Advantages	  and	  Disadvantages	  of	  the	  ‘Distance’	  that	         Quantitative	  Research	  Establishes	  Between	 ...
The	  head	  of	  marketing	  of	  this	  company	  had	  some	  point	  to	  start	  with,	  at	  least.	  But	  one	  st...
and	   Economic	   Burden	   of	   this	   disease	   on	   society	   some	   day.	   But	   all	   of	   this	   started...
Another	   aspect	   that	   created	   the	   ‘distance’	   between	   the	   researchers	   and	   subjects	   in	   thi...
the	  one	  described	  in	  case	  of	  Yasmin.	  It	  can	  therefore	  be	  argues	  that	  some	  distance	  is	  esse...
 	  Section	  B	  	  	  4a)	   Are	   the	   following	   variable	   names	   acceptable	   by	   SPSS?	   Provide	   exp...
Almost	  80	  to	  90%	  of	  responses	  would	  fall	  into	  either	  of	  the	  above	  but	  there	  would	  be	  cer...
If	  the	  inter-­‐item	  correlations	  are	  high,	  then	  there	  is	  evidence	  that	  the	  items	  are	  measuring...
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Advantages and disadvantages of the ‘distance’ that quantitative research establishes between the researcher and the researched

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Dr. Awais e Siraj Managing Director Genzee Solutions, A Strategy, Balanced Scorecard, Scenario Planning, Competency Based Human Resource Management Consulting Company

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Advantages and disadvantages of the ‘distance’ that quantitative research establishes between the researcher and the researched

  1. 1. Advantages  and  Disadvantages  of  the  ‘Distance’  that   Quantitative  Research  Establishes  Between  the  Researcher   and  the  Researched?   By   Dr.  Awais  e  Siraj  Managing  Director  Genzee  Solutions  Islamabad  Pakistan    In   2003,   first   Beta   Interferon   was   launched   in   Pakistan   used   for   the   treatment   of   Multiple  Sclerosis.  Till  that  time,  Multiple  Sclerosis  was  not  taken  very  seriously  by  physicians  as  well  as  patients.  The  common  belief  was  that  it  does  not  exist  in  this  part  of  the  world  and  even  if  it  does,   it   is   not   possible   to   offer   a   solution.   There   was   no   market   data   as   the   ‘market’   did   not  exist.  There  were  no  formal  studies  of  incidence  and  prevalence,  only  stories  and  anecdotes.    One  story  goes  like  this:  “Yasmin   was   a   great   student   of   arts   and   textile   designing.   Since   her   childhood   she   was   also  active   in   sports   and   always   won   medals   in   100   meters   and   400   meters   events.   She   represented  her  college  in  many  competitions  and  brought  name  and  fame  for  herself,  institution  and  her  parents.  On  21  August  1997,  she  started  feeling  numbness  and  loss  of  power  in  her  left  hand.  She  just  ignored  it.  Then  in  the  evening,  when  she  started  her  daily  routine  of  studies,  she  could  see  only  half  of  the  page.  The  other  half  was  blurred.  Next  day,  her  father  took  her  to  a  GP  who  prescribed   certain   multivitamins   and   described   it   as   ‘exam   pressure,   you   know’.   They   came  back   and   she   recouped.   After   a   week,   right   on   the   dinner   table   she   fainted   and   had   to   be  immediately   rushed   to   the   hospital.   This   time,   she   was   lucky   to   be   seen   by   a   ‘specialist’   who  performed  a  series  of  tests  and  also  got  an  MRI  scan.  He  immediately  put  her  on  steroids  for  four   days.   On   the   third   day,   he   announced   much   to   the   anxiety   and   ignorance   of   her  bamboozled   parents   that   she   has   some   signs   of   ‘demyelination’   in   her   brain   and   that   she   is  suffering   from   a   disease   called   Multiple   Sclerosis   which   is   rare   in   Pakistan   but   still   exists.   She  will  have  to  use  some  kind  of  injections  called  Beta  Interferons  for  the  rest  of  her  life.  “These  injections   are   currently   not   available   in   Pakistan   and   you   will   have   to   get   them   from  somewhere.   They   are   very   expensive”,   informed   their   well   reputed   and   well   informed  neurologist.    “Yasmin’s  parents  belonged  to  a  middle  class  family  of  an  underdeveloped  country.  Her  father  was   an   administration   manager   in   a   small   semi   government   organization   and   mother   was   a  house  wife.  They  had  five  children  including  Yasmin,  all  in  their  school  going  age.  They  had  no  other   source   of   income   and   healthcare   reimbursement   was   never   heard   of   in   Pakistan.   Beta  Interferons  were  very  expensive  even  by  international  standards  and  still  did  not  offer  complete  cure.   Her   father   decided   to   sell   off   their   only   property,   a   small   house   worth   a   few   thousand  dollars  to  buy  the  drug  that  could  save  the  life  of  his  dear  daughter  only  to  find  out  later  that  the  disease  is  not  going  away  and  that  the  entire  family  is  now  bankrupt.  Yasmin  is  completely  paralyzed  and  on  bed  for  the  last  one  year.”    
