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The Aviva Real Retirement report - Spring 2013


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Welcome to Aviva’s Spring 2013 Real Retirement Report. We are into our third year of tracking the concerns and finances across three distinctive ages of retirement – pre-retirees (aged 55-64), retiring (65-74) and long-term retired (over-75) – and continue to find new realities and challenges emerging.

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The Aviva Real Retirement report - Spring 2013

  1. 1. The AvivaReal Retirement ReportSpring 2013106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 1 21/05/2013 14:00
  2. 2. Welcome to Aviva’s Spring 2013 Real Retirement Report. We are into our third year of tracking the concerns andfinances across three distinctive ages of retirement – pre-retirees (aged 55-64), retiring (65-74) and long-term retired(over-75) – and continue to find new realities and challenges emerging.Each report focuses on an aspect of living that is especially relevant to these age groups and their finances. The Spring2013 spotlight tackles the taboo of inheritance and asks what it looks like in the current economic and social climate.How much importance do the over-55s place on leaving an inheritance? What do people plan to leave and when dothey begin to address the issue? Do financial pressures mean today’s over-55s are more likely to pass their wealth onduring retirement? These answers and more are revealed on page 4.Many over-55s are confident they will pass on more than their parents did before them: despite the current economicpressures we find that half take this upbeat view, although others are mindful of rising living costs and the possible needto pay for long-term care in later life.By the age of 65, leaving an inheritance outweighs supporting close family members as a financial priority. Nonethelesspeople are open to considering alternative ways to pass on their savings and assets: for example, by offering cash loansor gifts to their children and grandchildren or by jointly investing in property.It is telling, however, that pre-retirees are the least optimistic about the prospect of leaving an inheritance. Althoughincreasing numbers count on a wage to boost their monthly income, this suggests that careful financial planning will beessential to help them realise this ambition in later life.This is especially true for retirees when rising living costs are eroding savings pots and pushing debt repayment downtheir list of priorities. It is encouraging to see incomes rise since December 2012, but the over-55s are under no illusionsthat the general atmosphere of austerity is here for some time yet.Both short and long-term financial fears have risen significantly since our last report, and with further welfare cuts in theoffing, the need to carefully balance finances in later life continues to be a priority.Aviva Real Retirement Report 2ForewordClive Bolton,managing director of Aviva’s ‘at retirement’ business106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 2 21/05/2013 14:00
  3. 3. l Pre-retirees – (55 to 64 years old) are on the countdown to retirement… – But more than one in four (27%) still have an outstanding mortgage, with an average outstandingbalance of £70,093 on a property typically worth £224,874. – They are also the most likely to save nothing each month (38%) and the most likely to be in debt(10%), with a third (33%) owing money on credit cards. – When it comes to inheritance, pre-retirees are the least optimistic about leaving more inheritance thantheir parents (45%) and the most likely to expect to leave nothing behind (21%).l Retiring – (65 to 74 years old) have just passed the age at which people often retire… – Are unlikely to have no savings (9%) and save the highest amount on a monthly basis (£57.73). Theyare also most likely to receive an income from an employer pension (47%). – However, they have the lowest valued homes on average (£213,672) and those with unsecured debtowe the largest amount (£23,856). – They are the most likely to have started planning to leave an inheritance in earlier life after becominga parent (18%) and believe this is the best time to do so (28%).l Long-term retired – (75 years and older) most are 10 years or more into retirement… – Have the most valuable homes (£236,899) and are the most likely to own their house outright (80%).They also have the healthiest savings pots (£14,998). – They have the lowest levels of unsecured debt (£8,372) but almost one in four (24%) owe money oncredit cards. – Are most likely to feel that leaving an inheritance is their biggest financial priority (13%).Gradually ageing populationThe three ages of retirementThe Aviva Real Retirement Report considers retirement as threestages to reflect the fact that ‘retirement’ changes as people getolder, rather than simply being a single event.Aviva Real Retirement Report 31986 1996 2003 2005 2007 2016 2026%ofpopulation55-6465-7475+Years5678910111213106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 3 21/05/2013 14:00
  4. 4. The shape ofinheritance in 2013• Pre-retirees are the least convinced about their prospects ofleaving an inheritance• Property is an increasingly important feature of inheritance plans• Cash loans, gifts and joint property investments are popularalternativesAviva Real Retirement Report 4Paying living costs Supporting close family Leaving an inheritanceAged 45 50% 48% 2%Aged 55 63% 33% 4%Aged 65 70% 22% 8%Aged 75 69% 12% 19%Aged 85 73% 9% 18%The passing of wealth from generation to generation is a time-honoured tradition, but in the UK in 2013, many over-55s facepractical, financial and social considerations that challenge the conventional idea of leaving an inheritance.On one hand, there is the question of how best they can use their savings and assets to fund their lifestyle in retirement, includingmeeting costs such as long-term care. On the other, many will see younger members of their family encountering financial difficultiesas they look to get on the property ladder or raise families of their own.Together these add up to a strong rationale for the over-55s to consider forgoing the traditional idea of inheritance and take a newapproach