A new world Ch 1 Who were the earliest inhabitants of America?
Who were the most advanced? How so? <ul><li>S of US border </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize, cities, architecture </li></ul></u...
Did they have a values system? <ul><li>Dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Self reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Self control </li></ul><u...
Who were the 1 st  explorers? <ul><li>11 th  c. Norsemen -> Iceland, Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sm. Settlement </l...
American on eve of exploration <ul><li>Natives of the Americas 1491 </li></ul>
Developments in Europe that lead to exploration <ul><li>Rise of Merchant Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking 4n trade </li...
How did Columbus wind up working for Spanish? <ul><li>Genoese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory: reaching east by sailing west ...
Success or Failure? <ul><li>Found Carib Isles Oct. 1492 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter from Columbus on first voyage </li></...
Can you go E by heading W? <ul><li>Magellan sailed around S America 1519-22 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To Asia </li></ul></ul><...
Significance of the Treaty of Tordesillas <ul><li>Divided world 1494 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>46-47 th  meridians </li></ul><...
Why didn’t Natives defeat invaders? <ul><li>Spanish are armed </li></ul><ul><li>Unscrupulous </li></ul><ul><li>Kill and en...
How did Spain plan to make money from Americas? <ul><li>Gold -> sugar -> cheap labor </li></ul><ul><li>Encomiendas: slaves...
Why did Spanish empire decline by 17 th  century? <ul><li>Overwork, despair, disease wiped out labor </li></ul><ul><li>25 ...
Results of early Spanish exploration of N. America? <ul><li>Ponce de Leon -> Fl coast </li></ul><ul><li>Narvaez &  De Soto...
What Spanish settlement was there in the US? <ul><li>1565 St. Augustine, Fl- fort </li></ul><ul><li>Missions north to SC &...
Who were the first Europeans to explore NW US? <ul><li>1497 John Cabot, Genoese, sailed for England… NE coast </li></ul><u...
How did Europeans begin new settlements in N. America? <ul><li>Gradually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fur trapping began </li></u...
What was the purpose of French and Dutch trade in the New World? <ul><li>Trade with the Indians </li></ul>
What was the effect of French and Dutch trade on the Indians? <ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>...
How was England’s exploration so diff. from the French, Dutch and Spanish? <ul><li>Protestants (Henry VIII) – 1539 </li></...
How will the rise of a merchant class shape English settlement & exploration? <ul><li>1576: Cathay (China) Co – to trade w...
How did colonizing become profitable for England? <ul><li>1606- Jamestown    Joint Stock Co </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchan...
How did slavery become pt of VA economy? <ul><li>1618: VA Co reforms to ^ investors, planters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For fa...
How do Puritans come to New World? <ul><li>Enclosure, ^^$$$, dislocation, ^^taxes    large scale emigration </li></ul><ul...
How does N.E.’s est. set precedent 4 self gov in America? <ul><li>Mayflower Compact: Cape Cod 12/1620 </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Puritan Migration <ul><li>1628 Puritans took over N.E. Col   MA Bay Col </li></ul><ul><li>29: re-org’d controlled by Puri...
How did Democracy begin in N.E.? <ul><li>1631- Transformed from trading company to Commonwealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admi...
Character of Puritan N.E. <ul><li>Congregational churches </li></ul><ul><li>No Bishops or Church Courts </li></ul><ul><li>...
Who were the troublemakers and their significance? <ul><li>Roger Williams: said  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King had no rt to g...
How did R.I. become legitimized? <ul><li>Roger Williams applied to Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>1640- gets it </li></ul><u...
How was CT founded, why? <ul><li>Puritans want more space    took land from weak Dutch trading posts </li></ul><ul><li>Fo...
How does Puritan control foster Capitalism? <ul><li>Policy: no virtue in Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Hard work & frugal cond...
What was Puritan economy based on? <ul><li>Fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle...
Colonies established for family fortune: <ul><li>George Calvert  Lord Baltimore: MD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charter 1632, d...
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Notes to Chapter 1
APUSH

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  • 100s of tribes of Native Americas w/ varied languages, appearances, customs
  • Portugal got Asia and Africa! Existing trade. Later, Spain’s Americas yield silver
  • New world

    1. 1. A new world Ch 1 Who were the earliest inhabitants of America?