  2. 2. The  head  of  marketing  of  this  company  had  some  point  to  start  with,  at  least.  But  one  story  is  not  going  to  hammer  the  point  home,  he  thought.  “I  need  some  concrete  evidence  and  solid  data  to  prove  that  the  disease  exists/does  not  exist  in  Pakistan.  Moreover,  I  have  to  base  my  company  decisions  on  some  data  which  has  to  be  more  than  just  one  or  two  stories”.  He  had  to  convince  the  health  authorities  as  well  as  physicians  that  this  disease  exists  in  Pakistan.  He  also  thought   of   raising   funds   for   patients   who   could   not   afford   his   drug   through   philanthropist  activity  but  everyone  seemed  to  ask  for  ‘numbers’  and  not  just  stories.  After   spending   a   very   hard   time   he   was   able   to   motivate   a   few   neurologists   to   collect   some  meaningful   data   and   put   it   together   in   the   shape   of   a   publication.   An   instrument  (questionnaire)   was   designed   after   much   deliberations   and   data   was   collected   from   different  neurology   clinics,   radiology   centers   and   hospitals.   They   could   only   identify   142   cases   but   this  time   we   they   also   had   some   numbers   to   play   with   like   mean   age,   male   to   female   ratio,   disease  progression,  disease  stage  etc.etc.  The  following  paragraph  is  an  abstract  of  the  publication.  “We   describe   retrospective   data   from   the   largest   series   of   patients   (n_/142)   with   multiple  sclerosis  (MS)  from  Pakistan.  Mean  age  at  onset  was  27  years,  with  a  female  to  male  ratio  of  1.45:1.  The  disease  onset  was  polysymptomatic  in  75%  patients.  Motor  weakness  was  the  most  common  onset  symptom  (70%),  followed  by  sensory  symptoms  (45%).  Optico-­‐spinal  type  of  MS  was   seen   in   only   3%   of   patients   The   course   was   relapsing-­‐remitting   (RR)   in   81%,   primary  progressive  (PP)  in  21%,  and  secondary  progressive  (SP)  in  4%  of  patients.  Almost  three-­‐fourths  of   the   patients   were   moderately   (45%)   or   severely   (31%)   disabled   at   the   time   of   evaluation.  Two-­‐thirds  of  patients  with  severe  disability  had  a  mean  disease  duration  of  only  5.2  years.  In  conclusion,   MS   is   not   uncommon   in   Pakistan,   and   many   patients   were   found   to   have   severe  disability   despite   short   disease   duration.”   M   Wasay,   S   Ali,   IA   Khatri,   A   Hassan,   M   Asif,   N  Zakiullah,   A   Ahmed,   A   Malik,   B   Khealani,   A   Haq   and   S   Fredrikson   Multiple   Sclerosis   2007;   00:  000_000.  http://msj.sagepub.com    Yasmin  was  one  of  the  142  cases  mentioned  in  the  abstract  given  above.    It   was   only   after   the   publication   of   this   data   that   all   stakeholders   started   seriously   thinking  about   Multiple   Sclerosis   in   Pakistan.   Debates   started   generating   later,   building   on   this   and  stories   became   more   and   more   available   when   individual   explorers   started   looking   beyond  numbers   into   the   lives   of   patients   and   their   families.   This   study   became   a   building   block   for  further  studies  and  currently  an  extensive  ‘genetic’  study  on  Multiple  Sclerosis  is  under  process.  At   the   same   time,   philanthropists   and   NGO’s   are   beginning   to   believe   in   its   existence   and  treatment   strategies   are   under   immense   discussion   so   are   the   treatment   guidelines   specific   for  Pakistan  where  healthcare  reimbursement  is    almost  non  –  existent.      The  data  presented  by  Wasay  et  al  is  “natural  science”  and  advocates  of  quantitative  research  would  emphasize  that  all  research  carried  out  in  social  sciences  should  be  similar.  Furthermore,  a   quantitative   data   on   social   aspects   of   this   study   would   be   possible   like   the   ‘affordability’  ‘disability’   ‘financial   impact   on   the   family’   and   ‘financial   burden   on   the   family’   and   ultimately  some   development   economist   would   also   be   able   to   calculate   the   Disability   Adjusted   Life   Years  
