Landfill gas as a source of fuel

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Landfill gas as a source of fuel

  1. 1. Landfill Gas as a Source of Fuel Avick Sil,Kanchan Wakadikar, Sunil Kumar and Rakesh Kumar avick1411@gmail.com (Avick Sil); wakdikarkanchan@rediffmail.com (Kanchan Wakadikar) National Environmental Earth Quest Engineering Research Institute (NEERI)
  2. 2. Solid Waste Status - Indian ScenarioWaste Generation Transportation Landfilling: OpenCollection (Outdated Dumping Vehicles)No Segregation Air Odor Soil Ground Water
  3. 3. Know about Mumbai’s Solid Waste Solid waste Generation MSW Generation (tonnes) Year 5320 2001 (1) 7026 2006 (2) 8500 2009 (3) Physical Characteristics Waste Type Detail Quantity (%) Total (%) Total Compostable 55.25 55.25 Paper 8.85 Plastic 10.30 Recyclables 20.50 Glass 0.92 Metal 0.44 Inerts 14.42 Rubber& Leather 1.51 Rags 4.24 Other Including Inerts 24.25 Wooden Matter 0.87 Coconut 3.30 Bones 0.20 Total 100 1001. CPCB, 2006. Waste generation and composition of different cities in India, Central Pollution Control Board, India.2. BCPT, 2007. Solid waste management of Mumbai, Bombay Community Public Trust (BCPT), Mumbai.3. Sil A, Wakadikar K, Kumar S, Kumar R, 2010. Driving Characteristics of Waste Transportation Vehicles and their Effect on Emission Load: A Case Study of Mumbai, India, Waste Management, Accepted Manuscript and Unpublished Results.
  4. 4. Landfill Sites of Mumbai Data Site Deonar Mulund GoraiType of Landfill Open Dump Open Dump Open DumpLandfill Size 132.1 Ha 25 Ha 19.6 HaWaste in place 7.88 Million 0.94 Million 1.76 Million(as on Jan 2006) Metric Tonnes Metric Tonnes Metric TonnesDesigned Landfill capacity Not Designed Not Designed Not DesignedWaste Depth 5-7 m 3.6 m 10.2 m (Nov 2005)Year filling began 1927 1968 1972Year landfill was closed or will close Partial closure Not yet Planned Closed in 2008-09Quantity of waste collected per day 5000 MT+1000 400 MT+100 MT 2000 MT with MT of C & D of C & D mixed wasteQuantity of waste accepted annually 1,496,500 MT 2,266,000 MT 438,000 MTQuantity of waste generated per 0.4 - 0.5 kg 0.4 - 0.5 kg 0.4 - 0.5 kgcapita
  5. 5. Methodology for Methane QuantificationWhere Qt = expected gas generation rate in the tth year, m3/yr; Lo = methane generation potential, m3/yr; mo= constant or average annual solid waste acceptance rate, Mg/yr; k = methane generation rate constant, yr-1; t = age of the landfill, yr; ta = total years of active period of the landfill, yrParameter Range Suggested ValuesLo (m3/Mg) 0 ~ 310 140 ~ 180 Wet Climate: 0.10 ~ 0.35 0.003 ~ k (yr-1) Medium Moisture Climate: 0.05 ~ 0.15 0.40 Dry Climate: 0.02 ~ 0.10
  6. 6. Results…………….. Component Composition Methane 70-90% Ethane Propane 0-20% Butane Carbon Dioxide 0-8% Oxygen 0-0.2% Nitrogen 0-5% Hydrogen 0-5% sulphide Rare gases (A, He, Trace Ne, Xe)
  7. 7. Whats Next……….. Scenario DescriptionLandfill Management OptionsScenario 1: Do NothingScenario 2: Cap the Capping the landfill and installing a gas collectionlandfill and flare it system before flaring the LFG (controlled combustion)Scenario 3: Flare from It does not require the additional cost of cappingan active landfillLandfill Gas To Other OptionsScenario 4: Convert the The conversion of LFG to CNGLFG to CNG as fuelScenario 5: Convert the This would cater only to areas near the landfill.LFG to pipeline gradenatural gasScenario 6: Convert the This is another good option for electricity starvedLFG to electricity country like India
  8. 8. Primary Energy Consumption Million tonnesCountry Oil Natural Coal Nuclear Hydro Total Gas Energy electricUSA 914.3 566.8 573.9 181.9 60.9 2297.8Canada 96.4 78.7 31.0 16.8 68.6 291.4France 94.2 39.4 12.4 99.8 14.8 260.6Russian Federation 124.7 365.2 111.3 34.0 35.6 670.8United Kingdom 76.8 85.7 39.1 20.1 1.3 223.2China 275.2 29.5 799.7 9.8 64.0 1178.3India 113.3 27.1 185.3 4.1 15.6 345.3Japan 248.7 68.9 112.2 52.2 22.8 504.8Malaysia 23.9 25.6 3.2 - 1.7 54.4Pakistan 17.0 19.0 2.7 0.4 5.6 44.8Singapore 34.1 4.8 - - - 38.9
  9. 9. Why CNG Composition of CNG Methane Ethane Nitrogen Characteristics: Carbon Dioxide Propnae Mainly made up of Methane n-Butane isobutane High calorific value and heat n-Hexane yield Isopentane Environmentally clean alternative n-Pentane to fossil fuels OxygenEconomic benefit: Petrol- Rs. 55.91/-, Diesel- Rs.41.86/-, CNG- Rs. 31.47/-,LPG- Rs. 33.23/- Environment friendly: Lower Nox, PM, CO(90%) & HC(40%) emissions
  10. 10. What We Get Scenario Gorai Deonar Mulund Return Return Return (%) (%) (%) Landfill Management Options1: DoNothing N/A N/A N/A2: Cap the LFG and Flare -31% -30% 42%3: Flare the LFG from an Active -16% -48% 49% Landfill Landfill Gas to Other Options4: Convert LFG to CNG for use -33% 1% 54%as a Transportation Fuel5: Convert to pipeline Gas -51% -33% 6%6: Convert Electricity -29% -40% -9%
  11. 11. avick1411@gmail.com (Avick Sil); wakdikarkanchan@rediffmail.com (Kanchan Wakadikar) Wake Up The opportunity is waitingFor more details:http://www.methanetomarkets.org/Data/218_India_Landfill_Report_-111309.pdf
  12. 12. How to GoInitial Cost About Landfill capping costs CNG conversion facility cost Pipeline natural gas facility cost Electricity plant costs Flaring system costs System and landfill operational costs Truck fleet operational and replacement Outcome cost Costs of emissions Diesel fuel savings Earnings from sale of natural gas Earnings from sale of electricity Carbon credit earnings Emissions reductions

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