to sharing their wealth during retirement. That is assuming, in these times of austerity, they are able to do so while stillmaintaining a reasonable quality of life in their later years.The age of reckoning:Looking at where inheritance features as a financial priority, the overwhelming majority (77%) of over-55s are more focused onpaying for their own living costs, followed by supporting close family (17%). Leaving an inheritance features as the biggest financialconsideration for just 7% of over-55s, although predictably this increases with age: 13% of over-75s rate this as their top priority,compared with 7% of 65-74s and 5% of 55-64s.Between 45 and 55 is the time when supporting close family is overtaken as a priority by paying living costs. It is not until the decadeafter reaching 65 that inheritance becomes the second most common priority. Its importance increases exponentially with eachdecade, but even by their mid 80s, less than one in five (18%) cite this as their biggest financial concern.How inheritance features among the over-55s’ biggest financial priorities:106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 4 21/05/2013 14:00
  5. 5. Youthful pessimism:Despite the country’s economic struggles, more than half of over-55s (53%) feel they will leave more of an inheritance thantheir parents did with over a third (37%) expecting to leave significantly more.However, this conviction is strongest among those who are furthest into their retirement (41% of 65-74s and 47% of over-75s). Despite the fact 58% of 55-64s were wage earners in May 2013, compared with 46% in May 2010, they are relativelydownbeat about their prospects of leaving an inheritance. Only 32% expect to leave significantly more than their parentsdid, while 21% feel they will not be able to leave an inheritance at all.What inheritance looks like in 2013:Savings were the most common inheritance that today’s over-55s received from their parents (42%), followed by the familyhome (34%) and jewellery or other heirlooms (30%).In terms of what they expect to leave, property takes on more importance: 65% expect to leave their family home,compared with just 34% who were left this by their own parents. This expectation is considerably stronger among over-75s(72%) than 55-64s (61%).What the over-55s received as an inheritance – and what they expect to leave:While jewellery and heirlooms continue to feature in the inheritance plans for 42% of over-55s (including 46% of women),personal financial investments such as stocks and shares are also significant. Nearly one in four (24%) expect to leave these,while just 7% received similar from their parents.In a sign of optimism that their available assets will survive the drain of living costs in later life, 17% of over-55s expect toleave some pension funds or savings from an annuity income as part of their inheritance. This includes 20% of 55-64s, butjust 13% of the two older age groups. Only half as many people expect to leave nothing (17%) compared to those whoseparents did likewise (33%).Aviva Real Retirement Report 570%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%The familyhomeReceivedExpect to leaveOther propertyor landSavings Pension orannuity fundsOtherpersonalinvestments(e.g. stocksand shares)BusinessassetsJewelleryand familyheirloomsNothing106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 5 21/05/2013 14:00
  6. 6. Aviva Real Retirement Report 6Turning plans into actions:The over-55s are divided on the best time to begin planning to leave an inheritance. Some are motivated by key life events: over aquarter (26%) say becoming a parent is the ideal trigger, followed by 19% who say the final years before retirement or early yearsof retirement are the best starting point.Others are more motivated by circumstance, including 15% who feel that plans are better left until you have something valuable toleave, and 13% who say achieving a decent wage is the best prompt.When people think they should plan their inheritance – and when they actually do:In reality, when combined, the act of retirement is the main trigger: 23% of over-55s start planning at this point, comprising 13%who do so in the final approach to retirement and 10% who make plans in the first years after finishing work.The financial pressures of becoming a parent mean significantly fewer (17%) actually start planning their inheritance at this stagethan feel they should do. Earning a decent wage is also less of a trigger in practice than in theory; instead, almost one in five (19%)act only when they have something valuable to leave.Competing pressures in later life:A third (33%) of over-55s say they have already sorted out their inheritance planning, predictably rising through the ages (from27% of 55-64s to 38% of 65-74s and 47% of over-75s). While it may not be their main financial priority, inheritance is clearlyat the forefront of people’s minds: only 2% of over-55s say they are too young to think about it and only 3% say they don’thave time.However, almost one in five (19%) believe they don’t have enough savings or assets to leave an inheritance, with the most concernamong pre-retirees (22%). Almost a third of all over-55s (29%) believe they will need their savings or assets to pay for day-to-dayliving costs, while a similar number (28%) believe they will be needed to cover the eventuality of long-term care bills.The worry about meeting long-term care costs is strongest among the 65-74s and over-75s (both 32%), while concerns about day-to-day living costs are most prevalent among 55-64s (32%).More than one in three (35%) say the Government proposals to cap individual contributions to long-term care costs have had noeffect on their inheritance planning. But for almost one in ten 55-64s (9%) the proposals have been a rude awakening as they didnot realise how expensive this could be.The best time to act When people actAfter becoming a parent 26% 17%After becoming a grandparent 3% 5%Once earning a decent wage 13% 8%In the years leading up to retirement 12% 13%In the first years of retirement 7% 10%In late retirement 6% 8%When I have something valuable to leave 15% 19%106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 6 21/05/2013 14:00