  3. 3. and   Economic   Burden   of   this   disease   on   society   some   day.   But   all   of   this   started   with   one   story  of   Yasmin.   Without   the   story,   no   researcher   will   ever   be   able   to   understand   what   was   really  going  on  in  the  mind  of  Yasmin  and  her  family.  It   is   sometimes   a   story   of   chicken   and   egg.   When   this   study   was   being   conducted   there   was   no  data   to   understand   Multiple   Sclerosis   in   Pakistan.   Only   such   stories   as   that   of   Yasmin   came  along  and  no  one  really  cared  about  it.  It  was  only  after  collection,  collation  and  publication  of  this  data  that  led  many  to  recognize  that  Multiple  Sclerosis  needs  to  be  taken  seriously  as  it  is  in  rest  of  the  world.  Then  they  started  digging  out  stories  again  and  reaching  individual  patients  and  their  families  of  these  142  (and  more  as  they  were  diagnosed)  and  trying  to  find  similarities  and  differences,  later  extrapolating  and  generalizing  for  ‘masses’  and  society.    The   ‘distance’   between   story   of   Yasmin   and   M   Wasay   et   al   was   created   by   the   difference  between   the   methodologies   of   research.   Through   quantitative   research,   Wasay   and   his  colleagues  could  reach  wider  range  of  population,  get  some  hard  data  and  make  it  meaningful  for  those  who  were  associated  to  this  disease  somehow.  However,  the  story  of  Yasmin  per  se  takes   us   into   a   different   world   altogether,   a   world   of   social   systems   and   beliefs,   of   families   and  their   thinking,   of   individuals   and   their   response   to   different   calamities   of   life,   of   developing  world  and  their  healthcare  systems.    When  the  data  was  shared  with  patients  and  their  families,  there  was  a  big  ‘so  what’  question  mark   in   their   eyes.   “What   is   in   it   for   me?”   “I   have   a   story   to   tell   and   I   am   looking   for   a   solution  to   my   problems”   was   a   standard   response.   They   wanted   the   researchers   to   see   the   situation  through  their  eyes.  Some  were  even  keen  to  take  researchers  to  their  homes  and  shared  their  life  with  them.      In  the  beginning  of  research  carried  out  by  Wasay  et  al,  there  was  a  clear  ‘research  strategy’.  The   theory   was   “Multiple   Sclerosis   is   a   known   and   established   disease   of   the   world”.  Hypothesis  to  be  tested  was  “If  it  exists  in  the  rest  of  the  world,  it  must  exist  in  Pakistan”.  The  research   design   thus   revolved   around   finding   the   true   “incidence”   and   “prevalence”   of   this  disease   but   this   was   not   possible   in   the   available   resources   and   time.   So,   a   shortcut   was  designed   by   selecting   specific   research   sites   where   the   chances   of   finding   such   patients   was  thought   maximum.   A   simple   instrument   was   designed   that   could   record   all   the   ‘measurable’  information.  Data  collected  was  processed,  analyzed,  written  down  and  published.      During  this  entire  process,  if  the  researchers  were  asked  to  describe  the  ‘feelings’  of  subjects  under   study,   they   would   simply   say   “this   was   not   the   design   of   research”.   Thus   the   researchers  could  not  distinguish  people  and  social  institutions  from  ‘the  world  of  nature’.  The  researchers  believed   that   ‘the   principles   of   scientific   method   can   and   should   be   applied   to   all   phenomenon  that   are   the   focus   of   investigation.   The   researchers   in   this   case   turned   a   ‘blind   eye’   to   the  difference  between  the  social  and  natural  world.  In  the  words  of  Schutz,  “it  means  ignoring  and  riding   roughshod   over   the   fact   that   people   interpret   the   world   around   them,   whereas   this  capacity  for  self  –  reflection  cannot  be  found  among  the  objects  of  natural  sciences”.    
