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Difference between windows & unix/linux

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  1. 1. Topic- WINDOWS vs. LINUX vs. UNIX Presented By : Aviral Bajpai
  2. 2. In order to define UNIX, it helps to look at its history. In 1969, Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and others started work on what was to become UNIX on a "little-used PDP-7 in a corner" at AT&T Bell Labs. For ten years, the development of UNIX proceeded at AT&T in numbered versions.V4 (1974) was re-written in C -- a major milestone for the operating system's portability among different systems.V6 (1975) was the first to become available outside Bell Labs -- it became the basis of the first version of UNIX developed at the University of California Berkeley. Bell Labs continued work on UNIX into the 1980s, culminating in the release of SystemV (as in "five," not the letter) in 1983 and SystemV, Release 4 (abbreviated SVR4) in 1989. Meanwhile, programmers at the University of California hacked mightily on the source code AT&T had released, leading to many a master thesis.The Berkeley Standard Distribution (BSD) became a second major variant of "UNIX." It was widely deployed in both university and corporate computing environments starting with the release of BSD 4.2 in 1984. Some of its features were incorporated into SVR4.
  3. 3. • As the 1990s opened, AT&T's source code licensing had created a flourishing market for hundreds of UNIX variants by different manufacturers. AT&T sold its UNIX business to Novell in 1993, and Novell sold it to the Santa Cruz Operation two years later. In the meantime, the UNIX trademark had been passed to the X/Open consortium, which eventually merged to form The Open Group. • While the stewardship of UNIX was passing from entity to entity, several long- running development efforts started bearing fruit. Traditionally, in order to get a BSD system working, you needed a source code license from AT&T. But by the early 1990s, Berkeley hackers had done so much work on BSD that most of the original AT&T source code was long gone. • A succession of programmers starting with William and Lynne Jolitz, started work on the Net distribution of BSD, leading to the release of 386BSD version 0.1 on Bastille Day, 1992. This original "free source" BSD was spun out into three major distributions, each of which has a dedicated following: Net BSD, FreeBSD, and Open BSD, all of which are based on BSD 4.4. • BSD wasn't the first attempt at a "free" UNIX. In 1984, programmer Richard Stallman started work on a free UNIX clone known as GNU (GNU's Not UNIX). By the early 1990s, the GNU Project had achieved several programming milestones, including the release of the GNU C library and the Bourne Again Shell (bash). The whole system was basically finished, except for one critical element: a working kernel.
  4. 4. • Linus Torvalds, a student at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus looked at a small UNIX system called Minix and decided he could do better. In the fall of 1991, he released the source code for a freeware kernel called "Linux" - - a combination of his first name and Minux , pronounced lynn-nucks. By 1994, Linus and a far-flung team of kernel hackers were able to release version 1.0 of Linux. Linus and friends had a free kernel; Stallman and friends had the rest of a free UNIX clone system: People could then put the Linux kernel together with GNU to make a complete free system. This system is known as "Linux," though Stallman prefers the appellation "GNU/Linux system." There are several distinct GNU/Linux distributions: some are available with commercial support from companies like Red Hat, Caldera Systems, and S.U.S.E.; others, like Debian GNU/Linux, are more closely aligned with the original free software concept. • The spread of Linux, now up to kernel version 2.2, has been a startling phenomenon. Linux runs on several different chip architectures and has been adopted or supported to varying extents by several old-line UNIX vendors like Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics, and Sun Microsystems, by PC vendors like Compaq and Dell, and by major software vendors like Oracle and IBM. Perhaps the most delicious irony has been the response of Microsoft, which acknowledges the competitive threat of ubiquitous free software but seems
  5. 5. • When referring to an operating system, Windows or win, is an operating environment created by Microsoft that provides an interface known as Graphical User Interface (GUI) for IBM compatible computers. Windows eliminates the need for a user to have to type each command at a commline like MS-DOS by using a mouse to navigate through drop-down menus, dialog boxes, buttons, tabs, and icons. • Microsoft Windows was first introduced with Windows 1.0 on November 10, 1983. Since its release there has been over a dozen other releases of Windows.