    2. 2. Who were the most advanced? How so? <ul><li>S of US border </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize, cities, architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Math, astronomy, calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government, division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>N of MX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitive: about 10 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ltd agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunter/gatherers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powhatans – VA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creeks- Gulf region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SW cave dwellers </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Did they have a values system? <ul><li>Dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Self reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Self control </li></ul><ul><li>Individualistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No cooperation or division of labor </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Who were the 1 st explorers? <ul><li>11 th c. Norsemen -> Iceland, Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sm. Settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1492 Columbus for Spain </li></ul><ul><li>1400s Portuguese (Henry The Navigator) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around Africa -> India for spices </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. American on eve of exploration <ul><li>Natives of the Americas 1491 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Developments in Europe that lead to exploration <ul><li>Rise of Merchant Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking 4n trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rise of kings & larger units of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth, power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursuit of 4n trade, riches, land </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. How did Columbus wind up working for Spanish? <ul><li>Genoese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory: reaching east by sailing west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turned down by Italy, Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain allows, to compete with P </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Success or Failure? <ul><li>Found Carib Isles Oct. 1492 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter from Columbus on first voyage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 trips looking for Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Found some gold </li></ul>
    9. 9. Can you go E by heading W? <ul><li>Magellan sailed around S America 1519-22 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search for NW passage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-existant </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Significance of the Treaty of Tordesillas <ul><li>Divided world 1494 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>46-47 th meridians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P gets app pts east; Sp gets west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who got better deal at the time? Why? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Why didn’t Natives defeat invaders? <ul><li>Spanish are armed </li></ul><ul><li>Unscrupulous </li></ul><ul><li>Kill and enslave Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Had horses & firearms </li></ul>
    12. 12. How did Spain plan to make money from Americas? <ul><li>Gold -> sugar -> cheap labor </li></ul><ul><li>Encomiendas: slaves on plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Encomenderos (owners) demand labor as tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Indians used on sugar plantations, silver mines from Mexico thru Peru </li></ul>
    13. 13. Why did Spanish empire decline by 17 th century? <ul><li>Overwork, despair, disease wiped out labor </li></ul><ul><li>25 million down to 1 million </li></ul><ul><li>Lost competition to England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Armada sank </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Results of early Spanish exploration of N. America? <ul><li>Ponce de Leon -> Fl coast </li></ul><ul><li>Narvaez & De Soto -> SW Fl & Gulf plains </li></ul><ul><li>Coronado -> AZ, NM, TX, OK, KS 1540-42 no gold, silver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few people </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. What Spanish settlement was there in the US? <ul><li>1565 St. Augustine, Fl- fort </li></ul><ul><li>Missions north to SC & Chesapeake Bay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming & crafts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>West to AZ, NM </li></ul><ul><li>Presidios built to hold back hostiles thru CA </li></ul>
    16. 16. Who were the first Europeans to explore NW US? <ul><li>1497 John Cabot, Genoese, sailed for England… NE coast </li></ul><ul><li>1524 Verrazano, Florentine, for France… NC -> Nova Scotia, looking for NW Pass </li></ul><ul><li>1534 Jacques Cartier, St. Lawrence River -> 1 st rapids </li></ul><ul><li>1541 Cartier’s settlement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No gold, riches… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fr, Eng, Sp, Port  Grand Banks: Codfishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sp & Fall docks, drying stations on shore; international communities </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. How did Europeans begin new settlements in N. America? <ul><li>Gradually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fur trapping began </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade w/ Indians (Furs for metals) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1608- Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>1609- Henry Hudson -> Hudson River for Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>1623- Dutch trading posts along Deleware River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1624 Hudson River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1633 Connecticut River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1638- Swedes – outposts on Delaware R </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1655 pushed out by Dutch </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. What was the purpose of French and Dutch trade in the New World? <ul><li>Trade with the Indians </li></ul>
    19. 19. What was the effect of French and Dutch trade on the Indians? <ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Guns </li></ul><ul><li>Hatchets </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened tribal customs </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal warfare/ rivalry </li></ul>
    20. 20. How was England’s exploration so diff. from the French, Dutch and Spanish? <ul><li>Protestants (Henry VIII) – 1539 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorced from Catherine, married Anne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Got monastic lands, wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impt: launched religious rivalry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 yrs warfare w/ Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selling off monastic land starts price rev </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$$$ shifts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Merchant class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They will finance exploration </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. How will the rise of a merchant class shape English settlement & exploration? <ul><li>1576: Cathay (China) Co – to trade w/ China via Americas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Frobisher  NW passage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd trip, ret. w/ fools gold  Co folds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1578 Humphrey Gilbert  colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Codfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raid Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd try: 83: financed by noblemen, merchants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>260 settlers, 5 ships  Newfoundland  lost @ Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hakluyt’s sales pitch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1584 Sir W. Raleigh- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85: Roanoke Isle (VA/NC)… home by 86 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>87: 120 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>88: Spanish Armada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90: re-supply Roanoke gone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: no profits here? </li></ul>
