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Ambiguous genitalia


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ambigous genitalia

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Ambiguous genitalia

  1. 1. Presenter: Dr Avinash KumarModerator: Dr Harish ChellaniDr soumya tiwari
  2. 2. Definition When the external genitalia do not have the typical anatomicappearance of normal male or female genitalia Most cases present in newborn period Social and medical emergency
  3. 3. When to suspect Micropenis: Stretched penile length<2.5cm in a term newborn Asymmetry of labioscrotal folds B/L cryptorchidism U/L cryptorchidism with hypospadias B/L testes with perineoscrotal or penoscrotal hypospadias Female external genitalia with clitoromegaly or inguinal hernia Overtly abnormal genitals like cloacal exstrophy
  4. 4. Disorder of Sexual Differentiation(DSD) Also known as disorder of sexual determination (Nelson) Preferred over older terminology such as ambiguous genitalia,pseudohermaphroditism and intersex Atypical development of genetic, gonadal and phenotypic sex Includes disorders grouped under 4 major headings 46,XX virilized female 46,XY undervirilized male Gonadal differentiation and chromosomal disorders Syndromes associated with ambiguous genitalia
  5. 5. Types46,XX virilized female Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 21-hydroxylase deficiency, 11-hydroxylase deficiency 3 beta hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase deficiency Aromatase deficiency(fetal andmaternal) Virilizing maternal conditions CAH Adrenal/ovarian tumors Drugs-progestin,androgen46,XY undervirilized male Androgen insensitivity 5 alfa reductase deficiency Testosterone biosynthesis defects Leydig cell hypoplasia Persistent mullerian ductsyndrome
  6. 6. TypesGonadal differentiation andchromosomsl disorders 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis True hermaphorditismSyndromes with ambigousgenitalia Turner Camptomelic dysplasia Denys-Drash syndrome Frasier syndrome WAGR syndrome Robinow syndrome
  7. 7. Incidence The exact data on the incidence and prevalence ofconditions causing ambiguous genitalia are limited Congenital adrenal hyperplasia accounts for most of thecases Incidence of CAH 1 in 15000, AIS 1 in 20,000 (Avery’sdisease of newborn 9th ed)
  8. 8. Incidence-IndiaEtiology and clinical profile of ambiguous genitalia studied (n=109)1) Genetic females with virilisation or FPH –27.5 %(n=30) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was the underlying cause in all cases ofFPHSalt wasting form - 23/30Simple virilising form – 7/302) Genetic males undervirilised or MPH –52.3 %(n=57)Androgen insensitivity syndrome - 28% (16/57)5- alpha reductase deficiency - 23%(13/57) .3) Disorder of gonadal differentiation- 10.1%(n=11)Gonadal dysgenesis – 9/11True hermaphrodite – 2/114) Syndromic form of ambiguous genitalia- 1.8% (n=2)Rajesh R. Joshi, Sudha Rao, Meena Desai. Etiology and clinical profile of ambiguousgenitalia-an overview of 10 years experience. Indian Pediatrics, 2006;43:974-979.
  9. 9. Embryology Sexual differentiation-3 stages1. Determination of chromosomal sex (at conception)2. Gonadal differentiation (at 6-7 wks of gestation)3. Phenotypic sex determination (at 8-12 wks of gestation) Stage 1 depends upon sex chromosome complement offertilizing sperm Stage 2 depends upon SRY gene of Y chromosome Stage 3 depends upon testosterone and Mullerian InhibitingFactor (MIF)
  10. 10.  Gonad develops from Somatic cells (arise from mesonrphric cells and coelomicepithelium)- sertoli cells/granulosa cells Germ cells (arise from yolk sac and migrate to genital ridge)-Leydig cell/theca cell
  11. 11. Embryology Testicular development is guided by TDF which is encodedby the SRY gene on the short arm of the Y chromosome. Under the influence of the TDF ,germ cells in the genital ridgedifferentiate into Sertoli cells which secrete MIS (causesregression of the mullerian ducts) and Leydig cells whichproduce testosterone (promotes maturation of spermatogoniaand regulates male phenotype).
