Introduction to operating system


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Introduction to operating system

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  2. 2. o An OS is an interface between userand hardware of a computer system.o An OS also called as a ResourceManager.o OS is in charge of a system so all therequests to use the resources need to gothrough OS. 2
  3. 3. o To make the computer system convenient to use.o To use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.o To provide an environment in which a user may execute programs. 3
  4. 4. o Memory managemento Process managemento Device managemento Information managemento Protectiono Error Handling 4
  5. 5. o Memory management The o/s keeps track of the memory, what parts are in use and by whom. 5
  6. 6. o Process management The o/s keeps track of processors and the status of processes. It decides who will have a chance to use the processor. 6
  7. 7. o Device management The o/s keeps track of the devices, channels, control units and decides what is an efficient way to allocate the device. 7
  8. 8. O/S keeps track of the information, its location, use, status etc. and decides who gets use of the resources, enforce protection requirementso Information management 8
  9. 9. An o/s is to protect the user from unauthorized access of his files or data. And also it should protect itself from userso Protection 9
  10. 10. An o/s must respond to errors by taking the appropriate actions.o Error Handling 10
  11. 11. STRUCTURE OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM Users Application Programs Operating System Computer Hardware 11
  12. 12. o Hardware - Physical components of a computer.o Software – Set of computer programs. 12
  13. 13. System Programs Application Programsoo Which manages Which manages oo Which solve Which solve the operations of the operations of problems for problems for the computer the computer their users their users 13
  14. 14.  First generation: 1945 – 1955 ◦ Vacuum tubes ◦ Plug boards Second generation: 1955 – 1965 ◦ Transistors ◦ Batch systems Third generation: 1965 – 1980 ◦ Integrated circuits ◦ Multiprogramming Fourth generation: 1980 – present ◦ Large scale integration ◦ Personal computers 14
  15. 15.  Batch Operating System Time-Sharing Operating System Real-Time Operating System Multiprogramming Operating System 15
  16. 16.  Batch Operating System Batch operating system is the one which analyzes our input and groups them into batches .That is data in each batch is of similar characteristics. And then it performs operation on each individual batch. 16
  17. 17. Computer provides computing services to several or many users concurrently on-line. Various users are sharing the central processor, the memory and other resources of the computer system. The user has full interaction with the program during its execution. Time-Sharing Operating System 17
  18. 18. A real-time operating system aims at executing real- time applications. The main objective of real-time operating system is their quick and predictable response to events. Such systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior. Real-Time Operating System 18
  19. 19. A multiprogramming operating system is a system that allows more than one active user program to be stored in main memory simultaneously. Time- sharing systems are multiprogramming systems. More than one job is “ready” at the same time. Multiprogramming Operating System 19
  20. 20. Operating System can also be classifiedas follows – Single User Systems Multi User Systems 20
  21. 21.  Provides a platform for only one user at a time. Theyare popularly associated with Desktop operating system which run on standalone systems where no user accounts are required. Example: DOS 21
  22. 22.  Refers to computer systems that support two or more simultaneous users. Another term for multi-user is time sharing. Example: Unix 22
  23. 23.  Microsoft Windows Linux Unix Mac OS X 23
  24. 24.  Microsoft Windows Gamers People who must use Windows-only software for work or school. People or businesses looking for an inexpensive computer yet do not have the ability to use Linux. 24
  25. 25.  Linux And Unix Experienced computer users looking for a good, free operating system. Businesses looking for reliable and affordable computing, so long as they do not need Windows- only software and have a competent IT manager. 25
  26. 26.  Mac OS X Home users looking for an easy and reliable computing experience who are willing to pay more than low-end PC prices. Graphic designers and photographers. Scientists. 26
  27. 27. Though it is not clear which is the best operating system, aseach does have its advantages and disadvantages, and differentpeople will be best using different ones. Microsoft Windows is acommon operating system and is a reasonable choice for mostpeople. Mac OS is second-most popular and is an excellentoperating system for those who can purchase a Mac. Linux is avery good advanced operating system available for free and isused by experienced users. 27
  28. 28.  Operating System Concepts 6th Edition by Silberschatz Galvin 28
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