  7. 7. Dividing up the family fortune:Over half (53%) of over-55s plan to divide their inheritance equally between close family members, while 12% say that some willreceive more depending on how close their relationship is. Perhaps because they are the furthest on with their planning, the over-75s are the most likely (11% vs. 6% overall) to give more support to those family members who need it most – for example, if theyare raising children or want to buy a home.The price of leaving an inheritance:Shopping around for the cheapest deals – for example, during their weekly food shop – is the most popular step the over-55swould take (18%) during their retirement to either preserve the inheritance they plan to leave or provide financial support to familymembers.More than one in ten (11%, including 16% of 55-64s) would work part-time during retirement to do the same, while 12%(including 14% of 55-64s) would downsize or move to a cheaper home. One in ten (10%) would take fewer holidays abroad and8% would make fewer home improvements.Common sacrifices to preserve an inheritance or give financial support to family:However, 60% say they would not take any of these actions either to preserve an inheritance or offer financial support to theirfamily during retirement. This perhaps shows how much the over-55s appreciate what luxuries they can afford when the country– according to the House of Lords Committee report, Ready for Ageing? – is “woefully underprepared” to meet the needs of itsgrowing elderly population.Shop around for the cheapest deals e.g. for the weekly shop 18%Downsize or move to a cheaper home to free up some cash 12%Work part-time during retirement 11%Take fewer holidays abroad 10%Make fewer home improvements 8%Buy fewer takeaway meals or eat out less 7%Sell some valuables or hold a car boot sale 7%Begin saving to pay for long-term care so my family doesn’t have to pay 6%Swap a car for a cheaper model 4%None of the above 60%Aviva Real Retirement Report 7106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 7 21/05/2013 14:00
  8. 8. “Although many over-55s are hopeful of leaving an inheritance, the concerns ofthose on the final approach to retirement suggest this may become less common asthey find their finances squeezed in later life. Even so, there are steps they can taketo improve their chances. For example, lifetime mortgages can be taken out with aninheritance guarantee so that people can rest easy that an agreed amount of theirproperty’s value is fully protected.”Clive Bolton, managing director of Aviva’s ‘at retirement’ businessIs inheritance passé?In the current economic climate there are plenty of reasons to think that some over-55s might feel compelled to give financialsupport to younger relatives during their retirement, rather than waiting to leave an inheritance.Giving a cash loan to family – for example, to help with purchasing a home – is the most common kind of financial support offeredinstead of leaving an inheritance: 21% of over-55s have done this, including 25% of over-75s.This is also the most common alternative that over-55s say they would consider, along with regularly giving money to family to avoidinheritance tax (both 20%). However, only 8% have actually done the latter, and almost half (45%) oppose this course of action.Pre-retirees are the most likely to consider it (25%).Alternatives to leaving an inheritance:Putting on a brave face:Almost half of over-55s (44%) say the economic climate has not affected their plans to leave an inheritance. This feeling is strongestamong over-75s (49%), but pre-retirees feel more of an impact (41%). Almost one in five (19%) of this group say they will beable to leave less than they would like to as a result, while 11% of all over-55s say the cost of living will prevent them leaving anyinheritance.Across the board, 16% of over-55s say the housing market crash has had an effect, either by reducing the inheritance they willleave or limiting the housing equity they can draw on in retirement. For a hardy 11%, however, this period of austerity has focusedtheir minds on their later life finances, making them more money-conscious and improving their inheritance planning.I would do this I have done thisGive a cash loan to a family member who needed it, forexample, to buy a house20% 21%Invest jointly in property with other family members 17% 3%Regularly give money to family members to avoidinheritance tax20% 8%Take out tax-free cash from a pension fund to give toothers7% 3%Aviva Real Retirement Report 8106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 8 21/05/2013 14:00
  9. 9. Aviva Real Retirement Report 9This is also the first time the over-55s’ RPI has been higher than the RPI for all consumers (3.3% - April 2013) in the last 12months, which is unwelcome news for the 18% of over-55s who earn less than £750 a month.RPI since February 2010The vital costs that the majority of over-55s need to meet have continued to rise, with year-on-year increases in inflation for food(+3.63%), housing (+2.27%) and travel fares (+5.32%). Following the recent hike in energy prices, fuel and light has experiencedone of the largest increases in inflation, up +7.24% over the last year. Soaring energy bills suggest this may well get worse in themonths ahead, putting a considerable strain on the over-55s’ finances.Other costs which have seen notable increases include household services (+7.16%) and clothing (+6.38%).Looking ahead, the Bank of England base rate has stood at 0.5% since March 2009 and shows no sign of rising in the immediatefuture – particularly as the Bank looks to shepherd the economy towards permanent recovery and stable growth by keepinginterest rates low.This combined with other factors such as rising energy prices, means inflation is likely to remain relatively high. However, as theUK has staved off the threat of a triple-dip recession, those over-55s who have repaid most of their borrowing and added to theirsavings pots will be best placed to benefit from any growth.Economic overviewOver-55s’ RPI (Retail Price Index) annual inflation increased significantlybetween December 2012 and May 2013, rising from 2.74% to 3.4%.While this is considerably lower than the same time last year (4.05%),over-55s’ RPI has risen extensively in the three years since the RealRetirement Report began, when it was just 1.69% (Q1 2010).1%2%3%4%5%6%2010 2011RPI over 55sRPI all%changeMonth2012 2013106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 9 21/05/2013 14:00