  4. 4. Another   aspect   that   created   the   ‘distance’   between   the   researchers   and   subjects   in   this   case  was  a  sense  of  precision  and  accuracy  in  the  research  design.  While  the  researchers  had  a  lot  of  ‘yes’,  ‘no’  in  their  questionnaire,  the  subjects  being  humans,  had  a  tendency  to  talk  more  or  try  to   describe   what   a   ‘yes’   or   ‘no’   would   mean   to   them   but   since   they   were   limited   by   the  questions  with  fixed  choice  answers,  important  information  could  have  been  missed  out.    The  story  of  Yasmin  came  without  reliance  on  instruments  and  procedures  and  therefore  the  connection  between  research  and  everyday  life  remained  intact.  Usually  the  undue  reliance  of  quantitative   research   on   administering   research   instruments   to   subjects   or   on   controlling  situations   to   determine   their   effects   may   lead   to   incorrect   information.   For   example   if   a  question   was   put   to   Yasmin   “Would   you   like   to   share   your   health   status   with   public   at   large  through  media?”  she  may  immediately  say  “yes”  but  in  reality,  talking  about  Multiple  Sclerosis  would  mean  that  she  would  probably   have  a  difficult  social  and  marital  life  or  may  never  get  married  altogether  for  the  rest  of  her  life  as  people  around  her  would  consider  her  a  life  long  liability.  The  point  here  is  that  subjects  sometimes  do  not  fully  understand  the  questions  and  their   implications   in   a   structured   setting   whereas   in   an   open   setting,   the   same   issues   can   be  explored  and  put  into  perspective.      The  abstract  of  the  article  published  by  Wasay  et  al  looks  very  ‘scientific’,  very  ‘natural’  yet  very  ‘static’.  It  seems  as  if  they  are  talking  about  molecules,  atoms,  chemicals,  metals  and  electrons  and   not   about   human   individuals.   The   denotation   of   events   to   humans   is   ignored.   The  connection  of  findings  to  everyday  contexts  is  not  known.  It  has  in  fact  created  a  ‘static  social  world’  that  is  mutually  exclusive  of  people  who  are  its  constituents.      Advocates   of   qualitative   research   or   antagonists   of   quantitative   research   put   forward   the  concept   of   empathy   or   ‘take   the   role   of   the   other’.   In   other   words   one   has   to   ‘stand   in   the  shoes’  of  the  researched  to  understand  their  concepts  better.  This  is  only  possible  when  there  is  no  distance  between  the  researcher  and  researched.  Again,  the  story  of  Yasmin  and  similar  other  stories  would  never  have  emerged  if  the  researchers  from  the  very  beginning  would  have  stayed   at   a   ‘distance’   from   the   subject   in   order   to   follow   a   certain   methodology   of   research  instead  of  undertaking  research  per  se.    Another   key   advantage   of   quantitative   research   is   its   objectivity.   However   objectivity   is   too  plain  and  utterly  inhuman.  In  the  above  example,  Wasay  et  al  fail  to  recognize  the  cognitive  and  intellectual  processes  going  on  in  the  minds  of  their  subjects  while  collecting  this  data.  On  the  other   hand   subjective   data   will   lead   to   emotional   stories   and   description   of   the   new   and  challenging   social   processes   engulfing   the   lives   of   Multiple   Sclerosis   patients,   their   families,  physicians  and  society.    One   of   the   reasons   why   quantitative   research   creates   a   distance   between   researcher   and  researched   is   the   underpinning   belief   that   quantitative   research   can   be   replicated   whereas   this  is  not  the  case  with  qualitative  research.  The  core  reason  for  this  is  the  ‘disconnection’  between  researcher   and   subjects   on   a   human   and   emotional   level.   Researchers,   being   human  themselves,  are  likely  to  be  carried  away  while  undertaking  research  on  emotional  issues  like  
  5. 5. the  one  described  in  case  of  Yasmin.  It  can  therefore  be  argues  that  some  distance  is  essentially  required  to  collect  meaningful  information.  However,  similar  stories  revealed  a  lot  of  common  areas   of   discussion   and   future   course   of   action   thereby   bolstering   the   idea   that   qualitative  research  had  a  key  role  to  play  as  well    In   conclusion,   there   is   no   right   or   wrong   argument   in   favor   of   or   against   the   ‘distance’   that  quantitative  research  established  between  the  researcher  and  the  researched.  It  all  depends  on  the   nature   of   research.   It   is   sometimes   necessary   to   keep   a   distance   while   it   is   sometimes  necessary  to  remove  it.  The  process  may  go  in  full  circle  will  repetitions  of  distance  and  no  -­‐  distance  (Qualitative  may  follow  quantitative  or  Vice  Versa)  as  shown  by  example.  Given  below  is   a   summary   of   advantages   and   disadvantages   and   the   researcher   has   to   choose   a  methodology  that  suits  the  requirements  of  research  in  a  given  time  and  space.        