  12. 12. EmbryologyWolffian duct develops into the following: Epididymis Vas deferens Ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicles
  13. 13. Embryology In the absence of the Y chromosome , gonads differentiateinto ovaries at around 11-13 weeks gestation. Absence of MIS leads to persistence of mullerianstructures which develop into:Fallopian tubesUterus Cervix Vagina
  14. 14. Embryology Undifferentiated external genitalia includes the following: Urogenital tubercle Urogenital swelling Urogenital folds
  15. 15. Embryology In males DHT leads to development of these three structuresinto : Glans penis Scrotum Penile shaft In absence of DHT, these structures develop into Clitoris Labia majora Labia minora
  16. 16. Embryology True hermaphroditism have both testicular and ovarian tissuein the gonads. In patients with pure gonadal dysgenesis,both gonads arestreak gonads. Patients with mixed gonadal dysgenesis have a testis on oneside and a streak gonad on the other
  17. 17. Hormone Biosynthesis Pathway
  18. 18. History Maternal drug ingestion esp. in 1st trimester (virilization in agonadal female) H/O virilization in mother may suggest androgen producingtumour (arrhenoblastoma) Past h/o early death of infants may suggest a previously missedandrogenital deficiency Family h/o affected sibling or family member (CAH, testicularfeminization)
  19. 19. External genitalia Examination Note the size and degreeof differentiation of thephallus, since variationsmay representclitoromegaly orhypospadias Note the position of theurethral meatus -hypospadiasis CAH with ambiguous genitalia
  20. 20. External genitalia Examination Labioscrotal folds may beseparated or folds may befused at the midline,giving an appearance of ascrotum Labioscrotal folds withincreased pigmentationsuggest the possibility ofincreased corticotropinlevels as part ofadrenogenital syndromeMicropenis with hypospadiasis, bifidscrotumAmbiguous genitalia in CAH
  21. 21. Investigations Serum electrolytes Blood sugar Hormonal study Karyotyping Ultrasonography Genitogaphy, Sinogram CT MRI Exploratory laprotomy/ Laproscopy
  22. 22. Algorithm for evaluation of 46,XX DSDAmbiguous genitalia46 XX KaryotypeUterus present17 Hydroxy progesteroneIncreasedNormal NormalOvotestis on USGBiopsy:Ovarian folicles &testicular tubulesCAHMatrnal virilization/Exogenous androgen exposureHermaphroditism(Bisexual gonads)Maternal virilizing disorders:Medications: ProgestinsTumors (adrenal/ovarian)Luteomas of pregnancyAromatase deficiency
  23. 23. Algorithm for evaluation of 46,XY DSDAmbiguous genitaliaKaryotype 46 XYUterus presentGonadal biopsy:•True hermaphordite•Persistent mullerian ductsyndromeNo uterushCG stimulation testN/ T & DHT:AIS(Ar mutationanalysis)/IdiopathicNormal T & DHT: 5 alpha reductasedeficiencyT and DHT:LH/FSH :partial gonadal dysgenesis,leydig cell hypoplasiaPrecursor steroids : T-biosynthesisdefectlvisUSG Pelvis
  24. 24. Ultrasonography Identify müllerian structures- uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubesand upper half of vagina Allows visualization of a neonates adrenal glands - enlarged ininfants with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) - have acribriform appearance. Normal ultrasonographic findings of the adrenal glands do notexclude a diagnosis of CAH.