  10. 10. Aviva Real Retirement Report 10Since January 2010, the Real Retirement Report has tracked the level of income the over-55s receive, where it comes from and howthey use it to meet a range of living costs.Level of income:The median monthly income of the over-55s dropped slightly since December 2012 (£1,444) to £1,412 in May 2013. This stillrepresents an average gain of £51 in the last year (£1,361 – May 2012) and £162 over the last three years (£1,250 – May 2010).Those approaching retirement have experienced the biggest rise in their income over the last year. Between May 2012 and May2013, the 55-64s saw their median income grow by £166 while – in a sign of falling returns on savings, investments and pensionfunds – both older age groups have seen their incomes scaled back. The typical 65-74 year old suffered an £18 loss of monthlyincome in the last 12 months, while the typical over-75 in May 2013 survives on £109 less each month than they did last year.The longer-term picture is more positive, with over-75s only experiencing a £12 loss of income over the last three years. Bothyounger age groups have made significant gains over the same period: the 55-64s adding £269 to their typical monthly income, andthe 65-74s gaining £102.Contrasting income growth among the UK’s over-55s:Income bands:As people increasingly extend their working lives, the number of over-55s with less than £500 of income a month has fallen inrecent years. Just 10% fell into this category in May 2013, down from 11% in May 2011 and 12% in May 2010.At the opposite end of the scale, the number of over-55s receiving more than £2,500 a month appears to have peaked. Havingreached 23% in September 2012, up from 17% in February 2010, it fell back to 20% in May 2013. The over-75s have been mostaffected, with just 11% earning more than £2,500 in May 2013 compared with 17% in September 2012.Incomel Over-75s left trailing by income gains among younger age groupsl Savings and investments relied on less as a source of income in later lifel Wages increase as retirees remain longer in employmentAll 55 – 64s 65 – 74s over-75sMay 2010 £1,250 £1,256 £1,270 £1,221May 2012 £1,361 £1,359 £1,390 £1,318May 2013 £1,412 £1,525 £1,372 £1,209One-year gain £51 £166 -£18 -£109Three-year gain £162 £269 £102 -£12106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 10 21/05/2013 14:00
  11. 11. Aviva Real Retirement Report 11Sources of income:As savings rates and investment returns have dropped in recent years, noticeably fewer over-55s receive an income from this source.Three in ten (30%) identified investments/savings as a source of income in May 2010, falling to 27% in May last year and just 24%in both December 2012 and May 2013.The declining role of investments and savings is most visible among those aged 55 to 64. While 35% of over-75s drew on thisincome in May 2013 (vs. 37% - May 2010), just 20% of 55-64s (vs. 26% - May 2010) and 24% of 65-74s (vs. 35% - May 2010)did the same.How many over-55s use a range of income sources:In contrast, wages, personal pensions and annuities have each played a part in filling the hole. Overall, 35% of over-55s citedpersonal pensions as a source of income in May 2013 (vs. 33% in May 2010); 10% received an income from annuities (vs. 8% inMay 2010); and 37% received a wage or other earned income, up from 33% in the last three years.Across the age groups, the over-75s have driven the rise in income received from personal pensions or annuity products. Almosthalf (44%) of over-75s now have a personal pension, compared with 37% in May 2010, and 17% receive income from annuitieswhereas just 9% did in May 2010.Impact of benefit changes:Coupled with rising employment levels for retirees, changes to state benefits mean that noticeably fewer over-55s (15%) receivedan income from this source in May 2013 than at the equivalent point last year (17%) or three years ago (22%).With additional benefit cuts revealed in the 2013 Budget as the austerity programme extends to 2018, this number could fallfurther in the months and years ahead.“It is encouraging to see the growing number of over-55s with personal pensionfunds. For those who want to exchange their pension pots for the flexibility andcontrol of income drawdown, the death benefits this includes can leave yourbeneficiaries with a range of options to consider. Whether taking out a lump sum,continuing with income drawdown or converting it into an annuity, they have thefreedom to decide how best to use the available funds.”Clive Bolton, managing director of Aviva’s ‘at retirement’ business0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%45%DateInvestments/savingsPersonal pensionsAnnuitiesWages2010 2011 2012 2013106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 11 21/05/2013 14:00
  12. 12. The typical monthly outgoings among over-55s in May 2013 amounted to £1,302: just £1 lower than in May 2012, but £61 morethan in December 2012 and almost £250 more than in December 2010.Typical monthly outgoings of the over-55sWhile the total amount of spending has changed little over the last year, there has been a noticeable shift in the focus of people’soutgoings. Compared with May 2012, the over-55s are setting aside £23 less each month to repay debts, but £14 more for foodand £16 more for mortgage or rent payments.Compared with the end of 2012, the increase in mortgage or rent payments is even greater: those repaying a mortgage or payingrent are typically spending £25 more than they did in December 2012 (up from £282 to £307).This suggests the 8% of over-55s in rented accommodation have felt the effect of rising rents in the last six months, while the 19%who own their homes with a mortgage (including 27% of 55-64s) have not felt the benefit of consistent rate reductions in themortgage market.Expenses over the last 12 months:Expenditurel Stable outgoings over the last 12 months mask a tale of shifting prioritiesl Rising travel, fuel and housing costs limit ability to make debt repaymentsAviva Real Retirement Report 12£££££May 2013£1,302££Dec 2012£1,241££May 2012£1,303££Dec 2010£1,037£ ££May 2012 Dec 2012 May 2013Change sinceDec 2012Change sinceMay 2012Clothing and footwear £30.01 £28.03 £29.17 4% -3%Debt repayment £197.65 £177.58 £174.20 -2% -12%Furniture, appliances and pet care £37.84 £29.35 £32.33 10% -15%Leisure goods £22.94 £18.95 £22.40 18% -2%Motoring £85.92 £73.97 £77.85 5% -9%Personal goods and services £20.37 £19.95 £20.11 1% -1%106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 12 21/05/2013 14:00