Summary:   Advantages   Disadvantages   1. Collection  of  hard  core  objective  data   1. Leave  out  human  element   2. Data   collected   is   close   to   ‘natural   2. Fail  to  understand  and  record  feelings   sciences  experimentation’.   3. Emotionally   involved   researcher   likely   3. Does  not  allow  ‘drifting’  in  emotion   to  misread  important  information   4. Data  collected  is  verifiable   4. Replication  is  a  question  mark  because   5. Replication  possible   of   dependence   on   researcher   6. Data   can   be   processed   and   analyzed   observation  and  finding   using  sophisticated  statistical  tools  and   5. Generalization   is   difficult   with   computer  soft-­‐wares  like  SPSS   emotionally  loaded  responses.   7. Saves   researched   from   information   6. Descriptive  information  is  scanty  that  is   overload   deemed   necessary   while   explaining   8. Extrapolation  of  data  is  acceptable   findings  from  quantitative  data.   9. Larger  scale  generalization  of  concepts          
  6. 6.    Section  B      4a)   Are   the   following   variable   names   acceptable   by   SPSS?   Provide   explanations   in   your  answers.    i)  var  1  ii)  earningsaftertax  iii)  pt/job  iv)  var_0001    “Var  1”,  “pt/job”  and  “Var_0001”  are  not  acceptable  by  SPSS  as  it  does  not  entertain  spaces,  signs   or   symbols   between,   before   or   after   each   variable.   When   these   three   were   entered   at  variables   in   the   “Variable   view”,   a   window   “variable   contains   an   illegal   character”   appeared  promptly.      Variable  “earningsaftertax”  was  acceptable  as  a  variable.    4b)   If   you   are   given   the   task   to   code   up   a   set   of   survey   data   which   consists   of   mainly  attitudinal  and  open-­‐ended  responses,  what  cautions  would  you  bear  in  mind  when  you  carry  out  the  task?    Coding   for   open   –   ended   questions   is   complicated.   Answers   to   open   –   ended   or   attitudinal  response   should   be   summarized   into   a   number   of   different   categories   or   groups   before  entering   data   in   SPSS.   Groups   are   easier   to   make   once   the   researcher   has   gone   through   or  enlisted   all   the   responses   to   a   specific   question   from   the   respondents.   These   categories   or  groups  then  need  to  be  assigned  numbers  for  entry  into  SPSS  and  record  must  be  maintained  so  that  it  can  be  referred  to  during  explanation.      Take  this  question  as  an  example:    Q.  What  do  you  think  is  the  root  cause  of  terrorism  in  Afghanistan?    The  responses  can  be  many  but  mostly  would  fall  into:     a) Local  Culture/Fragmented  Society   b) Religious  Extremism   c) Poverty   d) Lack  of  Education   e) Lack  of  employment   f) Geostrategic  influence    
  7. 7. Almost  80  to  90%  of  responses  would  fall  into  either  of  the  above  but  there  would  be  certain  answers  that  fall  into  neither.  For  those,  another  category  (Others)  can  be  made  and  coded  as  following:     a) Local  Culture/Fragmented  Society  =  1   b) Religious  Extremism  =  2   c) Poverty  =  3   d) Lack  of  Education  =  4   e) Lack  of  employment  =  5   f) Geostrategic  influence  =  6   g) Others  =  99    This  data  can  then  be  entered  in  SPSS  and  analyzed  further.    4c)  When  do  we  use  Cronbach’s  Alpha?  What  can  Cronbach’s  Alpha  tell  us?    We   use  Cronbach’s   Alpha  to   ascertain   the  degree   to  which   the   items   that  make  up  a  scale   are  coherent  with  one  another.  Cronbachs  alpha  is  a  test  of  internal  reliability  or  consistency  and  is  used  to  measure  how  well  a  set  of  items   (or   variables)   measures   a   single   unidimensional   latent   construct.     It   calculates   the   average   of   all  possible   split   –   half   reliability   coefficients.  Cronbach’s   Alpha   ranges   between   0.00   to   1.00.   A   reliability  coefficient  of  .70  or  higher  is  considered    "acceptable"  in  most  social  science  research  situations(DeVellis  2003)   however   Bryman   (Alan   Bryman   2008:   151)   advocates   a   figure   of   0.80   to   be   ‘typically   employed   as  a  rule  of  thumb  to  denote  an  acceptable  level  of  internal  reliability’.  A  minimum  level  of  0.60  has  been  described   as   ‘good’   by   Berthoud   (2000b:   169).   When   data   have   a   multidimensional   structure,  Cronbachs   alpha   will   usually   be   low.   Briggs   and   Cheek   (1986)   have   recommended   inter   –   item  correlation  of  0.2  to  0.4  as  an  optimal  range.    Cronbachs   alpha   can   be   written   as   a   function   of   the   number   of   test   items   AND   the   average  inter-­‐correlation  among  the  items.    The  formula  for  the  standardized  Cronbachs  alpha  is:      where  N    is  equal  to  the  number  of  items,  c-­‐bar  is  the  average  inter-­‐item  covariance  among  the  items  and  v-­‐bar  equals  the  average  variance.      The  formula  indicates  that  if  we  increase  the  number  of  items,  Cronbachs  alpha  will  increase.      Alpha  will  be  low  if  the  average  inter-­‐item  correlation  is  low.  Cronbach’s  alpha  increases  if  the  average  inter-­‐item  correlation  increases.    