  25. 25. Genitography Helps to determine ductal anatomy. In a neonate with ambiguous genitalia, a catheter can beinserted into the urethra - Contrast is injected to outline theinternal ductal anatomy. Findings - normal urethral anatomy, a müllerian remnant in amale, a common urogenital sinus, or normal female internalgenitalia CT and MRI - may help identify internal anatomy
  26. 26. Genetic Evaluation KARYOTYPE FISH Presence of SRY X and Y probes for gonadal biopsies Specialized molecular genetic tests Mutation analysis of 21-hydroxylase gene Androgen receptor sequencing Y chromosome microdeletions
  27. 27. Endocrinal EvaluationHypothalamic/pituitary/gonadal Axis:• Gonadotropins: LH, FSH• Gonadal response: Testosterone, DHT, estrogenAdrenal function:• Electrolytes, 17-OH-P• DHEAS• CortisolResponse to challenges:• GnRH stimulation• HCG stimulation
  28. 28. hCG stimulation test Evaluation of gonadal axis in children Dynamic & reliable test for leydig cell evaluation in boys Assess testosterone secretion by testes 500 IU of hCG given i/m daily for 3 days Serum testosterone, DHT, DHEA, androsteedione, LH & FSHare measured at baseline and then 24 hr after 3rd day Collection of 24 hr urine before & after three doses of hCGused in analysis of steroid profile to detect testosteronebiosynthesis defect
  29. 29. Interpretation 2 to 20 times rise in testosterone1)adequate rise indicates presence of functioning testes2)if rise is blunted –enzymatic defect in testosterone synthesis,gestational loss of testicular tissue, LH receptor mutation3) ↑ T:DHT ratio(>20:1)- 5 alpha reductase def Raised LH,FSH denotes anorchia or primary gonadal failure Increased precursor steroid denotes biosynthesis defect
  30. 30. GnRH stimulation test Assess the pituitary function and degree of pubertal maturationin DSD Evaluation of B/L cryptorchidism (along with hCG stimulationtest)Method: Serum LH, FSH, estradiol, testosterone and SHBGcollected, followed by 2.5mcgm/kg GnRH iv is given, thenabove samples collected at 30 and 60 min.
  31. 31. Interpretation In normal cases FSH&LH values rise at 30 min and laterdecline at 60 min Initially there is predominant FSH response with progressiveincrease in LH response with pubertal maturation In primary gonadal failure the basal gonadotropins areelevated with exaggerated response to GnRH
  32. 32. MANAGEMENT
  33. 33. DSD Team Participants Pediatrician Medical Geneticist Pediatric Urologist Pediatric Endocrinologist Gynecologist Pediatric Psychologist Cytogeneticist Social Worker
  34. 34. General guidelines for genderassignment Try to match the baby’s sex assignment to the chromosomaland gonadal sex if possible Try to anticipate pubertal development Consider future function when planning surgeries Try to preserve fertility Respect the opinions of well-informed parents
  35. 35. TreatmentTreatment options include : Reconstructive surgery Hormone therapy
  36. 36. Reconstructive surgeryGoalsCosmetic to make a boy’s or a girl’s genitalia look natural restoring sexual function May need repeated surgeries later in life
  37. 37. Reconstructive surgery For girls : sexual function of organs is often not compromiseddespite any ambiguous appearance. Depending on severity options are : Uncovering vagina hidden under skin Removing excess masculine tissue around theclitoris(clitoral reduction) – done once hormone replacementtherapy has begun Testis should be removed soon after birth if female sex ofrearing is decided
  38. 38. Reconstructive surgery For boys : surgery is complicated but often successful. Itincludes : Lengthening of the incomplete penis Undescended testis that is to be retained is best broughtdown into the scrotum at the time of initial gonadal biopsy Correction of chordee and urethroplasty in boys withhypospadias is usually performed between 6 and 18 monthsof age
  39. 39. Hormone therapy Depending on severity of condition, hormone therapy alonemay be enough to correct the initial hormonal imbalance. Ability of the gonads to produce appropriate hormones for sexof rearing is a factor in sex assignment. Advantageous to retain a gonad appropriate to the assigned sexif it is likely to function adequately.
  40. 40. Hormone therapyOvaries of true hermaphrodites may also produceadequate levels of estrogen.However, the testes of true hermaphrodites and mixedgonadal dysgenesis may initially show good function thatdeclines during childhood Testosterone supplements may be necessary for theestablishment of puberty or in adult life.
