Avaya Collaboration Guide 2013


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Avaya’s 2013 Guidebook is the market-leading overview of the collaboration technologies and trends driving businesses of every size. Written for business and IT executive alike, the Guide features in-depth analysis and commentary from industry experts on the innovations that can help you and your organization gain and keep a competitive edge.

Topics in the Guide include:
• Why mobile and desktop videoconferencing are the future of communications;

• How instant messaging is evolving past mere presence to awareness;

• What are the 8 best practices every contact center must follow;

• The steps you must take to secure your Unified Communications deployment.

Contributors to this year’s Guide include leading Avaya executives such as CEO Kevin Kennedy, SVPs Gary Barnett, Marc Randall, Michael Runda, and Brett Shockley, and top analysts from Forrester and Nemertes Research as well as experts from IBM, VMware and other valued Avaya partners.

The Guide also includes 14 enterprise case studies and 28 charts and infographics to create a full picture of how you can create a better, more agile business even in a fluctuating macroeconomic climate.

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Avaya Collaboration Guide 2013

  1. 1. 2013 GUIDE 2013 THE COLLABORATION FSC GUIDE TRENDS Transforming Your Organization Logo and Industry This Year© 2013 Avaya Inc. All Rights Reserved.All trademarks identified by ®, ™, or SM are registered marks,trademarks, and service marks, respectively, of Avaya Inc.
  2. 2. AVAYA 2013 GUIDE
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS 10 Leaning Forward to Embrace Innovation Kevin J. Kennedy President and Chief Executive Officer, AvayaAvaya 2013 Guide 13 MegatrendsPublished by Avaya Inc.211 Mt. Airy Road, Basking Ridge, NJ 07920 U.S.A.To download copies of Avaya 2013 Guide, visit www.avaya.com 14 Awareness. Simplicity. Customers. Brett ShockleyCopyright © 2013 Avaya Inc. All rights reserved. Senior Vice President and General Manager,Avaya and the Avaya logo are trademarks of Avaya, Inc. or its subsidiaries. Avaya Applications and Emerging Technologies, Avaya© indicates registration in the United States of America. All other trademarksare the property of their respective owners.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataAvaya Inc. 22 Hypertext to Hypervoice Martin GeddesAvaya 2013 Guide Consultant on Future Telecom Business Models and TechnologiesEdited by Eric Lai and Richard Solosky.p.cm.ISBN 978-1-62209-556-8 29 Today’s 5 Biggest Communication Trends Irwin Lazar Vice President and Service Director, Nemertes Research1. Unified Communications. 2. Videoconferencing. 3. Call Centers.4. Networking. 5. Enterprise Mobility.Library of Congress Class and Year: HF5734.7 R48 2013Library of Congress Control Number: 2012923795 33 Do Collaboration Tools Boost Workplace Communication? Dr. Charles Law Assistant Professor, Penn State UniversityPrinted in the United States of AmericaExcept as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of thispublication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or storedin a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.4 | avaya.com avaya.com | 5
  4. 4. 43 Amplifying Innovation with Partnerships An excerpt from ‘Leading with Connections,’ published by IBM 87 Mobile and Web49 4 Trends Transforming the Unified Communications Ecosystem Michael Taylor CTO, Strategic Products and Services (SPS) 88 Bring Your Own Unified Communications Gary E. Barnett Senior Vice President and General Manager for Collaboration Platforms, Avaya 91 The Future is WebRTC55 Video Collaboration John Yoakum Consulting Engineer, Avaya Harvey Waxman Vice President, Architecture, Avaya56 Dawn of a New Era in Videoconferencing Bob Romano Alan Johnston Distinguished Engineer, External Standards, Avaya Vice President of Global Marketing, Radvision, an Avaya Company 94 Case Study: Adding Features, Subtracting Costs63 The Rise of Video-Enabled Innovation Will Power Corporate Growth An excerpt from a 2012 Forrester Consulting white paper Matthews Pierce & Lloyd 97 Case Study: On the Road, Always in Touch RootWorks, LLC66 Videoconferencing Goes Viral Moshe Machline Vice President of Marketing, Radvision, an Avaya Company70 The New ‘Rules’ for Videoconferencing Eric Lai Editorial Director, Avaya 101 Customer Experience72 Case Study: Genius of Collaboration ETH Zürich 103 A Solid Foundation for Tomorrow’s Customer Chris McGugan Vice President and General Manager for Emerging Products & Technology, Avaya76 Case Study: Truly Unified CBC (Cologne Broadcasting Center) 110 8 Best Practices for Customer Experience Management Today Laura Bassett Director of Marketing, Avaya79 Innovator’s Corner 116 Would You Call Your Own Contact Center? Donna Dawson Psychologist IAUG Customer Innovation Winners 124 Case Study: Top Customer Service in All Channels 3C DIALOG GmbH6 | avaya.com avaya.com | 7
