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# Accounting for Depreciation

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Here Depreciation has been discussed. Factors affecting Depreciation, its different methods, with the help of case studies have been discussed

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### Accounting for Depreciation

1. 1. Accounting for Depreciation M. Awais Yaqoob 2011-ch-32 (University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore)
2. 2. Accounting for Depreciation  Fixed assets other than land lose their ability over time to provide services  Costs of equipment, buildings, and land improvements should be transferred to expense accounts in a systematic manner during their expected useful lives.  DEPRECIATION  Adjusting entry to record depreciation is usually made at the end of each month or at the end of the year Fixed assets other than land lose their ability over time to provide services
3. 3. Adjusting Entry Account Debit Credit Depreciation expense \$7,000 Accumulated depreciation - truck \$7,000
4. 4. Depreciation Accumulated depreciation  Shows the amount that the asset has lost in value since its purchase Depreciation expense  Shows the amount that the asset has lost in value this period. Factors that cause a decline the ability of a fixed asset to provide services may be identified as  Physical depreciation  Occurs from the wear and tear while in use and from the action of the weather  Functional depreciation  Occurs when a fixed asset is no longer able to provide services at the level for which it was intended.
5. 5. Factors in Computing Depreciation Expense The fixed asset’s initial cost Its expected useful life Its estimated value at the end of its useful life.
6. 6. Depreciation Methods Straight line Declining balance Units of production
7. 7. Straight line Method Provides for the same amount of depreciation expense for each year of the asset’s useful life Annual depreciation expense = Cost – Salvage value Life
8. 8. Example 1 A machine had a cost of \$24,000, salvage value of \$2,000 and useful life of 5 years Annual depreciation expense = Cost – Salvage value Life = \$24,000 - \$2,000 5 years = \$4,400 annual depreciation
9. 9. Adjusting entry Account Debit Credit Depreciation expense \$4,400 Accumulated depreciation - truck \$4,400
10. 10. Example 2 A machine had a cost of \$30,000, salvage of \$5,000 and useful life of 6 years. Compute depreciation under the straight line method? What is depreciation expense in year 3?
11. 11. Units of Production This method provides for the same amount of depreciation expense for each unit produced or each unit of capacity used by the asset
12. 12. Units of Production Depreciation rate per unit = Cost – Salvage value Estimated units Depreciation Expense = Depreciation rate x annual units
13. 13. Example 3 A machine had a cost of \$24,000, salvage value of \$2,000, estimated total hours of production of 10,000 and annual hours used of 2,100 hours. Compute depreciation for the period under the units of production method.
14. 14. Example 3 Depreciation rate per unit = Cost – Salvage value Estimated hour = \$24,000 - \$2,000 = \$2.20 10,000 hours Annual depreciation expense = Hourly depreciation rate x annual hours = \$2.20 x 10,000 hours = \$2,200
15. 15. Example 4 A machine had a cost of \$30,000, salvage value of \$5,000, estimated total hours in production of 5,000 and annual hours used of 900 hours. Compute the depreciation expense for the period using the units of production method
16. 16. Declining Balance Method Provides for a declining periodic expense over the estimated useful life of the asset. Book value = Cost – Accumulated depreciation
17. 17. Declining Balance Method Steps  Compute the DB rate = 100/Life of asset  For double declining balance  Multiply rate time 2  Depreciation expense = Beg. book value X Rate  Rule: the book value may never by less than the salvage value of the asset
18. 18. Example 5: A machine had a cost of \$24,000, salvage value of \$2,000, estimated life of five year. Compute depreciation Year Cost Accumulat ed Depreciati on Book value at beginning of year Rate Depreciati on Book value at end of year 1 \$24,000 \$24,000 40% \$9,600 \$14,400 2 24,000 9,600 14,400 40% 5,760 8,640 3 24,000 15,360 8,640 40% 3,456 5,184 4 24,000 18,816 5,184 40% 2,073.60 3,110.40 5 24,000 20,889.60 3110.40 1,110.40 2,000