  13. 13. December 2010 May 2013 ChangeHousing (mortgage or rent) £190 £307 +62%Debt repayment £118 £174 +47%Food £170 £197 +16%Fares and other travel costs £45 £52 +16%Entertainment, recreation and holidays £75 £86 +14%Fuel and Light £96 £109 +14%Motoring £72 £78 +9%Leisure goods such as sports equipment or CDs £21 £22 +5%Eating out or take-aways £38 £39 +3%Furniture, appliances and pet care £31 £32 +3%Postage, telephone calls and internet connections £38 £37 -3%Clothing and footwear £31 £29 -6%Personal goods and services such as make-up and medicine £22 £20 -9%Aviva Real Retirement Report 13Looking back to the end of 2010, the average spend has increased in all but three categories. Each of those where spending hasdeclined – clothing and footwear, personal goods and services, postage, telephone calls and internet – might be considered luxuryexpenses, whereas more essential items such as food and travel costs have risen considerably.By far the largest increases in expenditure since December 2010 have been seen in debt repayment (up 47%) and mortgage or rentpayments (up 62%).Expenditure growth table: changes since December 2010May 2012 Dec 2012 May 2013Change sinceDec 2012Change sinceMay 2012Entertainment, recreation and holidays £83.46 £78.55 £85.98 9% 3%Fares and other travel costs £46.97 £51.94 £52.20 1% 11%Food £182.82 £189.45 £196.83 4% 8%Fuel and Light £106.57 £110.78 £109.27 -1% 3%Housing (mortgage or rent) £290.95 £281.96 £307.11 9% 6%Rising expenses over the last 12 months:106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 13 21/05/2013 14:00
  14. 14. Aviva Real Retirement Report 14Almost four in five over-55s (79%) own their own home in May 2013, either with or without a mortgage. Outright homeownershipreturned to the same level as in May 2010 (60%), having peaked at 64% twelve months ago. The percentage of homeowners witha mortgage did likewise, returning to 19% in May 2013 – as in May 2010 – having dipped to 17% in May last year.One difference to note is a slight increase in the percentage of over-55s in social housing, up from 10% in May 2012 to 12% thisquarter: driven by an increase of two percentage points among both 55-64s and 64-75s.At £222,423, the value of the typical over-55s’ home has dropped by 5% since the Real Retirement Report series began, and by6% in the last twelve months. However, with the Government’s Help To Buy scheme including existing housing stock and widelypredicted to have a positive effect on prices, homeowners in this age bracket may expect to see their properties increase in value asthe scheme gathers pace.Savings pots:Savings pots have fluctuated among the over-55s in recent times as they adjust to inflation and rising living costs. Having peaked at£18,364 in September 2012, the typical savings pot has fallen by over a third (36%) to £11,763 in May 2013 – 25% down on theequivalent time last year.The most significant loss was experienced by the 65-74s, who have seen their savings pot halved over the last twelve months asthey have dipped into their available funds. Those aged 55-64 have limited the impact of living costs on their cash reserves, helpedno doubt by the fact that 58% of this group still receive wages or other earned income.The percentage of over-55s with no savings dropped to 14% in May 2013: down from 17% in May 2012 to the second lowest figurerecorded since February 2010.Those with less than £500 saved also fell from 24% to 22% over the same period, suggesting that people who previously struggledto put money aside have managed to make some headway over the last year. In each case, all three age groups have benefited.However, the percentage of over-55s with less than £2,000 in savings crept up from 31% in May 2012 to 32% in May 2013,having been just 25% less than twelve months earlier in November 2011. The biggest shift over the last 12 months was among theretiring – aged 65-74 – with a rise of six percentage points from 23% to 29% in May 2013.Assetsl Erosion of savings felt most keenly by those at retirement agel Over-55s seek to compensate by improving monthly savings habitsAll 55 – 64s 65 – 74s over-75sLess than £500 savedMay 2012 24% 28% 19% 21%May 2013 22% 26% 18% 14%Less than £2,000 savedMay 2012 31% 37% 23% 29%May 2013 32% 35% 29% 26%Proportion of over-55s with limited savings pots:106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 14 21/05/2013 14:00
  15. 15. Aviva Real Retirement Report 15Despite the increasing tendency to work past the old Default Retirement Age of 65, it seems more people are dipping into theirsavings pots when they first enter retirement: a trend that is likely to be influenced by greater levels of mortgage and credit carddebt being carried into retirement.In contrast, the proportion with savings of more than £100,000 dropped to 17% having stood at 23% in September 2012.Monthly savings habits improved across the board to May 2013, with the typical over-55 putting aside just short of £50 (£49.30)each month to boost their retirement nest egg – slightly less than the £52.18 seen in September 2012, and 59% up from £31.05 inMay 2012.The biggest improvement was among 55-64s, who have almost doubled the amount they save each month from £20.60 in May2012 to £40.75 in May 2013. It offers encouragement that messages about the importance of saving for retirement are having animpact on this group.This is backed up by the falling number of over-55s who save nothing each month. Having stood at 41% in May 2011 and reached42% in May 2012, the number fell visibly to 35% by May 2013, with all three age groups showing signs of improved savingshabits. The trend suggests – despite the economic climate – the UK’s over-55s have adjusted to the extent that increasing numbersare at least able to make some effort to save from month to month.Percentage of over-55s saving nothing each month:Despite this, the 55-64s are still saving less money each month than the 65-74s and over-75s despite having the largest monthlyincome. This is doubtless the effect of having the largest typical expenditure of all three age groups.30%25%20%15%10%5%0%45%40%35%All20112012201355-64 65-74 Over 75106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 15 21/05/2013 14:00