  6. 6. MICROSOFT WINDOWS HISTORY Year Event See the codename definition for a listing of Microsoft codenames. 1983 Bill Gates announces Microsoft Windows November 10, 1983. 1985 Microsoft Windows 1.0 is introduced in November 20, 1985 and is initially sold for $100.00. 1987 Microsoft Windows 2.0 was released December 9, 1987 and is initially sold for $100.00. 1987 Microsoft Windows/386 or Windows 386 is introduced December 9, 1987 and is initially sold for $100.00. 1988 Microsoft Windows/286 or Windows 286 is introduced June, 1988 and is initially sold for $100.00. 1990 Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released May, 22 1990. Microsoft Windows 3.0 full version was priced at $149.95 and the upgrade version was priced at $79.95. 1991 Following its decision not to develop operating systems cooperatively with IBM, Microsoft changes the name of OS/2 to Windows NT. 1991 Microsoft Windows 3.0 or Windows 3.0a with multimedia was released October, 1991. 1992 Microsoft Windows 3.1 was released April, 1992 and sells more than 1 Million copies within the first two months of its release. 1992 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.1 was released October, 1992. 1993 Microsoft Windows NT 3.1 was released July 27, 1993. 1993 Microsoft Windows 3.11, an update to Windows 3.1 is released December 31, 1993. 1993 The number of licensed users of Microsoft Windows now totals more than 25 Million.
  7. 7. 1994 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.11 was released February, 1994. 1994 Microsoft Windows NT 3.5 was released September 21, 1994. 1995 Microsoft Windows NT 3.51 was released May 30, 1995. 1995 Microsoft Windows 95 was released August 24, 1995 and sells more than 1 Million copies within 4 days. 1995 Microsoft Windows 95 Service Pack 1 (4.00.950A) is released February 14, 1996. 1996 Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 was released July 29, 1996. 1996 Microsoft Windows 95 (4.00.950B) aka OSR2 with FAT32 and MMX support is released August 24, 1996. 1996 Microsoft Windows CE 1.0 was released November, 1996. 1997 Microsoft Windows CE 2.0 was released November, 1997. 1997 Microsoft Windows 95 (4.00.950C) aka OSR2.5 is released November 26, 1997. 1998 Microsoft Windows 98 was released June, 1998. 1998 Microsoft Windows CE 2.1 was released July, 1998. 1998 In October of 1998 Microsoft announced that future releases of Windows NT would no longer have the initials of NT and that the next edition would be Windows 2000. 1999 Microsoft Windows 98 SE (Second Edition) was released May 5, 1999. 1999 Microsoft Windows CE 3.0 was released 1999.
  8. 8. 2000 On January 4th at CES Bill Gates announces the new version of Windows CE will be called Pocket PC. 2000 Microsoft Windows 2000 was released February 17, 2000. 2000 Microsoft Windows ME (Millennium) released June 19, 2000. 2001 Microsoft Windows XP is released October 25, 2001. 2001 Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2002) for Itanium systems is released March 28, 2003. 2003 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 is released March 28, 2003. 2003 Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2003) for Itanium 2 systems is released on March 28, 2003. 2003 Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003 is released on December 18, 2003. 2004 Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 is released on October 12, 2004. 2005 Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is released on April 24, 2005. 2005 Microsoft announces it's next operating system, codenamed "Longhorn" will be named Windows Vista on July 23, 2005. 2006 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista to corporations on November 30, 2006. 2007 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista and Office 2007 to the general public January 30, 2007. 2008 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Server 2008 to the public on February 27, 2008. 2009 Microsoft releases Windows 7 October 22, 2009. 2012 Microsoft releases Windows 8 October 26, 2012.
  9. 9. Advantages a. Full multitasking with protected memory. Multiple users can run multiple programs each at the same time without interfering with each other or crashing the system. b. Very efficient virtual memory, so many programs can run with a modest amount of physical memory. c. Access controls and security. All users must be authenticated by a valid account and password to use the system at all. All files are owned by particular accounts. The owner can decide whether others have read or write access to his files. d. A rich set of small commands and utilities that do specific tasks well -- not cluttered up with lots of special options. Unix is a well-stocked toolbox, not a giant do-it-all Swiss Army Knife. e. Ability to string commands and utilities together in unlimited ways to accomplish more complicated tasks -- not limited to preconfigured combinations or menus, as in personal computer systems. f. A powerfully unified file system. Everything is a file: data, programs, and all physical devices. Entire file system appears as a single large tree of nested directories, regardless of how many different physical devices (disks) are included. g. A lean kernel that does the basics for you but doesn't get in the way when you try to do the unusual. h. Available on a wide variety of machines - the most truly portable operating system. i. Optimized for program development, and thus for the unusual circumstances that are the rule in research.