  5. 5. 127 Case Study: Building for the Multichannel World Gepin Contact SpA131 Infrastructure132 Optimizing Your Private Cloud for the Collaboration Era Marc Randall Senior Vice President & General Manager, Avaya Networking Parag Patel Vice President of Global Alliances, VMware136 Border Cop Gilman Stevens Director of SBC R&D and the VIPER Lab, Avaya Gina Odean National Director of Converged Solutions, NACR140 5 Traits of Great Communications Service Providers Michael Runda Senior Vice President, Avaya and President, Avaya Client Services142 The Future of 911 Mark J. Fletcher ENP, Public Safety Solutions Product Strategy, Avaya147 Case Study: Weaving the Network of the Future Leeds Metropolitan University150 Case Study: Avaya Virtual Networking Underpins Netherlands’ Schiphol Airport Luggage System153 Market Data8 | avaya.com avaya.com | 9
  6. 6. LEANING FORWARD In short, a wealth of new, cost- effective solutions are available today, can be deployed quickly, andTO EMBRACE can begin delivering measurable benefits almost immediately. If people have choices and can see a realistic path forward, they don’tINNOVATION feel helpless to manage change. In this Annual Guide, we offer what we believe is some of the best thinking from outside and inside Avaya and varied observations on the choices available to enterprisesThe Transformational Edge that refuse to be victims of circumstance. In the lead article,of Better Collaboration for example, Brett Shockley, Avaya’s Senior Vice President and General Manager of Applications and Emerging Technologies, examines the intersection and implications of collaboration,There’s something about a new calendar year that stirs the blood of even the mobility, and cloud technologies. You’ll also find perspectivesmost jaded among us. No one who knows me well would call me a wild-eyed from respected research firms; insights from Avaya’soptimist; I’m a pragmatist at best, even on the headiest of days. Still, I feel more customers, partners, and thought leaders; and evenbuoyant about what’s possible for the enterprise than I have in a very long time. an academic view of the behavioral psychology shaping business collaboration (hint: Technology is necessary butAdmittedly, the headwinds that buffeted us all in 2012 haven’t abated significantly. far from sufficient).The economic climate, especially in North America and Europe, is still profoundlyuncertain. Technology spending overall remains cautious, and in many parts This book itself is a collaboration, evidence of what weof the U.S. federal government, spending is still sharply constrained, sending at Avaya call The Power of We™. I am convinced thatripples through a wide network of partners, suppliers, and end users. Inside the the most successful enterprises will be built on an open,enterprise, employee mobility and geographic dispersion continue to expand, mobile collaboration platform—the more diversity, energy,while the “consumerization of the enterprise” is an irresistible force. and creativity we bring to the conversation, the richer the outcome will be. No one has a monopoly on insight, butIn spite of all that, I’m detecting a shift in customers’ attitude. There’s a renewed if we bring the right people together at the right time withsense of empowerment, fueled by a surge of market innovation. Instead of the right information, we can quite literally change the world.feeling victimized by tight budgets, our customers see new ways to reduce I hope you find these perspectives valuable, and I invite youbandwidth costs, accelerate time to productivity, and enhance the user to continue the conversation with any of us at Avaya.experience. For example, midsize enterprises no longer need to devote weeksto deploying a new UC platform—new midmarket solutions can be configured Sincerely Yours,in half an hour. In contact centers, our speech pattern recognition and naturallanguage chat software can improve a company’s productivity and Net PromoterScore® in just weeks. Business-grade video scales from conference room todesktop to smartphone, with up to 83 percent lower bandwidth requirementsand up to 71 percent lower TCO than competing solutions. In fact, low-bandwidth,high-definition business video on your consumer mobile device can pay foritself with the first business trip you eliminate, and the second eliminated trip Kevin J. Kennedycontributes directly to the bottom line. President and Chief Executive Officer Net Promoter Score is property of its respective trademark holders.10 | Introduction Introduction | 11
  7. 7. MEGATRENDS “Unity is strength … when there is teamwork and collaboration, wonderful things can be achieved.” — ­ Mattie Stepanek, Poet12 | Megatrends Megatrends | 13