  8. 8. If  the  inter-­‐item  correlations  are  high,  then  there  is  evidence  that  the  items  are  measuring  the  same  underlying  construct.     This  is  really  what  is  meant  by  "high"  or  "good"  reliability  when  a  reference  is  made  to  a  unidimensional  latent  construct.    Cronbachs  alpha  will  generally  be  low  for  all  items  in  case  of  a  multi-­‐dimensional  data.  For  such  cases,   it   is   suggested   that   a   factor   analysis   be   carried   out   to   see   which   items   load   highest   on  which  dimensions  and  then  take  the  alpha  of  each  subset  of  items  separately.    Bibliography:   1. Acton  C.,  Miller  R.,  SPSS  for  Social  Scientists,  Pelgrave,  Second  Edition,  2009   2. Bezerra  R.  F.,  Jalloh,  S.  and  Stevenson,  J.  (1998)  “Formulating  Hypothesis  Graphically  in   Social  Research’,  Quality  and  Quantity  32(4):327  –  353   3. Bryman  A.,  Social  Research  Methods,  Oxford  University  Press,  3rd  Edition,  2008.   4. Bryman,   A.   and   Cramer,   D.   (1990)   ‘Concepts   and   Their   Measurement’,   in   Quantitative   Data  Analysis  for  Social  Scientists,  pp.61-­‐74.  London:  Routledge   5. CLMS,  (Version  No.  2)  Doctorate  in  Social  Sciences,  Module  1,  Unit  3   6. De  Vaus,  D.A.  (1996)  “Developing  Indicators  for  Concepts”,  in  Surveys  in  Social  Research,   (4th  Edition),  pp.47  –  59.  London:  UCL  Press.   7. Dijkstra,   W.,   Smit,   J.H.   and   Comijs,   H.   C.   (2001)   ‘Using   Social   Desirability   Scales   the   Research  among  the  Elderly’,  Quality  and  Quantity  35(1):107-­‐115   8. Drennan,  J.  (2003)  Cognitive  Interviewing:  Verbal  Data  in  the  Design  and  Pre  –  Testing  of   Questionnaires’,   Journal   of   Advanced   Nursing   Methodological   Issues   in   Nursing   Research  42(1):  57  –  63   9. Kraus,   L.   and   Augustin,   R.   (2001)   ‘Research   Report   –   Measuring   Alcohol   Consumption   and   Alcohol   Related   Problems:   Comparison   of   Responses   from   Self   –   Administered   Questionnaires  and  Telephone  Interviews’,  Addiction  96(3):459  –  471   10. Palant  J.,  (2007)  SPSS  Survival  Manual,  Third  Edition,  McGraw  Hill,  Open  University  Press   11. Schutz,  A.  (1962),  Collected  Papers  I,  The  Problem  of  Social  Reality  (The  Hague:  Martinus   Nijhof)   12. Wasay,  M.  et  al,  Multiple  Sclerosis  in  Pakistan,  Multiple  Sclerosis,  Vol.  13,  No.  5,  668-­‐669   (2007)   13. Wright   Mills,   C.   (2000)   ‘Abstracted   Empiricism’,   in   The   Social   Imagination,   (40th   Anniversary  Edition),  pp.  50  –  75.  New  York;  Oxford:  Oxford  University  Press  

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