in current research study by researcher. Inthe current organization, the administering has taken interview of HR managers and theunstructured questionnaires regarding to the CSR policy used in the firm to manage the conductof workforce in the Marketing and Commercial unit. The researcher has also given perfectinformation regarding to the characteristics of organisation that is conducted with first questionof the study (West et al, 2009). The major inquiry about CSR actions such as environmentalchanges, the company performance and HR flexibility asked from the managers of marketing.The trials of this kind are supportive to investigate the specifics how CSR actions contribute tothe performance of organization because marketing workers having the field work and havemuch awareness about customer requirements. The organization depends on employees workingin organization they know better what are their needs and the needs of customers which canimprove the performance of organization. (Aaker and Mascarenhas, 2007).3.8 Data Collection MethodsThe main part of research is the collection of Data. There are lot of ways to get data for researchsuch as structured, unstructured and semi structured questionnaire related to electronically toinformers through the informal and formal interviews from the respondents by observations,discussions, surveys and sample surveys. These tools are very helpful to get understandinganswers from the survey questions. (Hussey and Hussey, 2009).The data collection is based on two kinds of tools such as primary data and secondary data.These two tools are described as following:3.8.1 Primary Data
  12. 12. The Primary data term is particularly used in the research of competitive intelligence, market andacademic research (Fisher, 2004). Through the Primary data this is easy for researcher to attainrequired information under the control. The data is collected through conducting focus groupdiscussions, survey questionnaire, interviews, observation and ethnographies. (Saunders et al,2007)In the current research paper, the primary data has collected through unstructured interviewsfrom the Marketing, Commercial and HR Managers in the selected company. The justificationand description of the interviews in unstructured questionnaire administered from theseemployees of the organization are explained in the following section.3.8.2 Unstructured QuestionnairesFor the collection of required primary data, the informal interviews are conducted; in betweenthe unstructured questionnaire having not prearranged answers are asked to the employees in thecompany. The chosen questionnaire of this type is helpful for researcher to comprehend CSRpolicies executed and the impact of these policies on the performance of company from the pointof view of the employees. The author has also adopted the structured questionnaire it is related tothe interviewees in this the questions would be multiple choice questions as they have to selectanswers from the given option. the researcher wouldn’t have learnt about the set of CSRpractices exercised into the organisation if he hadn’t listened the managers of compelled them tochoose answers from the given optional ones ( Bryman and Bell, 2007).Moreover, unstructuredquestionnaire helps greatly to grip CSR strategies from the managers’ point of view and finallyto generalise the research finding (Smith et al, 2009). Notably this primary data, not everywherebut at certain levels of data analysis and presentation within the conduct research is conversedinto figure and tables to make the research more effective , which means the present researchhave some of the element of quantitative research whereas it is basically qualitative inductiveanalysis of the collection data (garner at el, 2009).3.8.3 Surveys:The surveys have done from visiting the sub organizations of BSNL in Punjab, India. Thesurveys are very helpful tool to get information from employees about the CSR programs used inorganization. All the surveys are done by visiting small to medium size organizations. Surveyswere development in such a way that it takes no more than one to two minutes to complete it.
  13. 13. The questions were asked from the employees of the organization for the current research. TheBranches visited were: BSNL (Amritsar, Punjab) BSNL (Chheharta, Amritsar) BSNL (Bhikhiwind, Punjab) BSNL (Tarntarn, Punajb) (Pathankot, Punjab) BSNL (Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Chandigarh, Gurdaspur, Patiala, Batala) BSNL Head Office, Punjab (Rajpura, Punjab)3.8.4 InterviewsThe interviews are concerned with equal numbers of female and male employees. The interviewsfrom the full time workers have done face to face. The interviews are done in different citieswhich had the BSNL branches. There are head-office and sub-offices of organization from wherethe data about interviews has been done. The interview questionnaire is very small but it holdsall the required questions about the research. The one interview will take only approximately oneminute.There are only eleven questions in the interview that will be asked to the respondent. Thequestions are set as multiple choices. The questions will be asked to the employees about CSRpolicies which are used in the organization. The researcher has tried to cover all groups of sexand age in research to explore the successful results3.13 Secondary DataThe Secondary Data is related to academic, text review, peer review journals & research,research reports, websites, research reports, the collected data by other researchers other thaninstant researchers. (Saunders et al, 2007)For the present research the researcher has used the primary and secondary data collectionmethods. The primary data is stands for the unstructured interviews as it is illustrated in theprevious section. The interviews were asked from the employees of the organization. Secondlythe researcher has utilized the secondary data sources fairly in the in the research work which arehaving the current information on Corporate Social Responsibility. (Bryman and Bell, 2007)
