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    1. 1. CHAPTER ELEVEN Attitudes and Influencing Attitudes McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand what attitudes are and how they function. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the components of an attitude (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) and the role each plays in developing marketing strategies to influence attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the conceptual and managerial meaning of the multi-attribute attitude model. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how components of the multi-attribute attitude model can be used in new product development, branding, market segmentation, and ad effectiveness evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the various ways communications characteristics can be varied to influence attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how attitudes can be used to segment markets (benefit segmentation) and develop or modify products. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Attitudes <ul><li>What is an attitude? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environment” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the way we think, feel, and act toward some aspect of our environment” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hawkins, Best and Coney (2004) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Four Key Functions Served by Attitudes <ul><li>Knowledge Function </li></ul><ul><li>Value-Expressive Function </li></ul><ul><li>Utilitarian Function – based on operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Ego-defensive Function </li></ul>
    5. 5. Attitude Components and Manifestations Figure 11-1
    6. 6. Attitude Component Consistency <ul><li>All 3 components tend to be consistent. </li></ul><ul><li>Very important in marketing strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Often Finds Only a Limited Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Factors That Can Reduce Consistency Between Measures of Beliefs and Feelings and Observations of Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Need or Motive to Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade-Offs Within and Between Product Categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional Information -> Change in Beliefs & Feelings -> Changes in Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Measures vs. Household Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to Measure All Relevant Aspects of an Attitude </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Attitude Component Consistency Figure 11-2
    8. 8. Change the Cognitive Component <ul><li>Change the affective component : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affect toward the ad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mere exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change the behavioral component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operant conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change the cognitive component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shift importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>add beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change ideal </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Attitude Change Strategy Focusing on Affect Positive marketing stimuli (ad, package) Overall attitude change Behavior (purchase) Increased positive beliefs Increased affective response (liking) toward product Increased positive beliefs Behavior (purchase)
    10. 10. Attitude Change Strategy Focusing on Behavior Marketing or situational stimuli (free sample, guests) Overall attitude change Increased positive beliefs Increased affect (liking) Behavior (purchase, consumption) Increased affect (liking) Increased positive beliefs
    11. 11. Attitude Change Strategy Focusing on Cognitions Marketing stimuli (advertisement, package) Overall attitude change Behavior (purchase) Increased affect (liking) Cognitions (beliefs) Increased affect (liking) Behavior (purchase)
    12. 12. Measuring Attitude Components <ul><li>Cognitive Component (Measuring Beliefs about Specific Attributes Using the Semantic Differential Scale) </li></ul><ul><li>Diet Coke </li></ul><ul><li>Strong taste —— —— —— —— —— —— —— Mild taste </li></ul><ul><li>Low priced —— —— —— —— —— —— —— High priced </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine free —— —— —— —— —— —— —— High in caffeine </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive in —— —— —— —— —— —— —— Similar in taste to taste most </li></ul><ul><li>The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Measuring Attitude Components <ul><li>Affective Component (Measuring Feelings about Specific Attributes Using Likert Scales) </li></ul><ul><li> Neither Agree Strongly nor Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Disagree </li></ul><ul><li>I like the taste of Diet Coke. —— —— —— —— —— </li></ul><ul><li>Diet Coke is overpriced. —— —— —— —— —— </li></ul><ul><li>Caffeine is bad for your health. —— —— —— —— —— </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>I like Diet Coke. —— —— —— —— —— </li></ul>
    14. 14. Measuring Attitude Components <ul><li>Behavioral Component (Measuring Actions or Intended Actions) </li></ul><ul><li>The last soft drink I consumed was a ___________________. </li></ul><ul><li>I usually drink________________soft drinks. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the likelihood you will buy Diet Coke  Definitely will buy </li></ul><ul><li>the next time you purchase a soft drink?  Probably will buy </li></ul><ul><li> Might buy </li></ul><ul><li> Probably will not buy </li></ul><ul><li> Definitely will not buy </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Elaboration Likelihood Model
    16. 16. Matching Endorser with Product and Target Audience Figure 11-4
    17. 17. Communication Characteristics <ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source Credibility – trustworthiness & expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrity Sources – Congruence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attract attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe viewed as more credible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers may identify with or desire to emulate the celebrity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer may associate know characteristics of the celebrity with attributes of the product which coincide with their own needs or desires. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Communication Characteristics <ul><li>Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear, Humor, Emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative Ads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value-Expressive vs. Utilitarian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Message Structure Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-Sided vs. Two-Sided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive versus Negative Framing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Components </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Segmentation and Development <ul><li>Benefit Segmentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feature importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group similar benefit seekers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile ideal level of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create product concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate concept into product </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Multi-Attribute Attitude Model <ul><li>What is a multi-attribute attitude model? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a mathematical representation of the nonconscious process consumers go through in evaluating the overall cognitive component of an attitude toward a particular object. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Its elements include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs about an object’s attributes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal performance levels for each attribute. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative importance attached to each attribute. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Multiattribute Attitude Model