  16. 16. Monthly income, expenditure and savings habits across the three ages of retirement:Aviva Real Retirement Report 16“The suggestion that the pre-retirees are becoming more in tune with theimportance of saving for retirement is especially welcome at a time when thepotential shortfall in late life finances is so widely debated. The dip in typical savingspots in the years leading up to retirement is a sign that few people are immuneto the pressure of living costs and unexpected expenses. But making efforts tosave and replenish these funds can help to provide greater financial stability inretirement.”Clive Bolton, managing director of Aviva’s ‘at retirement’ businessSecond properties:The property investment market has been buoyant recently and offered a reliable medium to long term return for landlords.However, May 2013 saw the lowest frequency of second properties among the over-55s since February 2010 with just 8% having aproperty investment, holiday home, time-share, inheritance or property occupied by another family member.In contrast to the fortunes of their main homes, the typical value of these second properties grew by 5% in the 12 months to May2013 to £226,278. This trend may be influenced by the presence of ‘hotspots’ for buy-to-let properties or holiday homes around theUK, where growing interest from investors has served to increase prices.Contrasting fortunes of over-55s’ property investments:£1,200£1,000£800£600£400£200£0£1,800£1,600£1,400AllTypical incomeTypical expenditureTypical monthly savings55-64 65-74 Over 75£180,000£190,000£200,000£210,000£220,000£230,000£240,000DateValue of main home Value of second home2010 2011 2012 2013106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 16 21/05/2013 14:00
  17. 17. Whereas people might once have hoped to clear their mortgage debt before retirement, 19% of over-55s reported that they have amortgage on their home in May 2013. For this group, the size of the typical mortgage rose marginally by 1% from £63,555 in May2012 to £64,229: almost £10,000 more than in February 2010 (£54,567).Those aged 55-64 and over-75 have been most affected by the rise. The 65-74s have at least managed to reduce their typicalmortgage debt by £16,000 in the last twelve months – from £64,024 in May 2012 to £48,547 in May 2013 – potentially assisted byfinal salary payouts or drawing lump sums from their pension funds.However, the mean equity tied up in the homes of over-55s with mortgages fell by 9% to £158,194 in the year to May 2013. Thissuggests many people are struggling to pay off their mortgage debt as they approach and enter retirement. Possibly tempted byfavourable remortgage deals, some may instead choose – or feel compelled – to borrow more against their existing properties tomeet other financial demands.Typical mortgage debt vs. typical housing equity for main propertiesAviva Real Retirement Report 17Borrowingl Unsecured debt up by 4% since May 2012 and 36% since May 2011l 65-74s buck the trend towards increasing levels of mortgage debtQ1 2010£232,985£54,567HousingEquityMortgageDebtQ4 2011£179,337Q2 2010£186,252£50,402Q1 2012£167,945£67,663Q3 2010£163,906£60,440Q2 2012£172,919£63,555Q4 2010£172,141£64,511Q3 2012£183,334Q1 2011£170,483£65,107Q4 2012£174,956£59,541Q2 2011 Q3 2011£169,936 £173,454£61,370 £64,214Q2 2013£158,194£64,229£66,571£66,622106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 17 21/05/2013 14:00
  18. 18. Unsecured debt:With clearing debt a secondary focus to meeting the cost of food and mortgage/rent payments, the level of unsecured debt grew by4% among those over-55s who have it from £22,401 in May 2012 to £23,188 in May 2013.Looking further back, this represents an increase of 36% in debt levels over the last two years, with the greatest rise among pre-retirees. While unsecured debts have risen by £194 for 65-74s and by £1,011 for over-75s, today’s 55-64s typically approachretirement with £6,752 more unsecured debt than in May 2011.Even so, the over-55s have managed to reduce their levels of indebtedness slightly since the turn of the year, achieving a 2%reduction from £23,676 in December 2012. The percentage of over-55s with debt also fell from 12% to 9% over the year to May2013, indicating that debts have become increasingly concentrated.When it comes to forms of borrowing, the use of personal loans in May 2013 remained constant at 13% of over-55s – including15% of 55-64s – while a number of other methods for securing credit waned in popularity.Trends in the use of borrowing methods among over-55s:Instead, more people turned to credit cards (32% vs. 31% in December 2012) with the biggest shift among the 65-74 age group.Just 27% of this group made use of credit cards in May 2012, but this number rose to 31% in May 2013.To a lesser extent, this pattern was mirrored by the over-75s, with 24% borrowing on credit cards compared with 23% last year.This could suggest a slight improvement in the availability of credit to older consumers, along with an increasing willingness to takeadvantage of this form of borrowing.Despite their apparent comfort with using credit cards, half as many over-75s (5%) have unsecured debts compared with 55-64s(10%): a ratio that has improved considerably since May 2012, when 10% of over-75s had unsecured debts compared with 13%of 55-64s.Aviva Real Retirement Report 18December 2012 May 2013 ChangeCredit Cards 31% 32% +1%Personal Loans 15% 13% -2%Hire Purchase 8% 5% -3%Overdraft 14% 10% -4%Loans from family/friends 7% 2% -5%Doorstep lenders 5% 1% -4%Storecards 8% 5% -3%Any other informal borrowing 5% 2% -3%Number of those with Debt 12% 9% -3%106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 18 21/05/2013 14:00