  14. 14. The secondary research sources having the related information to the research which is used inthe present research, there are more than forty journals on the Corporate Social Responsibility.For instance Weber, (2008), Turban & Greening, 1997; Backhaus et al, (2002), Albinger &freeman, 2000; Backhaus et al, (2002), Bhattacharya et al, (2008), Korte, (2007), Brunetto &Farr-Wharton, (2002), Montgomery & Ramus, (2007), Schmidt Albinger & Freeman, 2000;Smith et al, 2004, Coldwell et al, (2007)3.14 Reliability and ValidityDenscombe, (2000) defines that it’s an important part of the research to judge the researchquality. This can be done through the test if the study instruments are neutral used in the researchstudy, called validity that demote to how much good way a research technique measure andwhat’s hypothetical to be evaluate. (Blaxter et al, 2001; Saunders, 2007)The researcher of the research study also has to test if the conclusion of research matches withthe conclusions of other researchers and this process is known as reliability of the research(Saunders, 2007; Blaxter et al, 2001). The Blaxter et al, 2001staes that reliability is concernedwith the research work how well it’s performing and it results given by it should be trustworthyand stable.According to Yin, 2003 the tests are usually utilize to justify the excellence standards of theresearch. Build up the validity which creates accurate operational instrument for the conceptionbeing studied, the interior validity which creates a formal relation whereby sure surroundings areexposed to pilot to other surroundings as distinctive from bogus associations, exterior validitywhich creates the area to which research conclusions can be widespread and reliability whichexhibits the actives of research such as the collection of data measures, can be continual with theequal conclusions.3.15 Application of Data and AnalysisThe main aim of data analysis is to examine the figures and facts, to enlarge the test hypothesisand explanations of the involved people (Smith et al, 2009). It’s very helpful way to specify orgeneralise research findings. (Saunders, 2007)
  15. 15. Fisher, (2004) has planned the research approach Content Analysis for the analysis of collecteddata. It’s the methodology to seminal the content of recorded or written communication throughan objective or a systematic procedure. The Salter and Mason, (2007) stated that the ContentAnalysis is related to the set of procedures which is having survey questionnaire and standardinterviews for managing and the collection of information in paradigm format which is helpful todraw conclusions about meaning and characteristics of collected data. Though, the accuratewording in interview needed to be asked. (Salter and Mason, 2007)The author Saunders et al, (2007) suggested about the Thematic Analysis approach for theanalysis of data. This approach connected with the application and creation of codes to collecteddata. During the approach of Thematic Analysis, concepts, observational data, field-diaries,pictures, historical documents, videotapes, transcripts, survey questionnaire and statements areclassified and reduce after the full understanding of all.According to Smith et al, (2009); Hussey and Hussey, (2009) the Corrective Analysis is relatedto the one variable to other and the Discursive Analysis is move from the one topic to other topicor to build up the conclusions based on arguments even perception could be utilized to appraisethe collected data.The Grounded Theory analysis is used by the researcher to reduce the composed data intocategories and concepts. et al, 2007)3.17 Chapter SummeryThe current chapter describes the methods and research methodology utilized in the researchwork. Firstly, in the research study the researcher has specified about Interpretivism why it usedin study. The justification of this is the collected data by unstructured interviews is not assessedthrough the charts, tables, percentage, numbers and figures.Secondly, the chapter describes about the Inductive approach that is pursued by the researcher inthe present research because this is the approach which shifts from a particular observation towider generalization of a solo case study of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.
  16. 16. Thirdly, it explains about the Qualitative Research Methodology why it is utilized in theresearch. The aim is to achieve the compulsory information via informal interviews from themangers of the company but the researcher does not necessitate modifying the structure of theassociation empirically. The aim of chapter is to classify the action related to the purpose ofCorporate Social Responsibility, CSR benefits to stakeholders and CSR impacts onorganizational performance. Fourthly, the methods of research are described in this chapterwhich related to the unstructured interviews .the structure of unstructured interviews is alsoexplained how it’s administrated from the employees of the organization.Then, the chapter defines the secondary data which is utilized in the research is based on the peerreview journals, text books, research reports and research papers formulated by the otherresearchers.Moreover, there is discussion based on analysis of collected data and the presentation of thisdiscussion is attained by Grounded Theory application because this is helpful approach to reduceraw data into the certain categories and concepts. The chapter ends with the ethical issues.