    22. 22. How did colonizing become profitable for England? <ul><li>1606- Jamestown  Joint Stock Co </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchant groups invest- less loss/profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 B gov’d by Cpt John Smith </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1609- VA Co- new charter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Est Governing council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co members chose Governor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gov chose council of advisors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sold stock to public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Got 9 ships, 600 emigrants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>400 arrived </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smith injured; left </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>’ 09-11: Starving time </li></ul><ul><li>’ 12: new crop: tobacco- $$$ by ‘17 </li></ul>
    23. 23. How did slavery become pt of VA economy? <ul><li>1618: VA Co reforms to ^ investors, planters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For fare to VA, get: Head right (50 acres) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must pay Quit rent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Col gov’d by English law, Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planters elect assembly, help Gov’s council legislate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of craftsmen to be sent to diversify </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard life: diseases, starvation, raids, labor shortages </li></ul><ul><li>VA Co  bankrupt, King dissolved, controlled </li></ul><ul><li>1619: 1 st slaves arrive via Dutch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More $$ than 7 yr indentured servants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>60s: ^ pop  ^ labor  ^ tobacco  v prices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bands of indigent freedmen make trouble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>^^ slaves imported </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. How do Puritans come to New World? <ul><li>Enclosure, ^^$$$, dislocation, ^^taxes  large scale emigration </li></ul><ul><li>Plymouth Grp of VA Co- chartered: ‘Council 4 New E’ </li></ul><ul><li>1630s Gt Migration  N.E. & W.I. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvinists: Church of E= corrupt/papist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1620- Congregationalists (Separatists) -> Plymouth via Holland </li></ul>
    25. 25. How does N.E.’s est. set precedent 4 self gov in America? <ul><li>Mayflower Compact: Cape Cod 12/1620 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B4 disembarking, agreed: est Gov & follow laws (outside VA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aboard the Mayflower </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Puritan Migration <ul><li>1628 Puritans took over N.E. Col  MA Bay Col </li></ul><ul><li>29: re-org’d controlled by Puritan stockholders </li></ul><ul><li>30: 1 st thousand under Winthrop </li></ul><ul><li> 1640s 15k- 20k  settled Boston, etc </li></ul>
    27. 27. How did Democracy begin in N.E.? <ul><li>1631- Transformed from trading company to Commonwealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admitted 100 adult men to company to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freemenship open to all Church members- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 elect council 2 assist law making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Ct: Gov, deputy Gov, Exec council, body of deputies elected annually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature & Supreme Ct </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Character of Puritan N.E. <ul><li>Congregational churches </li></ul><ul><li>No Bishops or Church Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Sep of Church & State </li></ul>
    29. 29. Who were the troublemakers and their significance? <ul><li>Roger Williams: said </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King had no rt to grant land w/o purchase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov had no authority in religious matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represents ‘liberty principle’ to Winthrop’s ‘authority principle’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Banished to R.I. as threat to unity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Anne Hutchinson- meetings to improve upon Puritan sermons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denied ‘good conduct’ is a sign of Grace (rule of law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed ‘Holy Spirit’ in hearts of true believers gives automatic Grace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Followers split colony (threaten peace) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Told authorities she had a revelation from God (blasphemy!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Banished to R.I. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. How did R.I. become legitimized? <ul><li>Roger Williams applied to Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>1640- gets it </li></ul><ul><li>1663 Royal Charter confirms & guarantees religious freedom </li></ul>
    31. 31. How was CT founded, why? <ul><li>Puritans want more space  took land from weak Dutch trading posts </li></ul><ul><li>Form gov w/ agreement: “Fundamental Orders” </li></ul><ul><li>1662” Royal Charter granted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds in New Haven </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. How does Puritan control foster Capitalism? <ul><li>Policy: no virtue in Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Hard work & frugal conduct: sign of grace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And coincidentally: success </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. What was Puritan economy based on? <ul><li>Fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber </li></ul><ul><li>Ship building </li></ul>
    34. 34. Colonies established for family fortune: <ul><li>George Calvert  Lord Baltimore: MD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charter 1632, died  son: Cecilius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calverts: Catholic- MD becomes refuge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’d from England  granted small estates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rent collected </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lets in Puritans (tobacco farmers) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1649: MD Toleration Act: freedom of worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For all Christians who accept Trinity </li></ul></ul></ul>

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