  10. 10. Disadvantages a. The traditional command line shell interface is user hostile -- designed for the programmer, not the casual user. b. Commands often have cryptic names and give very little response to tell the user what they are doing. Much use of special keyboard characters - little typos have unexpected results. c. To use Unix well, you need to understand some of the main design features. Its power comes from knowing how to make commands and programs interact with each other, not just from treating each as a fixed black box. d. Richness of utilities (over 400 standard ones) often overwhelms novices. Documentation is short on examples and tutorials to help you figure out how to use the many tools provided to accomplish various kinds of tasks.
  11. 11. Advantages of using Windows: a. Ease of use. Users familiar with earlier versions of Windows will probably also find the more modern ones easy to work with. This is ascribable to everything from the standardised look and feel of almost all programs written for Windows to the way the file system has been presented ever since the days of MS-DOS (disk A:, disk C:, etc.). This is one of the main reasons why Windows users are often reluctant to switch operating systems. b. Available software. There is a huge selection of software available for Windows. This is both due to and the reason for Microsoft's dominance of the world market for PC computer operating systems and office software. If you're looking for an application to suit your business needs, chances are that if it exists there will be a Windows version of it available somewhere. c. Backwards compatibility. If you're currently using an older version of Windows and need something more up to date, but you don't want to loose the use of some older programs that are only available for Windows and are critical to your business needs, the chances are good (although not a certainty) that those programs will also work with a newer version of Windows.
  12. 12. a. Support for new hardware. Virtually all hardware manufacturers will offer support for a recent version of Windows when they go to market with a new product. Again, Microsoft's dominance of the software market makes Windows impossible for hardware manufacturers to ignore. So, if you run off to a store today any buy some random new piece of computer hardware, you'll find that it will probably work with the latest version of Windows. b. Plug & Play. As an operating system for the average home user, Windows still has an edge over the competition in the area of Plug & Play support for PC hardware. As long as the right drivers are installed, Windows will usually do a good job at recognising new hardware. Other operating systems also offer Plug & Play functionality, but to a lesser degree and more frequently require manual intervention. c. Games. If you crave the latest in PC gaming technology, then you need Windows. A plethora of gaming titles are available for Windows, as well as lots of special gaming hardware that's supported. Some of the most popular games are also available for Linux, and even more for the Mac, but there's really no comparison. It must be said, though, that not all of the old games that were written for Windows 95 and 98 will also work with XP.
  13. 13. Compatibility with MS driven websites. After Windows had become the world's most popular desktop operating system, Internet Explorer (IE) became the world's most popular web browser soon after Microsoft began bundling it with Windows 95 in order to squash competition from rival Netscape's Navigator browser. Since Netscape's demise, Microsoft have introduced more and more proprietary features into their web servers that can only be taken advantage of with Internet Explorer. Obviously, these sites are less accessible with other browsers − sometimes not at all. This, coupled with the fact that the latest versions of IE are only available for Windows, has made Windows the only choice for those who want to take full advantage of those websites that use Microsoft's technology.