  19. 19. Since the Real Retirement Report was launched in January 2010, it has tracked the views of over-55s about the key threats to theirstandard of living over the short-term (six months) and the long-term (five years).Using data from the first Real Retirement Report as a base (100), it is possible to observe the trends over time and gain a broaderunderstanding of how the over-55s view their world.Short-term overview (six months):The two main concerns over the next six months are the rising cost of living (88%) and unexpected expenses (52%). Both have risensince last quarter, from 80% and 41% respectively. Savers suffering from persistently low rates are increasingly fearful of falling returnson their savings (up from 28% in December 2012 to 37% in May 2013).Overall, taking into consideration all concerns over the next six months, over-55s are much more worried about the future (107 – May2013) than at the end of 2012 (86 – December 2012). The Financial Fears Index is at its highest level since over-55s’ concerns were firsttracked at the beginning of 2010, when a benchmark of 100 was established.While the over-55s seemed hopeful for positive change as 2013 approached, recent experience appears to have eroded this confidenceand caused a significant rise in the Financial Fears Index.Short-term fear indexOver-55s Financial Fears Indexl Both short and long-term fears at record highsl Squeezed savers worry about falling return on savings7080901001102010 2011 2012 2013Short-term fear indexlessworried-moreworriedEuropean debtcrisis startsLibyan uprisingUK unemploymentincreasesUnemploymentfallsFears of a doubledip recessionSpanish bankingcrisisBank of England announcesQuantitative EasingmeasuresCoalition governmentcomes to powerAviva Real Retirement Report 19106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 19 21/05/2013 14:00
  20. 20. Aviva Real Retirement Report 2060708090100110Long-term fear indexlessworried-moreworried2010 2011 2012 2013European debtcrisis startsLibyan uprisingFears of a doubledip recession UnemploymentfallsSustained pressureon incomesBank of England announcesQuantitative EasingmeasuresCoalition governmentcomes to powerUK unemploymentincreasesSpanish bankingcrisisBenefit worries:Following significant changes to the benefits system announced in 2013’s Budget, the loss of current government benefits is anincreasingly prominent worry amongst over-55s. On a short-term basis, fears about this have risen from 11% in Q4 2012 to 14% inQ1 2013, with those aged 55-64 worrying about this the most (16%).Fears surrounding a rise in taxes have also increased, with a fifth (20%) of over-55s perceiving this as a threat to their financialstability in the next five years. Again, this fear is most prominent amongst the 55-64s, with 23% of this age group worrying aboutthis on a long-term basis.Going forward, it will be interesting to see if factors such as the recent fall in inflation and the potential flow of a more positivenews agenda for retirees, will have an impact on their longer-term concerns.Long-term overview (five years):The same two concerns hold true in the long-term as well as the short-term. Fears about the rising cost of living have risen bynine percentage points since December 2012 to 83%, while concerns over unexpected expenses have grown by six percentagepoints to 44%.The threat of a serious illness affecting themselves or their partner is also a significant long-term worry for over-55s, up from 22%at the end of 2012 to 30% in May 2013.As with the short-term, the long-term outlook is equally negative, with the Financial Fears Index rising from 88 in December 2012to 102 in May 2013. This suggests over-55s are not expecting an improvement in economic conditions any time soon and areincreasingly resigned to continued hardship.Long-term fear index106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 20 21/05/2013 14:00
  21. 21. Income:Although incomes are slightly down in May 2013 compared to December 2012 (£1,412 vs. £1,444) incomes have risen from £1,239since February 2010, representing a three year growth of £173.This is likely to be partly due to an increase in the number of over-55s still in employment: 37% still receive income in the form ofwages, compared to 29% when the Real Retirement Report series first launched.Fluctuating incomes among the over-55sSavings:Average savings pots have increased only marginally since February 2010, rising from £11,590 to £11,763 in May 2013. This is aconsiderable fall (24 percentage points) since the end of 2012, when the over-55s had typical savings of £14,544.However, the proportion of those with no savings has reduced by 2% since the beginning of 2012 (16% in Q1 2010 versus 14% inQ1 2013), suggesting that the economic downturn has convinced consumers of the need for a healthy savings pot.The proportion of over-55s who save nothing each month has also fallen from 39% in February 2010 to 35% in May 2013. This isalso a significant improvement since December 2012, when 42% did not save on a monthly basis. Those aged 75 and over are themost frequent savers, with 70% saving money each month this quarter compared to 58% at the start of 2010.The percentage of over-55s who save nothing every month£900£1,000£1,100£1,200£1,300£1,400£1,500£1,600All55-64 (Pre-retirees)65-74 (Retiring)Over 75 (Long-term retired)2010 2011 2012 2013Income(£)Aviva Real Retirement Report 21Overview of the over-55s’ financesover the last 40 months0%10%20%30%40%50%60%All55-64 (Pre-retirees)65-74 (Retiring)Over 75 (Long-term retired)2010 2011 2012 2013106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 21 21/05/2013 14:00
  22. 22. Aviva Real Retirement Report 22House prices:Despite expectations that the housing market will finally return to life in 2013 after a long period of negative or zero growth, therehas been little benefit so far for the over-55s, who have seen the average value of their home fall from £232,985 in February 2010to £222,423.The typical mortgage among those who have them has risen by almost £10,000 to £64,299 in May 2013, compared with £54,567in February 2010, with an 8% rise since December 2012 when it was £59,541.How shifting property values have impacted the over-55sUnsecured debt:Debt has been tracked by the Real Retirement Report since January 2011. The amount owed by over-55s has risen steadily sincethen, increasing from £19,878 to £23,188 in May 2013. The over-75s are the only age group to have reduced their debt duringthis time, and even they have not seen a significant change (managing a reduction of just 1% from £8,457 at the start of 2011 to£8,372 in May 2013).The rise and fall of unsecured debt among over-55£0£50,000£100,000£150,000£200,000£250,000£300,000Q12010 2011 2012 2013Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q2Q4PriceAll55-64 (Pre-retirees)65-74 (Retiring)Over 75 (Long-term retired)£0£5,000£10,000£15,000£20,000£25,000£30,000£35,000£40,000Q12011 2012 2013Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q2Q4All55-64 (Pre-retirees)65-74 (Retiring)Over 75 (Long-term retired)106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 22 21/05/2013 14:00