  8. 8. Today’s real-time communications tools can be too much of a good thing. Here are 3 trends that will help you and your business regain mastery. For centuries, the speed of information flow has increased. And for all that time, people have complained of information overload. The 17th-century German philosopher Leibniz bemoaned the “horrible mass of books which keeps on growing.” Technology has accelerated matters. One hundred fifty years ago, it was considered a miracle when the Pony Express delivered a letter from New York to San Francisco in a mere 10 days. Today, we have numerous modes of real-time communications at our disposal. But we are still afflicted by information fatigue and lost productivity. Fortunately, there are trends in communications and collaboration solutions on the horizon that may help us regain control over our working hours. Here are three that I personally consider the most important. 1. CONTEXTUAL AWARENESS IMPROVES PRODUCTIVITY We crave being up-to-date. Who can resist clicking on the “new mail” icon? This need to know is not new. It’s just never been easier to sate (temporarily). Whether it be stock prices, sports scores, friends’ activities, or inventory levels, there is a good chance the information is ready and waiting. AWARENESS. Yet, being hyperconnected is not as satisfying as it might have once been envisioned. The connections can feel shallow, or out of sync with our thoughts or needs. SIMPLICITY. “We live in a technological universe in which we are always communicating. And yet we have sacrificed conversation for mere connection,” wrote CUSTOMERS. futurist Sherry Turkle in the New York Times in April 2012. Being connected without appropriate filters can also be exhausting. Not long ago, our biggest productivity complaint was email overload. To solve the problem, we created other modes of communication. But those have splintered. It’s the rare person who actually has only one email or one social network to keep track of. Between work and personal accounts, it isn’t uncommon for people to check 10–30 accounts in a single By Brett Shockley, day. The problem, rather than getting better, has worsened. >> Senior Vice President and General Manager,Avaya Applications and Emerging Technologies, Avaya14 | Megatrends Megatrends | 15
  9. 9. Business communications will also becomeIt is more than sources and modes, far more effective. Not long ago,but devices as well. Mobile devices secretaries applied contextual simpler—and more powerful—throughhave made text (SMS) messaging awareness to determine when to route software that allows us to dynamically shiftubiquitous. Some applications are calls or to take a message (thoughdesktop-only. Others are tablet- they would’ve likely called it common between text, voice, and video. Even theonly. And don’t forget the physical sense). In this era, new technologies ‘power phone’ of the future will be less aboutmailbox. You can spend all of your will be contextually aware, and aid ustime checking and monitoring in routing, filtering, and prioritizing. the number of buttons and more aboutconversations. Our appetite forinformation and communication Context hastens productivity just as a screen size.has paralyzed productivity. map becomes more useful when you know at least roughly where you are.Too much openness turns out to Context filters the relevant informationbe its own cage. Urgent messages for given situations, allowing us tocan arrive from anywhere, requiring quickly find the right people anddiligent surveillance among all of our right documents as well as monitorcommunication tools since there is activities across modalities. Theno easy way to filter the interruptions. technology will evaluate relationshipsOur tools are not working for us— and contacts, conversations, andthey put us to work. information and event streams across devices and locations.A temporary degradation inproductivity was reasonable.As Internet, VoIP, and other forms 2. SIMPLE IS AS SIMPLE DOESof IP communications exploded, Remember the thick manuals thateach required some experimentation. came with pagers? Or the heftyNow, it’s time to get back to business. instruction booklets that came withThe menu of modes and options fax machines? These were complexisn’t going to shrink, but the focus devices as evidenced by theirwill shift to managing them in a complex manuals. But as our devicessmart way. In other words, business become more powerful, the manualscommunications must start to are shrinking and disappearing.emphasize productivity over novelty. Consider the relatively thin pamphlet you probably got with your latestSpam filtering saved email from smartphone, tablet, or TV.uselessness. But filtering real-timecommunications is a much harder nut Intuitiveness and ease of use nowto crack. Simple filters, based on caller becomes as important—moreID or keywords, are not sufficient. The important—than any individualnext big focus will be real-time filters feature ... and not just for endwith contextual awareness. users. Enterprise technology is now following this simplified approach. It isContext separates Paris, France, the key theme to many priorities andfrom Paris, Texas, and Paris Street projects underway and will continue(in Denver). Our documents, activities, to be so. Today’s organizations arelocations, and contacts will provide much less tolerant about complexitycues to determine context. Awareness (and the training it requires). >>of context will make communications16 | Megatrends Megatrends | 17
