WINDOWS vs. LINUX
Presented By : Aviral Bajpai
In order to define UNIX, it helps to look at its history. In 1969, Ken
Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and others started work on what was to become
UNIX on a "little-used PDP-7 in a corner" at AT&T Bell Labs. For ten years,
the development of UNIX proceeded at AT&T in numbered versions.V4
(1974) was re-written in C -- a major milestone for the operating system's
portability among different systems.V6 (1975) was the first to become
available outside Bell Labs -- it became the basis of the first version of UNIX
developed at the University of California Berkeley.
Bell Labs continued work on UNIX into the 1980s, culminating in the release
of SystemV (as in "five," not the letter) in 1983 and SystemV, Release 4
(abbreviated SVR4) in 1989. Meanwhile, programmers at the University of
California hacked mightily on the source code AT&T had released, leading to
many a master thesis.The Berkeley Standard Distribution (BSD) became a
second major variant of "UNIX." It was widely deployed in both university
and corporate computing environments starting with the release of BSD 4.2
in 1984. Some of its features were incorporated into SVR4.
• As the 1990s opened, AT&T's source code licensing had created a flourishing
market for hundreds of UNIX variants by different manufacturers. AT&T sold its UNIX
business to Novell in 1993, and Novell sold it to the Santa Cruz Operation two years
later. In the meantime, the UNIX trademark had been passed to the X/Open consortium,
which eventually merged to form The Open Group.
• While the stewardship of UNIX was passing from entity to entity, several long-
running development efforts started bearing fruit. Traditionally, in order to get a
BSD system working, you needed a source code license from AT&T.
But by the early 1990s, Berkeley hackers had done so much work on BSD that most
of the original AT&T source code was long gone.
• A succession of programmers starting with William and Lynne Jolitz, started work on
the Net distribution of BSD, leading to the release of 386BSD version 0.1 on Bastille
Day, 1992. This original "free source" BSD was spun out into three major distributions,
each of which has a dedicated following: Net BSD, FreeBSD, and Open BSD, all of
which are based on BSD 4.4.
• BSD wasn't the first attempt at a "free" UNIX. In 1984, programmer Richard Stallman
started work on a free UNIX clone known as GNU (GNU's Not UNIX). By the early
1990s, the GNU Project had achieved several programming milestones, including the
release of the GNU C library and the Bourne Again Shell (bash). The whole system was
basically finished, except for one critical element: a working kernel.
• Linus Torvalds, a student at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus
looked at a small UNIX system called Minix and decided he could do better. In
the fall of 1991, he released the source code for a freeware kernel called "Linux" -
- a combination of his first name and Minux , pronounced lynn-nucks. By
1994, Linus and a far-flung team of kernel hackers were able to release
version 1.0 of Linux. Linus and friends had a free kernel; Stallman and friends
had the rest of a free UNIX clone system: People could then put the Linux kernel
together with GNU to make a complete free system. This system is known as
"Linux," though Stallman prefers the appellation "GNU/Linux system." There
are several distinct GNU/Linux distributions: some are available with
commercial support from companies like Red Hat, Caldera Systems, and
S.U.S.E.; others, like Debian GNU/Linux, are more closely aligned with the
original free software concept.
• The spread of Linux, now up to kernel version 2.2, has been a startling
phenomenon. Linux runs on several different chip architectures and has been
adopted or supported to varying extents by several old-line UNIX
vendors like Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics, and Sun Microsystems, by PC
vendors like Compaq and Dell, and by major software vendors like Oracle and
IBM. Perhaps the most delicious irony has been the response of Microsoft, which
acknowledges the competitive threat of ubiquitous free software but seems
• When referring to an operating system, Windows or win, is an operating environment
created by Microsoft that provides an interface known as Graphical User Interface (GUI)
for IBM compatible computers. Windows eliminates the need for a user to have to type
each command at a commline like MS-DOS by using a mouse to navigate through
drop-down menus, dialog boxes, buttons, tabs, and icons.
• Microsoft Windows was first introduced with Windows 1.0 on November 10, 1983. Since
its release there has been over a dozen other releases of Windows.
MICROSOFT WINDOWS HISTORY
See the codename definition for a listing of Microsoft codenames.
