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Wintercycling in the Netherlands

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February 2014 I attended the Winter Cycling Congress in Winnipeg, Canada. Together with my colleague Quentin Dumont-Freixo I gathered data about cycling in winter in the Netherlands and conducted a survey amongst 303 Dutch respondents, asking about their use of the bicycle in winter and their opinions on topics like lighting, special tyres and clothes in winter.

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Wintercycling in the Netherlands

  1. 1. Winter  Cycling  in  the  Netherlands.   Angela  van  der  Kloof  &  Quen;n  Dumont-­‐Freixo   www.kaartje2go.nl
  2. 2. Riding  bikes  in   winter  in  NL   hAp://m.youtube.com/ watch?v=2rETLfzQrIw    
  3. 3. Our  biggest   challenges  are   1.  Slippery  roads   2.  Darkness   3.  Cold  /  windchill  /   humidity   4.  Snow  
  4. 4. Bicycle  use  in   wintermonths   •  Bicycle  use  per  month,   compared  to  other   modes   •  Number  of  bikes   counted  per  month  on   18  loca;ons  (Province  of   Friesland)   •  Accidents  involving   cyclists  (City  of  Breda)   •  Monthly  varia;on  of   bicycle  parking  demand,   City  of  ‘s  Hertogenbosch  
  5. 5. Modal  split  per  month  for  bicycles,  compared  to  other   modes   !"# $"# %"# &""# &&"# &'"# &("# )*++,-# ./00# 1234,-# )5-236# !"#$%&'()*$&+,,-& ./$01&23&14$&*$)*2"*&2"&52#)6&*7681& 7/-# 8*902:#4-/3;24# <2=,# >?5,@# 1/0=236# A4B,-#
  6. 6. Bikes  counted  per  month  on  18  loca@ons    in  Friesland   !"#$ !%#$ !&#$ !'#$ !"#$%&'(&)%#$*)&+)+*,-.-&'/%$&."%&-%#-'0-& ()*+,-$ ./-)*0$ .122,-$ 3455$
  7. 7. Bikes  counted  per  month  on  18  loca@ons     Loca@ons  in  Leeuwarden   Monthly  share  of  cyclists   counted  over  a  year   0,0%   2,0%   4,0%   6,0%   8,0%   10,0%   12,0%   14,0%   16,0%   January   February   March   April   May   June   July   August   September   October   November   December   Share  of  yearly  cyclists  over  the  months   Counter  1   Counter  2   Counter  3   Average  
  8. 8. Accidents  involving  cyclists  in  the  City  of  Breda  total   of  2001  -­‐  2012   0   20   40   60   80   100   120   140   160   180   200   Reported  accidents   Fatali;es   Hospitaliza;ons   Light  injuries   Material  damage  
  9. 9. Monthly  varia@on  of  bicycle  parking  demand,  City  of   ‘s  Hertogenbosch   0   10000   20000   30000   40000   50000   60000   January   February   March   April     May   June   July   August     September   October   November   December   Number  of  bicycles  parked   Wolvenhoek  2012   Wolvenhoek  2013   Kerkstraat  2012   Kerkstraat  2013   Loeffplein  2012   Loeffplein  2013  
  10. 10. Winter  Cycling  Measures  by  ci@es  and  regions  (1)    
  11. 11. Winter  Cycling  Measures  by  ci@es  and  regions  (2)   ZUIDOOST BINNENSTAD GRAAFSEPOORT MUNTEL/VLIERT ROSMALEN ZUID POELDONKWEG PETTELAAR SEW EG DEEENHOORN RIJNSTRAAT GESTELSEWEG N65 TILBURG - UTRECHT A2 MAASTRICHTSEWEG WAALSTRAAT A2EINDHOVEN-UTRECHT DIEZEBR U G ZUID W ILLEMSVAART ZUIDERPARKWEG DR.POELSSTRAAT ZUIDWAL CITADELLAAN 4 GLADHEIDSBESTRIJDING 's-Hertogenbosch Fietsstrooiroutes ZUIDOOST
  12. 12. Winter  Cycling  Measures  by  ci@es  and  regions  (3)  
  13. 13. Suppor@ng  service  for  Winter  Cycling  Measures  by   ci@es  and  regions  
  14. 14. What  people  say   about  their  bicycle   use  in  wintermonths   Online  survey     303  respondents     152  men  /  151  women          <18:  38  resp.   18-­‐24:  22  resp.   25-­‐54:  177  resp.        >55:  67  resp.  
