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Apple inc

  1. 1. Apple Inc.Apple Inc. (NASDAQ: AAPL; formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation thatdesigns and markets consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The companys best-known hardware products include the Macintosh line of computers, theiPod, the iPhone and the iPad. Applesoftware includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia andcreativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photographypackage; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, asuite of music production tools; the Safari web browser; and iOS, a mobile operating system. As of July 2011,the company operates 357 retail stores in ten countries,[4] and an online store where hardware and softwareproducts are sold.[5] As of September 2011, Apple is the largest publicly traded company in the world by marketcapitalization and the largest technology company in the world by revenue and profit.[citation needed]DellDell, Inc. (NASDAQ: DELL) is an American multinational information technology corporation based in 1 DellWay, Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells and supports computers and related productsand services. Bearing the name of its founder, Michael Dell, the company is one of the largest technologicalcorporations in the world, employing more than 103,300 people worldwide.[2] Dell is listed at number 41 inthe Fortune 500 list.[3]Dell has grown by both increasing its customer base and through acquisitions since its inception;notable mergers and acquisitions including Alienware(2006) and Perot Systems (2009). As of 2009, the
  2. 2. company sold personal computers, servers, data storage devices, network switches, software, andcomputer peripherals. Dell also sells HDTVs, cameras, printers, MP3 players and other electronics built byother manufacturers. The company is well known for its innovations in supply chainmanagement and electronic commerce.Fortune Magazine listed Dell as the sixth largest company in Texas by total revenue.[4] It is the second largestnon-oil company in Texas – behind AT&T – and the largest company in the Austin, Texas area.[5]CompaqCompaq Computer Corporation was a personal computer company founded in 1982. Once the largestsupplier of personal computing systems in the world,[1] Compaq existed as an independent corporation until2002, when it was acquired for US$25 billion by Hewlett-Packard.[2][3]The company was formed by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto — former Texas Instruments seniormanagers. The name "COMPAQ" was derived from "Compatibility and Quality",[4] as at its formation Compaqproduced some of the first IBM PC compatible computers.[5][6]Prior to its takeover the company was headquartered in northwest unincorporated Harris County, Texas, UnitedStates.[7]FujitsuFujitsu Limited (富士通株式会社 Fujitsū Kabushiki-gaisha?) is a multinational informationtechnology equipment and services company headquartered inTokyo, Japan.[5] Fujitsus central focus is onproviding IT-driven business solutions, but the company and its subsidiaries also offer a diversityof productsand services in the areas of personal computing, telecommunications andadvanced microelectronics.With approximately 172,000 employees worldwide supporting customers in over 70 countries,[1], Fujitsu is theworlds third largest IT services provider[6] and
  3. 3. Gateway Computer Corporation Gateway Computer Corporation, is a computer hardware company headquarteredin Irvine, California, USA which develops, manufactures, supports, and markets a wide range of personal computers, computer monitors, servers, and computer accessories. It became a well-known brand in1991 when it started shipping its computer hardware in cow-spotted boxes and for its creative advertising in Computer Shopper and other magazines. In the early and mid-2000s, the company struggled; after years as a fixture on the Fortune 500 list of largest companies worldwide, the company was not listed in 2006, having dropped to number 508. Gateway was acquired by Acer Inc. in 2007.On September 4, 2007 Gateway announced that it had signed a definitive agreement to sell itsprofessional business segment to MPC Corporation. This includes the companys Nashville-based [1]configuration center. MPC subsequently ceased its services and filed for bankruptcy protection in early2009, leaving Gateway business customers stranded without access to support or warranty services. This [2]incident has caused substantial damage to the Gateway brand.On October 16, 2007, Acer Inc. completed its acquisition of Gateway for approximately US$710 [3]million. Its final share price of US$1.90 was far below the US$4.00 average price in the mid 1990s anddrastically below a high of US$84 in late 1999. The US$1.90 per share was just barely over half of thesplit-Hewlett-PackardHewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly referred to as HP, is an American multinationalinformation technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, USA that provides products,
  4. 4. technologies, software, solutions and services to individual consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses(SMBs) and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health and education sectors. Thecompany was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard. Now it is one ofthe worlds largest information technology companies, operating in nearly every country. HP specializes indeveloping and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware, designing software anddelivering services. Major product lines include personal computing devices, enterprise, and industry standardservers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers, and otherimaging products. HP markets its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprisesdirectly as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partnersand major technology vendors. HP also has strong services and consulting business around its products andpartner products.HPs posted net revenue in 2010 was $126.3 billion, in 2009 net revenue was $115 billion, with approximately$40 billion coming from services. In 2007, HPs revenue was $104 billion, making HP the first IT company inhistory to report revenues exceeding $100 billion.[2] In 2008 HP retained its global leadership position in inkjet,laser, large format and multi-function printers market, and its leadership position in the hardwareindustry.[3] Also HP became No.2 globally in IT services as reported by IDC & Gartner.[4]Major company changes include a spin-off of part of its business as Agilent Technologies in 1999,its merger with Compaq in 2002, and the acquisition ofEDS in 2008, which led to combined revenues of$118.4 billion in 2008 and a Fortune 500 ranking of 9 in 2009.[4] In November 2009, HP announced theacquisition of 3Com;[5] with the deal closing on April 12, 2010.[6] On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyoutof Palm for $1.2 billion.[7] On September 2, 2010, won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer($2.07 billion) which Dell declined to match.[8]On August 6, 2010, CEO Mark Hurd resigned.[9] Cathie Lesjak assumed the role of interim CEO, and onSeptember 30, 2010, Léo Apotheker became HPs new permanent CEO and Ray Lane, Managing Partnerat Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, was elected to the position of non-executive chairman. Both appointmentswere effective November 1, 2010.[10]On September 22, 2011, Hewlett-Packard Co. named former eBay Inc. chief executive Meg Whitman itspresident and CEO, replacing Léo Apotheker, while Raymond Lane became executive chairman, havingpreviously served as non-executive chairman of the company.