1983 Bill Gates announces Microsoft Windows November 10, 1983.
1985 Microsoft Windows 1.0 is introduced in November 20, 1985 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1987 Microsoft Windows 2.0 was released December 9, 1987 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1987 Microsoft Windows/386 or Windows 386 is introduced December 9, 1987 and is initially sold for $100.00.
1988 Microsoft Windows/286 or Windows 286 is introduced June, 1988 and is initially sold for $100.00.
Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released May, 22 1990. Microsoft Windows 3.0 full version was priced at
$149.95 and the upgrade version was priced at $79.95.
Following its decision not to develop operating systems cooperatively with IBM, Microsoft changes the name
of OS/2 to Windows NT.
1991 Microsoft Windows 3.0 or Windows 3.0a with multimedia was released October, 1991.
Microsoft Windows 3.1 was released April, 1992 and sells more than 1 Million copies within the first two
months of its release.
1992 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.1 was released October, 1992.
1993 Microsoft Windows NT 3.1 was released July 27, 1993.
1993 Microsoft Windows 3.11, an update to Windows 3.1 is released December 31, 1993.
1993 The number of licensed users of Microsoft Windows now totals more than 25 Million.
1994 Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.11 was released February, 1994.
1994 Microsoft Windows NT 3.5 was released September 21, 1994.
1995 Microsoft Windows NT 3.51 was released May 30, 1995.
1995 Microsoft Windows 95 was released August 24, 1995 and sells more than 1 Million copies within 4 days.
1995 Microsoft Windows 95 Service Pack 1 (4.00.950A) is released February 14, 1996.
1996 Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 was released July 29, 1996.
Microsoft Windows 95 (4.00.950B) aka OSR2 with FAT32 and MMX support is released August 24,
1996 Microsoft Windows CE 1.0 was released November, 1996.
1997 Microsoft Windows CE 2.0 was released November, 1997.
1997 Microsoft Windows 95 (4.00.950C) aka OSR2.5 is released November 26, 1997.
1998 Microsoft Windows 98 was released June, 1998.
1998 Microsoft Windows CE 2.1 was released July, 1998.
In October of 1998 Microsoft announced that future releases of Windows NT would no longer have the
initials of NT and that the next edition would be Windows 2000.
1999 Microsoft Windows 98 SE (Second Edition) was released May 5, 1999.
1999 Microsoft Windows CE 3.0 was released 1999.
2000 On January 4th at CES Bill Gates announces the new version of Windows CE will be called Pocket PC.
2000 Microsoft Windows 2000 was released February 17, 2000.
2000 Microsoft Windows ME (Millennium) released June 19, 2000.
2001 Microsoft Windows XP is released October 25, 2001.
2001 Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2002) for Itanium systems is released March 28, 2003.
2003 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 is released March 28, 2003.
Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition (Version 2003) for Itanium 2 systems is released on March 28,
2003 Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003 is released on December 18, 2003.
2004 Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 is released on October 12, 2004.
2005 Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is released on April 24, 2005.
Microsoft announces it's next operating system, codenamed "Longhorn" will be named Windows Vista
on July 23, 2005.
2006 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista to corporations on November 30, 2006.
2007 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Vista and Office 2007 to the general public January 30, 2007.
2008 Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows Server 2008 to the public on February 27, 2008.
2009 Microsoft releases Windows 7 October 22, 2009.
2012 Microsoft releases Windows 8 October 26, 2012.
a. Full multitasking with protected memory. Multiple users can run multiple programs each at the
same time without interfering with each other or crashing the system.
b. Very efficient virtual memory, so many programs can run with a modest amount of physical
c. Access controls and security. All users must be authenticated by a valid account and password to
use the system at all. All files are owned by particular accounts. The owner can decide whether
others have read or write access to his files.
d. A rich set of small commands and utilities that do specific tasks well -- not cluttered up with lots of
special options. Unix is a well-stocked toolbox, not a giant do-it-all Swiss Army Knife.
e. Ability to string commands and utilities together in unlimited ways to accomplish more complicated
tasks -- not limited to preconfigured combinations or menus, as in personal computer systems.
f. A powerfully unified file system. Everything is a file: data, programs, and all physical devices.