  15. 15. In  winter  I  cycle   48,5%   32,7%   5,0%   10,6%   3,3%   every  day   more  than  once  a  week   once  per  week   a  few  ;mes  per  month   never  
  16. 16. In  winter  I  cycle   !"!#$ %!"!#$ &!"!#$ '!"!#$ (!"!#$ )!"!#$ *!"!#$ +,+-.$/0.$ 12-+$34+5$256+$0$ 7++8$ 256+$0$7++8$ 0$9+7$:1+;$0$12534$ 5+,+-$ <+5$ =21+5$
  17. 17. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 every day more then once a week once a week a few times a month never In winter I cycle < 12 jaar 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 every day more then once a week once a week a few times a month never In winter I cycle: 18-24 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 every day more then once a week once a week a few times a month never In winter I cycle: 25-34 jaar 35-44 jaar 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 every day more than once a week once a week a few times a month never In winter I cycle: <18   18-­‐24   25-­‐55   +55  
  18. 18. In  winter  I  cycle   !"# $$"# %%"# &'()#*+,-#.-#*+)#'*+)(#&'-*+/# *+)#/,&)#,&'0-*#*+,-#.-#*+)#'*+)(#&'-*+/# 1)//#*+,-#.-#*+)#'*+)(#&'-*+/#
  19. 19. In  winter  I  cycle   !"!#$ %!"!#$ &!"!#$ '!"!#$ (!"!#$ )!"!#$ *!"!#$ +!"!#$ ,-./$0123$43$01/$-01/.$ ,-3015$ 01/$52,/$2,-630$0123$43$ 01/$-01/.$,-3015$ 7/55$0123$43$01/$-01/.$ ,-3015$ 8/3$ 9-,/3$
  20. 20. 0 5 10 15 20 25 More then in other months As much as in other months Less then in other months In winter I cycle: < 12 jaar 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 more then in other months as much as in other months less as in other months In winter I cycle: 18-24 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 more then in other months as much as in other months less then in other months In winter I cycle: 25-34 jaar 35-44 jaar 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 more then in other months as much as in other months less then in other months In winter I cycle: 55-64 jaar <18   25-­‐55   18-­‐24   +55  
  21. 21. Purpose  of  bike  trips  in  winter   •  4  grafieken  (per  leekijdsgroep)  knippen  en   plakken   !!"#$% &'"#$% ((")$% (*")$% ')"'$% +(",$% #'"!$% -./001%2%345.6708% .09 9 5:3% -/0;;<8=% ><-<:%?69 <1@%2%?A<384-% :0%=0%05:% -;0A:-%684%13<-5A3% 0:/3A%
  22. 22. Purpose  of  bike  trips  in  winter   !"!#$ %!"!#$ &!"!#$ '!"!#$ (!"!#$ )!"!#$ *!"!#$ +!"!#$ ,!"!#$ -./001$2$ 345.6708$ .0995:3$ -/0;;<8=$ ><-<:$?69<1@$2$ ?A<384-$ :0$=0$05:$ -;0A:-$684$ 13<-5A3$ 0:/3A$ B38$ C0938$
  23. 23. 0 10 20 30 40 school/ education commute shopping visit family/ friends togoout sports/ leisure other Purpose of bike trip in winter (multiple answers): < 12 jaar 25-­‐55   0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 school/ education commute shopping visit family/ friends togoout sports/ leisure other 18-24 jaar 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 school/ education commute shopping visit family/ friends togoout sports/ leisure other 25-34 jaar 35-44 jaar 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 school/ education commute shopping visit family/ friends togoout sports/ leisure other 55-64 jaar <  18   18  -­‐  24   25  -­‐  55   +  55  
  24. 24. Opinions  on   cycling  in   wintermonths   •  Preparing  the   bicycle  for  winter     •  Dressing  for  winter   cycling   •  Condi;ons  of  the   road   From:  www.bikearlington.com    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
  25. 25. Opinions   average  scores,  a  high  score  means  disagree  (max  =  5)     !"#$% !"!#% !"&$% !"'$% ("()% #"*&% &"&&% &"+&% #"&&% #"+&% )"&&% )"+&% !"&&% !"+&% ("&&% ("+&% +"&&% ,-%./0%1230%45%3678809:%942;3"%./0%326<-=%549%1:1673.3%73%;4-0% 8948096:>% ,-%./0%1230%45%3-4?"%3-4?90@4A26%549%1:1673.3%73%;4-0%8948096:>% ,%/2A0%3801726%164./03%.4%97;0%7-%?7-.09>% ,%1/01B%@:%C71:160%:0296:%C05490%?7-.09>% ,-%?7-.09%,%D30%3801726%.:903%4-%@:%C71:160% ,%@2B0%3D90%./0%67=/<-=%45%@:%C71:160%?49B3>%
  26. 26. I  make  sure  the  ligh@ng  of  my  bicycle  works   “I  try  to  do  this,  but   unfortunately  I  some;mes   forget  it.”     “or  I  make  sure  I  have   loose  lamps.”         “otherwise  it  is  just   dangerous  and  stupid.”  