  23. 23. Average house price Average mortgage Own house outright Number of over-55s1 East Anglia £231,343 £48,438 61% 1,746,0002 London £383,000 £60,227 56% 1,628,0003 East Midlands £177,823 £57,500 56% 1,341,0004 West Midlands £177,961 £95,833 64% 1,607,0005 North East £159,295 £62,500 57% 782,0006 North West £185,714 £63,750 63% 2,029,0007 Scotland £188,433 £42,763 57% 1,531,0008 South East £290,244 £70,313 61% 2,525,0009 South West £257,468 £88,889 58% 1,727,00010 Wales £166,667 £50,000 72% 958,00011 Yorkshire Humberside £184,423 £52,976 55% 1,511,000UK £222,423 £64,229 60% 17,385,000RegionaloverviewSource: Real Retirement Report 23106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 23 21/05/2013 14:00
  24. 24. Aviva Real Retirement Report 24So what does this tell us?The Spring 2013 edition of the Real Retirement Report looks in detail at the over-55s’ finances and asks how the goal of leavingan inheritance works in 2013 in an atmosphere of austerity and a strained economy. The findings lead us to propose a numberof practical solutions:1. Consider spreading your investments – Given the instability of financial markets and the wider economy, seekingprofessional guidance from a regulated financial adviser can help to identify how best to manage your available assets inretirement and provide a return to support a comfortable lifestyle, as well as improving your options when it comes toplanning to leave an inheritance.2. Take a long-term view – Thinking ahead about how to cover the possibility of funding long-term care costs can help toavoid a situation where over-55s come to depend on family members to pay their bills. With the housing market – andproperty prices – expected to pick up in the months ahead, releasing housing equity can provide vital funds while stillprotecting an inheritance to leave behind.3. Consider alternative approaches to passing on wealth – For those who have saved sufficiently for a comfortableretirement, the ability to release tax free cash from personal pension funds opens up a range of options for supporting familymembers financially during your retirement, rather than waiting to leave them an inheritance.4. Make efforts to maintain regular savings habits – Carrying significant debt into your later years, whether in the formof a mortgage or unsecured borrowing, can serve to limit your financial freedom. As far as possible, include regular debtrepayments alongside other expenditure to help ensure your debts do not become a burden during retirement“The idea of providing an inheritance is far from extinct, and something thatmany over-55s clearly aspire to. But for the current generation of retirees, there isclearly far more variety both in what they choose to leave and also the ways theychoose to pass on their wealth. As with many aspects of retirement finances,prudent planning and careful management can really pay dividends – helping youto manage living costs without feeling you have to sacrifice your own comfort toprovide for family members.”Clive Bolton, managing director of Aviva’s ‘at retirement’ business106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 24 21/05/2013 14:00
  25. 25. Aviva Real Retirement Report 25MethodologyThe Real Retirement Report was designed and produced by Wriglesworth Research. As part of this research more than 16,686 UKconsumers aged over 55 were interviewed between February 2010 and May 2013.This data was used to form the basis of the Aviva Real Retirement Report. Wherever possible, the same data parameters have been usedfor analysis but some additions or changes have been made as other tracking topics become apparent.Additional information sources include:l House of Lords Select Committee on Public Service and Demographic Change, Report of Session 2012-13 – Is the UK Ready forAgeing? – March 2013l Office for National Statistics, Consumer Price Inflation, March 2013 – April 2013l Office for National Statistics, Gross Domestic Product Preliminary Estimate, Q1 2013 – April 2013l Office for National Statistics, Pension Trends – Chapter 9: Pension Scheme Funding and Investment, 2013 Edition – April 2013l Office for National Statistics, Pension Trends – Chapter 10: Saving for retirement, 2013 Edition – April 2013l HM Treasury, Help to Buy: mortgage guarantee – scheme outline – March 2013Technical notesl A median is described as the numeric value separating the upper half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, fromthe lower half. Thus for this report, the median is the person who is the utter middle of a sample.l An average or mean is a single value that is meant to typify a list of values. This is derived by adding all the values on a list togetherand then dividing by the number of items on said list. This can be skewed by particularly high or low values.Over-55s worries index:The over-55s’ Financial Fears Index uses data from 12 separate indicators – including fears over falling returns on investments, risesin the cost of living, unexpected expenses – to create an index that allows changing attitudes towards financial threats to be trackedover time.Using the data from the first Real Retirement Report as the base (100) it is possible to observe the trends over time and chart howpeople have been feeling about the all the pressures on their finances.For further details please contact:Tom WilsonAviva Press Office01904 684 25 21/05/2013 14:00
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  28. 28. 106003423_RRRSPRING_13 05/2013 © Aviva plc106003423_RRRSPRING_13.indd 28 21/05/2013 14:00