Entire file system appears as a single large tree of nested directories, regardless of how many
different physical devices (disks) are included.
g. A lean kernel that does the basics for you but doesn't get in the way when you try to do the
h. Available on a wide variety of machines - the most truly portable operating system.
i. Optimized for program development, and thus for the unusual circumstances that are the rule in
a. The traditional command line shell interface is user hostile -- designed for the programmer,
not the casual user.
b. Commands often have cryptic names and give very little response to tell the user what they
are doing. Much use of special keyboard characters - little typos have unexpected results.
c. To use Unix well, you need to understand some of the main design features. Its power comes
from knowing how to make commands and programs interact with each other, not just from
treating each as a fixed black box.
d. Richness of utilities (over 400 standard ones) often overwhelms novices. Documentation is
short on examples and tutorials to help you figure out how to use the many tools provided to
accomplish various kinds of tasks.
Advantages of using Windows:
a. Ease of use. Users familiar with earlier versions of Windows will probably also find the more
modern ones easy to work with. This is ascribable to everything from the standardised look
and feel of almost all programs written for Windows to the way the file system has been
presented ever since the days of MS-DOS (disk A:, disk C:, etc.). This is one of the main
reasons why Windows users are often reluctant to switch operating systems.
b. Available software. There is a huge selection of software available for Windows. This is both
due to and the reason for Microsoft's dominance of the world market for PC computer
operating systems and office software. If you're looking for an application to suit your
business needs, chances are that if it exists there will be a Windows version of it available
c. Backwards compatibility. If you're currently using an older version of Windows and need
something more up to date, but you don't want to loose the use of some older programs that
are only available for Windows and are critical to your business needs, the chances are good
(although not a certainty) that those programs will also work with a newer version of
a. Support for new hardware. Virtually all hardware manufacturers will offer support for a recent
version of Windows when they go to market with a new product. Again, Microsoft's
dominance of the software market makes Windows impossible for hardware manufacturers
to ignore. So, if you run off to a store today any buy some random new piece of computer
hardware, you'll find that it will probably work with the latest version of Windows.
b. Plug & Play. As an operating system for the average home user, Windows still has an edge
over the competition in the area of Plug & Play support for PC hardware. As long as the right
drivers are installed, Windows will usually do a good job at recognising new hardware. Other
operating systems also offer Plug & Play functionality, but to a lesser degree and more
frequently require manual intervention.
c. Games. If you crave the latest in PC gaming technology, then you need Windows. A plethora
of gaming titles are available for Windows, as well as lots of special gaming hardware that's
supported. Some of the most popular games are also available for Linux, and even more for
the Mac, but there's really no comparison. It must be said, though, that not all of the old
games that were written for Windows 95 and 98 will also work with XP.
Compatibility with MS driven websites. After Windows had become the world's most
popular desktop operating system, Internet Explorer (IE) became the world's most
popular web browser soon after Microsoft began bundling it with Windows 95 in order to
squash competition from rival Netscape's Navigator browser. Since Netscape's demise,
Microsoft have introduced more and more proprietary features into their web servers that
can only be taken advantage of with Internet Explorer. Obviously, these sites are less
accessible with other browsers − sometimes not at all. This, coupled with the fact that the
latest versions of IE are only available for Windows, has made Windows the only choice
for those who want to take full advantage of those websites that use Microsoft's
Disadvantages of using Windows:
a. High resource requirements.
b. Closed Source.
c. Poor security.
d. Virus susceptibility.
e. Outrageous license agreements.
f. Poor technical support
g. Hostile treatment of legitimate users.
h. Extortionist prices.
i. High Total Cost of Ownership (TCO).
j. Poor remote access.
k. Poor support for older hardware
l. Backwards incompatible file formats
m. Vendor lock-in.
n. Poor stability.
o. Additional expenses.
Ease of use
Support for new hardware
Plug & Play
a. High resource requirements
b. Closed Source
c. Poor security
d. Virus susceptibility
e. Outrageous license agreements
f. Poor technical support
g. Hostile treatment of legitimate users
h. Extortionist prices
i. Additional expenses
j. Poor stability
k. Vendor lock-in
l. Backwards incompatible file formats
m. Poor support for older hardware
n. Poor remote access
o. High Total Cost of Ownership
What is it?
Unix is a multitasking, multiuser computer
operating system that exists in many variants.