  27. 27. In  winter,  I  use  special  tyres  on  my  bicycle     “I  think  I  do  not  replace   these  tyres.”     “  A  real  Dutch  person  even   bikes  on  wooden  tyres  ;)”       “Does  that  exist?”     “Tyre  pressure  a  bit  lower   and  lowering  the  saddle  is   enough  up  to  now.”   “I  have  never  thought  about   this.  I  make  sure  there  is   enough  profile  on  the  tyres,   and  that  is  it.”   “oh  nooooo,  I  did  without  it   for  years,  why  should  I  now   suddenly…..”  
  28. 28. I  check  my  bicycle  yearly  before  winter   “not  really,  only  when   condi;ons  are  very   slippery.”     “a  good  bike  does  not   need  this,  some;mes  a   repair.”   “Ha  Ha”     “Bicycles  (and  especially   e-­‐bikes)  suffer  from   winter  condi;ons.  That  is   why  I  plan  the  yearly   check  in  spring.  So  aker   winter!”     “one  check  aker  winter.”  
  29. 29. I  have  special  clothes  to  ride  in  winter   “I  wear  warm  clothes  in   winter  but  nothing  special”     “I  ride  with  the  same  clothes   as  the  clothes  that  I  walk   outside  with.  So  no  extra   special  clothing  for  cycling.”     “Does  that  exist?”   “Scarf,  gloves  and  miAen”           “Well,  warm  clothes,  gloves   and  when  needed  a  hat”  
  30. 30. In  the  case  of  snow,  snow  removal  for  cyclists  is  done   properly   “In  the  last  2  winters  I’ve   seen  several  situa;ons  of   cyclists  star;ng  to  either   walk  their  bikes  or  ride  with   car  traffic  because  of  the   snow  on  the  cycle  tracks.”     “Especially  at  the  borders  of   municipali;es  the  snow  is   not  being  removed.”     “Unfortunately  I  have   fallen  off  my  bike  several   ;mes  because  I  could  not   see  the  curb  with  all  the   snow.”  
  31. 31. In  the  case  of  slippery  roads,  sal@ng  for  cyclists  is   done  properly   “There  is  not  enough  sal;ng   near  schools.”     “I  think  this  is  not  needed,   just  always  pay  aAen;on   and  falling  on  your  face   some  ;mes  is  just  part  of  it.”     “Roads  can  be  slippery  all  of   a  sudden.  You  have  to  stay   alert.”     “In  the  case  of  snow  I  always   take  the  bus,  because   cycling  is  too  dangerous.”     “In  my  municipality  there   has  been  an  improvement   over  the  last  years.”  
  32. 32. Conclusions   •  The  trend  that  ci;es  start  the   conversa;on  about  cycling   condi;ons  in  winter  is  a  good  thing.   We  should  look  into  it  in  more  detail   and  improve  it  further.   •  Ci;es  and  regions  focus  on  road   condi;ons,  but  there  may  also  be   some  poten;al  in  broadening  the   image  of  what  cycling  can  be;  to   expand  the  exis;ng  posi;ve  image   of  cycling.  
  33. 33. Thank you, let’s ride! a.vanderkloof@mobycon.nl www.hipkaartje.nl

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