  10. 10. Urgent messages can arrive from anywhere, requiring Users’ Future Plans for UC&C Tools Over Next 12 Months, North America, 2012diligent surveillance among all of our communication tools. 1.Our tools are not working for us—they put us to work. 42% 48% 6% 2. 34% 64% 3. 32% 63% 31% 58% 10% 4. 30% 66% 5% 5. 30% 64%For example, the wave of enterprise across locations. Location will (and 6. 26% 59% 11%virtualization was initially motivated now should) be completely invisible 7.by the cost savings of being able to customers and colleagues. 8. 24% 65% 9%to run fewer servers. But the true 9. 23% 59% 16%value lies in the simplification of Simplification is also behind the rise of software. As tech investor 10. 21% 69% 10%operations, even as powerful featuressuch as high availability and disaster Marc Andreessen famously put it, 11. 17% 72% 6% 6%recovery are extended across multiple “Software is eating the world.” He n Plan to use more extensively n Expect decreasing useplatforms and services. It’s a far cry points to the industry and segment n Plan to use at same capacity n Plan to discontinue usefrom yesterday’s dedicated servers leaders that, under the covers, areand their dedicated cabling. Desktop actually software companies: 1. Enterprise social 4. Videoconferencing 8. Instant messagingvirtualization (VDI) is also simplifying Amazon.com, Netflix, Apple’s iTunes, media tools 5. Web conferencing 9. obile soft client Mthe management of PCs and mobile Spotify, Pandora (entertainment), 2. Unified communications extension applications 6. Shared/collaborative devices while supporting freedom Pixar, Google, and LinkedIn. Even client team spaces 10. Audio conferencingof device and operating systems for Wal-Mart, a real-world retailer, 3. nified messaging/ U 7. PC-based softphones 11. IP PBX uses software to win a competitive visual voicemailend users. It’s becoming the antidoteto the “bring your own device” advantage in logistics and distribution. Base: All respondents (n=263). Source: Frost Sullivan analysis.(BYOD) trend which has complicated Hardware-based solutions are rigid.matters regarding data security and Software-based solutions work hardprotection in the name of employee underneath to generate context that between text, voice, and video. about $1.50 per automated IVRchoice. VDI offers effective, non- makes things appear simple to the Desktop phones will become simpler (integrated voice response)obtrusive management, encryption, end user. You can see this in television and more contextual. The “power interaction to more than $4 per voiceand control. sets, which even today feature phone” of the future will be less call, according to 2011 estimates remotes that resemble oversized about the number of buttons and published by callcentres.net. That’sCommunications infrastructure can more about screen size. Or you sometimes perceived as too costly. candy bars arrayed with buttons.also benefit from simplification. can skip the desk phone and use Many organizations have streamlined The Apple TV remote, by contrast,By centralizing communications an intuitive application on a desktop interactions, trading customer is mostly software. It only has a fewequipment and operations, or tablet. No more esoteric satisfaction and experience for profits. buttons. But by generating contextualorganizations reduce the number of commands like “flash.” But competing on price is increasingly and intuitive on-screen menus, usersservers, administrators, and other difficult in a connected world where can easily navigate through a muchresources needed. This also simplifies greater array of content with little 3. HE RETURN T customers can easily switch to anthe setup and operation of remote need for instruction. alternative. Customer satisfaction andoffices and remote and mobile OF CUSTOMER loyalty become key, and great serviceworkers. And workers benefit because Business communications will CONVERSATIONS can build and maintain it.there is no longer a disparity in the also become simpler—and more We all know customers are thefeatures available to individual offices powerful—through software. key to a successful business. Customer satisfaction used to beor locations, nor any technical barriers Software applications will allow But interacting with customers is difficult to measure. Today’s customersto something as simple as voicemail us to dynamically and easily shift inherently costly, ranging between are willing to share their opinions 18 | Megatrends Megatrends | 19