  14. 14. Disadvantages of using Windows: a. High resource requirements. b. Closed Source. c. Poor security. d. Virus susceptibility. e. Outrageous license agreements. f. Poor technical support g. Hostile treatment of legitimate users. h. Extortionist prices. i. High Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). j. Poor remote access. k. Poor support for older hardware l. Backwards incompatible file formats m. Vendor lock-in. n. Poor stability. o. Additional expenses.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES Ease of use Available software Backwards compatibility Support for new hardware Plug & Play Games
  16. 16. Disadvantages a. High resource requirements b. Closed Source c. Poor security d. Virus susceptibility e. Outrageous license agreements f. Poor technical support g. Hostile treatment of legitimate users h. Extortionist prices i. Additional expenses j. Poor stability k. Vendor lock-in l. Backwards incompatible file formats m. Poor support for older hardware n. Poor remote access o. High Total Cost of Ownership
  17. 17. What is it? Unix is a multitasking, multiuser computer operating system that exists in many variants. Cost Different flavors of Unix have different cost structures according to vendors User Unix operating systems were developed mainly for mainframes, servers and workstations except OSX, Which is designed for everyone. The Unix environment and the client-server program model were essential elements in the development of the Internet What is it? Linux is an example of Open Source software development and Free Operating System (OS). Cost Linux can be freely distributed, downloaded freely, distributed through magazines, Books etc. There are priced versions for Linux also, but they are normally cheaper than Windows. User Everyone. From home users to developers and computer enthusiasts alike. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LINUX AND UNIX/?/?/??/?// Linux Unix
  18. 18. Manufacturer Linux kernel is developed by the community. Linus Torvalds oversees things. Manufacturer Three bigest distributions are Solaris (Oracle), AIX (IBM) & HP-UX Hewlett Packard. And Apple Makes OSX, an unix based os.. Usage Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from mobile phones, tablet computers and video game consoles, to mainframes and supercomputers. Usage The UNIX operating system is used in internet servers, workstations & PCs. Backbone of the majority of finance infastructure and many 24x365 high availability solutions. Development and Distribution Linux is developed by Open Source development i.e. through sharing and collaboration of code and features through forums etc and it is distributed by various vendors. Development and Distribution Unix systems are divided into various other flavors, mostly developed by AT&T as well as various commercial vendors and non-profit organizations. GUI Linux typically provides two GUIs, KDE and Gnome. But there are millions of alternatives such as LXDE, Xfce, Unity, Mate, twm, ect. GUI Initially Unix was a command based OS, but later a GUI was created called Common Desktop Environment. Most distributions now ship with Gnome.
  19. 19. File system support Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, Jfs, ReiserFS, Xfs, Btrfs, FAT, FAT32, NTFS File system support jfs, gpfs, hfs, hfs+, ufs, xfs, zfs format Text mode interface BASH (Bourne Again SHell) is the Linux default shell. It can support multiple command interpreters. Text mode interface Originally the Bourne Shell. Now it's compatible with many others including BASH, Korn & C. Price Free but support is available for a price. Price Some free for development use (Solaris) but support is available for a price. Security Linux has had about 60-100 viruses listed till date. None of them actively spreading nowadays. Security A rough estimate of UNIX viruses is between 85 - 120 viruses reported till date. Threat detection and solution In case of Linux, threat detection and solution is very fast, as Linux is mainly community driven and whenever any Linux user posts any kind of threat, several developers start working on it from different parts of the world Threat detection and solution Because of the proprietary nature of the original Unix, users have to wait for a while, to get the proper bug fixing patch. But these are not as common
  20. 20. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LINUX AND WINDOWS!!!!!!!!! • #1: Full access vs. no access • #2: Licensing freedom vs. licensing restrictions • #3: Full vs. partial hardware support • #4: Command line vs. no command line • #5: Centralized vs. noncentralized application installation • #6: Flexibility vs. rigidity • #7: Automated vs. nonautomated removable media • #8: Multilayered run levels vs. a single-layered run level • #9Better network, processing capabilities vs. polished appearance • #10Formats are free, vs. lock
  21. 21. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UNIX AND WINDOWS ??????  Free Vs Paid The UNIX Operating System is Open Source which means everyone can use it, edit it, and pretty much do what ever you want with it. Adopt new ideas; create hacks and a whole heap more. UNIX is basically community orientated. Without the community backing it, it would probably not be nearly as popular as it is today.  Because UNIX is community oriented, there are many different flavours of UNIX. This basically means that users take the base of the UNIX kernel and adapt it to their own needs. Mac OS X is even a flavour of UNIX. Some other flavours include:  FreeBSD  Novell  HP/UX  Solaris  Linux  Red Hat  Debian  Ubuntu  SuSE
  22. 22. On the other hand, Windows is not, it was coded and created by Microsoft. People are not able to edit it, or change the code in any way. GUI / Command Line The main difference that many people will find is that Windows is purely GUI- based where as UNIX is mostly know for its text-based GUI, however it does have a GUI like windows. Many System and Network Administrators prefer to use the command-line in UNIX rather than the Graphical User Interface as the command-line providers more functionality. Files and File Structure In Windows, there is a registry which contains system configuration information; files and folders. In UNIX, everything is a file and folders are called directories. Since everything is a file, disks and partitions are mounted as directories, devices appears as files in /dev and so are running processors which appear in /proc. In Windows, the main folders are C:/Windows, C:/Program Files, C:/Users (for Windows Vista, 7 or C:/Document and Settings for Windows XP). In Unix, the file system layout is very different.