  5. 5. IntelIntel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC) is an American multinational semiconductor chip maker corporationheadquartered in Santa Clara, California, United States and the worlds largest semiconductor chip maker,based on revenue.[4] It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in mostpersonal computers. Intel was founded on July 18, 1968, as Integrated Electronics Corporation (though acommon misconception is that "Intel" is from the word intelligence). Intel alsomakes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphicchips,embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Founded bysemiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Mooreand widely associated with the executive leadershipand vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturingcapability. Though Intel was originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, its "Intel Inside"advertising campaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names.Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, and this represented the majority of itsbusiness until 1981. Although Intel created the worlds first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was notuntil the success of the personal computer (PC) that this became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intelinvested heavily in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During thisperiod Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs, and was known for aggressive andsometimes illegal tactics in defense of its market position, particularly against Advanced Micro Devices (AMD),as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry.[5][6] The 2011 rankings ofthe worlds 100 most powerful brands published by Millward Brown Optimor showed the companys brand valueat number 58.[7]Intel has also begun research in electrical transmission and generation.[8][9] Intel has recently introduced a 3-Dtransistor that may improve performance and energy efficiency.[10] Intel will be mass producing this 3-Dtransistor, called Tri-Gate transistors, with their upcoming 22nm process in the near future.[11] In 2011,SpectraWatt Inc., a solar cell spinoff of Intel, filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11. [12]
  6. 6. IBMInternational Business Machines (NYSE: IBM) or IBM is anAmerican multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, UnitedStates. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and itoffers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframecomputers to nanotechnology.[2] As of September 2011, IBM is the second-largest publicly traded technologycompany in the world by market capitalization.[3]The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation through a merger offour companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, the ComputingScale Corporation, and the Bundy Manufacturing Company.[4][5] CTR adopted the name International BusinessMachines in 1924, using a name previously designated to CTRs subsidiary in Canada and later SouthAmerica. Its distinctive culture and product branding has given it the nickname Big Blue.In 2011, Fortune ranked IBM the 18th largest firm in the U.S.,[6] as well as the 7th most profitable.[7] Globally,the company was ranked the 31st largest firm by Forbes for 2011.[8][9] Other rankings for 2011 include #1company for leaders (Fortune), #2 best global brand (Interbrand), #1 green company worldwide (Newsweek),#12 most admired company (Fortune), and #18 most innovative company (Fast Company).[10] IBM employsmore than 425,000 employees (sometimes referred to as "IBMers") in over 200 countries, with occupationsincluding scientists, engineers, consultants, and sales professionals.[11]IBM holds more patents than any other U.S.-based technology company and has nine research laboratoriesworldwide.[12] Its employees have garnered fiveNobel Prizes, four Turing Awards, nine National Medals ofTechnology, and five National Medals of Science.[13] Famous inventions by IBM include theautomated tellermachine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database,the Universal Product Code (UPC), the financial swap, SABRE airline reservation system, DRAM, and Watsonartificial intelligence.The company has undergone several organizational changes since its inception, acquiring companieslike SPSS (2009) and PwC consulting (2002),spinning off companies like Lexmark (1991), and selling offproduct lines like ThinkPad to Lenovo (2005).Sam Palmisano will step down as CEO as of January 1, 2012, but retain his position as chairman. He will bereplaced by veteran IBMer Ginni
  7. 7. LenovoFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaLenovo (SEHK: 0992, OTCBB: LNVGY) (Chinese: 联想集团; pinyin: Liánxiǎng jítuán) isa multinational computer company that develops, manufactures andmarkets desktop and notebook computers, workstations, servers, storage drives, IT management software, andother related products and services. Lenovo was incorporated in Hong Kong in 1988 under its previous name,Legend.[4] Lenovos principal operations are currently located in Morrisville, North Carolina, Beijing, China andSingapore.Lenovo is the worlds second largest PC maker and markets the ThinkPad line of notebook PCsand ThinkCentre line of desktops[5]. These brands became part of Lenovos offerings after its 2005 acquisitionof IBMs personal computer business. Lenovo also sells the IdeaPad line of notebook computers. Lenovomarkets its products directly to consumers, small to medium size businesses, and large enterprises, as well asthrough online sales, company-owned stores, chain retailers, and major technology distributors and vendors.Silicon GraphicsSilicon Graphics, Inc. (commonly initialised to SGI, historically sometimes referred to as Silicon GraphicsComputer Systems or SGCS) was a manufacturer of high-performance computing solutions,including computer hardware and software, founded in 1981 by Jim Clark. Its initial market was 3Dgraphics display terminals, but its products, strategies and market positions evolved significantly over time.Initial systems were based on the Geometry Engine that Clark and Marc Hannah had developed at StanfordUniversity, and were derived from Clarks broader background in computer graphics. The Geometry Enginewas the first very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementation of a geometry pipeline, specialized hardwarethat accelerated the "inner-loop" geometric computations needed to display three-dimensional images.SGI was headquartered in Sunnyvale, California; it was originally incorporated as a California corporation inNovember 1981, and reincorporated as aDelaware corporation in January 1990. On April 1, 2009, SGI filedfor Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and announced that it would sell substantially all of its assets to RackableSystems, a deal finalized on May 11, 2009, with Rackable assuming the name "Silicon Graphics International".