  41. 41. Ovotesticular DSD Pts who are highly virilised have a good testicular function,have no uterus and therefore are usually raised as males If uterus exists, virilisation is mild, testicular function isminimal, and female sex is usually assigned
  42. 42. Prediction of fertility Ovaries are generally functional but testicular tissue isgenerally dysgenetic XX patients with CAH have a reasonably high probability ofbeing fertile since they have a uterus and 2 normal ovaries Women with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD are occasionally fertile
  43. 43.  Pts with gonadal dysgenesis, partial AIS, 17-OHD are infertileeither because testis are abnormal or there is no uterus If child has no chance of fertility and genitalia are sufficientlywell developed to function as male, male sex of rearing isadvised Pts with ovotesticular DSD should be raised as female afterremoving the testicular tissue and leaving the ovary in place
  44. 44. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Incidence – 1 in 12000 Most common cause of ambiguous genitalia in female newborn Autosomal recessive inheritance No sex prediliction 21-hydroxylase deficiency - common cause of CAH Young women may present with symptoms of polycysticovarian syndrome
  45. 45. PresentationMales - classic CAH-no signs of CAH at birth Hyperpigmentation and possible penile enlargementFemales – Virilisation at birth May present as salt-wasting disease Non-salt-wasting disease - present later with signs ofvirilization
  46. 46. Management Medical –Stablisation of general conditionCorrection of electrolyte abnormalitiesAfter stabilisation – replacement of glucocorticoid and / ormineralocorticoids depending on the general condition Glucocorticoid replacement : Hydrocortisone – 10-15mg/m2/d Prednisolone – 2.5-6mg/m2/d Mineralocorticoid replacement : 9 fluorohydrocortisone – 0.1-0.2mg/d
  47. 47. Management Surgical –Females with severe virilisation – early recession of clitorisfollowed by vaginoplastyMild virilisation – medical treatment is adequate
  48. 48. Antenatal management (CAH)
  49. 49. 5 alpha reductase deficiency Autosomal recessive Clinical features - Normal male external genitalia, ambiguousgenitalia or normal female genitaliaCapable of producing viable spermFeminized or ambiguous genitalia - macroclitoris ormicropenisPrimary amenorrhoea and may experience virilization
  50. 50. Treatment Medical management –Males – testosterone enanthenate 25 mg i.m. monthly X 3mthsmay increase penile lengthFemales - estrogen replacement therapy should be initiated at abone age of 12 years or once an increase in gonadotropins isobservedDose is tailored to reach adult replacement levels over a 3-4year range
  51. 51. Surgical treatment FemalesFeminizing genitoplasty - gonadectomy, restructuring of thelabioscrotal folds into labia, and reduction or recession of thephallus MalesUrethroplasty (Perineoscrotal hypospadias repair is typically amultistage procedure.)Repair of bifid scrotumChordee repairOrchiopexy
  52. 52. Androgen insensitivity syndrome(AIS) Also known as Androgen receptor defects M/c form of male DSD Frequency 1/20,000 genetic males X linked recessive disorder Two typescomplete AISPartial AIS(k/a Reifenstein syndrome)
  53. 53. Clinical presentation Extreme failure of virilization Genetic male invariably reared as female since birth Testes may be intra-abdominal/inguinal Normal breast (due to peripheral aromatization of testosterone) Primary amenorrhoea Absent pubic hair
  54. 54. Investigation Serum GonadotropinsLH & FSH hCG stimulation test (Twofold or greater increase intestosterone level in response to HCG suggests normalfunctioning testicular tissue and helps rule out a defect intestosterone biosynthesis)
  55. 55. Treatment Remove inguinal hernias Gonadectomy before or immediately after completion ofpuberty (increased risk of gonadoblastoma) Estrogen replacement Vaginal reconstruction or vaginoplasty may be needed Supportive counseling for infertility Genetic counseling for family members
  56. 56. Conclusion The controversy revolves around the issues of genderreassignment Physician and family may not correlate with the genderpreference by the patient in adulthood Adequate counseling and support for parents is vital. The most important sex organ is the brain, which may undergohormonal imprinting in utero.