Different flavors of Unix have different cost
structures according to vendors
Unix operating systems were developed mainly
for mainframes, servers and workstations except
OSX, Which is designed for everyone. The Unix
environment and the client-server program model
were essential elements in the development of
What is it?
Linux is an example of Open Source
software development and Free Operating
Linux can be freely distributed,
downloaded freely, distributed through
magazines, Books etc. There are priced
versions for Linux also, but they are
normally cheaper than Windows.
Everyone. From home users to developers
and computer enthusiasts alike.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LINUX AND UNIX/?/?/??/?//
Linux kernel is developed by the community.
Linus Torvalds oversees things.
Three bigest distributions are Solaris (Oracle), AIX (IBM)
& HP-UX Hewlett Packard. And Apple Makes OSX, an
unix based os..
Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer
hardware, ranging from mobile phones, tablet
computers and video game consoles, to mainframes
The UNIX operating system is used in internet
servers, workstations & PCs. Backbone of the
majority of finance infastructure and many 24x365
high availability solutions.
Development and Distribution
Linux is developed by Open Source development i.e.
through sharing and collaboration of code and
features through forums etc and it is distributed by
Development and Distribution
Unix systems are divided into various other flavors,
mostly developed by AT&T as well as various
commercial vendors and non-profit organizations.
Linux typically provides two GUIs, KDE and Gnome. But
there are millions of alternatives such as LXDE, Xfce,
Unity, Mate, twm, ect.
Initially Unix was a command based OS, but later a
GUI was created called Common Desktop
Environment. Most distributions now ship with
File system support
Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, Jfs, ReiserFS, Xfs, Btrfs, FAT,
File system support
jfs, gpfs, hfs, hfs+, ufs, xfs, zfs format
Text mode interface
BASH (Bourne Again SHell) is the Linux default
shell. It can support multiple command
Text mode interface
Originally the Bourne Shell. Now it's compatible
with many others including BASH, Korn & C.
Free but support is available for a price.
Some free for development use (Solaris) but
support is available for a price.
Linux has had about 60-100 viruses listed till date.
None of them actively spreading nowadays.
A rough estimate of UNIX viruses is between 85 -
120 viruses reported till date.
Threat detection and solution
In case of Linux, threat detection and solution is very
fast, as Linux is mainly community driven and
whenever any Linux user posts any kind of threat,
several developers start working on it from different
parts of the world
Threat detection and solution
Because of the proprietary nature of the original Unix,
users have to wait for a while, to get the proper bug
fixing patch. But these are not as common
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LINUX AND
• #1: Full access vs. no access
• #2: Licensing freedom vs. licensing restrictions
• #3: Full vs. partial hardware support
• #4: Command line vs. no command line
• #5: Centralized vs. noncentralized application installation
• #6: Flexibility vs. rigidity
• #7: Automated vs. nonautomated removable media
• #8: Multilayered run levels vs. a single-layered run level
• #9Better network, processing capabilities vs. polished appearance
• #10Formats are free, vs. lock
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UNIX AND
Free Vs Paid
The UNIX Operating System is Open Source which means everyone can use it,
edit it, and pretty much do what ever you want with it. Adopt new ideas; create
hacks and a whole heap more. UNIX is basically community orientated. Without
the community backing it, it would probably not be nearly as popular as it is
Because UNIX is community oriented, there are many different flavours of UNIX.
This basically means that users take the base of the UNIX kernel and adapt it to
their own needs. Mac OS X is even a flavour of UNIX. Some other flavours
On the other hand, Windows is not, it was coded and created by Microsoft.
People are not able to edit it, or change the code in any way.
GUI / Command Line
The main difference that many people will find is that Windows is purely GUI-
based where as UNIX is mostly know for its text-based GUI, however it does
have a GUI like windows. Many System and Network Administrators prefer to
use the command-line in UNIX rather than the Graphical User Interface as the
command-line providers more functionality.
Files and File Structure
In Windows, there is a registry which contains system configuration
information; files and folders. In UNIX, everything is a file and folders are
called directories. Since everything is a file, disks and partitions are mounted as
directories, devices appears as files in /dev and so are running processors which
appear in /proc.
In Windows, the main folders are C:/Windows, C:/Program Files, C:/Users (for
Windows Vista, 7 or C:/Document and Settings for Windows XP). In Unix, the
file system layout is very different.