19. 19. Example 6 Example 6: A machine had a cost of \$30,000, salvage value of \$5,000, estimated life of 6 years. Compute depreciation using the double declining balance method.
20. 20. Revision of Depreciation Revising the estimates of the residual value and the useful life is normal Used to determine depreciation expense in future periods
21. 21. Example 7 Assumed a fixed asset purchased for \$130,000 was originally estimated to have a useful life of 30 years and a residual value of \$10,000. The asset has been depreciated for 10 years by the straight line method. At the end of ten years, the asset’s book value of \$90,000. During 11th year, it is estimated that the remaining useful life is 25 years and that the residual value is \$5,000. Compute depreciation expense for the 11th year using the new information provided.
22. 22. Example 7 Depreciation expense= = \$130,000-\$10,000 30 = \$ 4,000.00 per year before changes Accumulated Depreciation balance =\$4,000 X 10 years = \$40,000 Book value = \$130,000.00 – \$40,000 = \$90,000
23. 23. Example 7 New depreciation expense = Book value – new salvage Remaining life = (\$90,000-\$5,000) 25 = \$ 3,400.00 per year for remaining years
24. 24. Disposal of Fixed Assets Discarding of Fixed Assets When asset has no residual value and is fully depreciated.
25. 25. Example 8  Asset with a cost of \$25,000 and fully depreciated is discarded Account Debit Credit Accumulated Depreciation \$25,000 Fixed Asset \$25,000
26. 26. Selling of Fixed Assets Three things can happen Sale at book value  No gain or loss Sale below book value  Loss is recognized Sale after book value  Gain is recognized
27. 27. Selling at book value Example 9:  Asset with cost of \$25,000 and Accumulated Depreciation of \$10,000 is sold for \$15,000 cash. Account Debit Credit Cash \$15,000 Accumulated depreciation \$10,000 Fixed Asset \$25,000
28. 28. Selling price above book value Gain is recognized Example 10:  Asset with cost \$25,000, Accumulated Depreciation of \$10,000 is sold for \$20,000 cash. Account Debit Credit Cash \$20,000 Accumulated depreciation \$10,000 Fixed Asset \$25,000 Gain on disposal of asset \$5,000
29. 29. Selling price below book value Loss is recognized Example 11: Asset with cost of \$25,000, Accumulated Depreciation of \$10,000 is sold for \$12,000 cash. Account Debit Credit Cash \$12,000 Accumulated Depreciation \$10,000 Loss on disposal of asset \$3,000 Fixed Asset \$25,000
30. 30. Exchanging Similar Assets Old equipment is often traded in for new equipment having a similar use. The seller allows the buyer an amount for the old equipment traded in called TRADE IN ALLOWANCE. The remaining balance – the amount owed is either paid in cash or recorded as a liability – called BOOT
31. 31. Gain on exchanges Not recognized for financial reporting purposes. When trade-in allowance exceeds the book value of an asset traded in and no gain is recognized, the cost recorded for the new asset can be determined in either of two ways:  Cost of new asset = List price + Unrecognized gain  Cost of new asset = Cash given + book value of oldNot recognized for financial reporting purposes.
32. 32. Example 12 New equipment is purchased with a list price of \$5,000, trade in allowance of old is \$1,100, cost of old equipment is \$4,000, accumulated depreciation \$3,200. Record the entry. New equipment is purchased with a list price of \$5,000, trade in allowance of old is \$1,100, cost of old equipment is \$4,000, accumulated depreciation \$3,200. Record the entry.
33. 33. Example 12 Account Debit Credit Fixed Asset – new \$800 Accumulated Depreciation \$3,200 Fixed Asset – old \$4,000
34. 34. Losses on Exchange For financial reporting purposes, losses are recognized on exchanges of similar fixed assets. If trade in is less than the book value of the old equipment, there is a loss
35. 35. Example 14 New equipment is purchased with a list price of \$5,000, trade in allowance of old is \$700, cost of old equipment is \$4,000, accumulated depreciation \$3,200. Record the entry. Account Debit Credit Fixed Asset – new \$700 Accumulated Depreciation \$3,200 Loss on exchange of asset \$100 Fixed Asset – old \$4,000