  11. 11. Non-Users’ Future Plans for UCC Tools Over Next 12 Months, North America, 2012 1. 22% 12% 21% 45% 2. 14% 18% 20% 44% 3. 14% 16% 26% 44% 4. 14% 21% 30% 35% 13% 17% 28% 42% 5. 13% 21% 25% 41% 6. 13% 18% 26% 43% 7. 12% 20% 33% 34% 8. 12% 16% 25% 47% 9. 11% 15% 18% 56% 10. 11. 10% 14% 29% 47% n Plan to implement within next 12 months n Plan to implement within next 2–3 years n Considering, but no plans yet n Not consideringand experiences more than ever in place to monitor services morebefore. Unfortunately, they are sharing quickly, before matters get out ofthis information publicly via social hand. Strong customer service backed 1. Audio conferencing 5. Videoconferencing 9. hared/collaborative Snetworks that empower them. by agile, proactive organizations 2. Instant messaging 6. Web conferencing team spacesThe balance of communications will succeed in the social era. Social 3. nterprise social E 7. obile soft client M 10. IP PBXpower has shifted to the customer. networks remain important to media tools extension applications 11. PC-based softphones monitor, not as a means of satisfying 4. Unified messaging 8. nified communications UFor decades, the contact center was a customer—but as a feedback visual voicemail clientidentified with cost and repetition: mechanism to satisfy all customers.checking balances, changing Base: All respondents (n=263). Source: Frost Sullivan analysis.passwords, ordering parts, etc. Self- In response, the contact center needsservice solutions are changing the to evolve. Rather than simply a forumnature of contact centers. Many—if not for resolution, today’s contact center Live conversations with customers are These three megatrends are reshapingmost—customers prefer automated needs to be proactive, not reactive. a great place to foster relationships organizational communications.telephone or Web-based technologies Real-time diagnostics and monitoring and build perceptions. Organizations They are powerful forces resultingfor simple tasks. When a customer tools allow contact center agents are rediscovering the value of in improved productivity, commerce,actually makes the effort to call, it to identify satisfaction issues before customer interactions: that they and growth. Most organizationsis because the self-service solutions they become angry tweets or are a privilege, not an obligation. can benefit from addressing themhave failed them, and they have a Facebook posts. Social networks That means the agent of tomorrow in their strategic plans. One thinglegitimate need for human interaction. allow an organization to get will be better trained, more that has never changed is thatThis shouldn’t be viewed as a cost or near-real-time feedback on activities empowered, and backed with more communications continues to offerburden, but an opportunity. such as advertising and promotion. effective and adaptable support a means for businesses to gainWhereas customer satisfaction was This means that agents need to be systems. These agents will not be not a competitive advantage. • well-versed in organizational tools the “order takers” of the past, but keyonce just a matter of retention, now it and systems, and have the ability to organizational resources.is also a matter of reputation, growth,and brand. Customers now have a easily resolve a broad array of issues.global and efficient voice, and the And in cases where they can’t, theypotential exists for their opinions need effective and instant means ofand experiences to cascade virally. finding the resources that can. WithListening to and monitoring social products, quality is measured againstmedia is not enough, nor is it scalable. specifications. With services, quality is Brett Shockley is Senior Vice President and General Manager for Avaya ApplicationsInstead, mechanisms need to be measured by customer perception. and Emerging Technologies. He is an industry veteran with more than 25 years of thought leadership in the telecommunications and contact center markets.20 | Megatrends Megatrends | 21
  12. 12. HYPERTEXT TOHYPERVOICELINKING WHAT WE SAY TO WHAT WE DO By Martin Geddes, Consultant on Future Telecoms Business Models and TechnologiesImagine a world where computers Until now, the free-form nature ofenrich our voices with superhuman voice communication has left itpowers; where voice is integrated disconnected from the mainstream ofinto our social media just as text our daily digital lives. Machines areand images currently are; where adept at processing stored symbols,our voice can be used as a not spoken syllables. As a result, wecommunication tool at its full have skewed our patterns ofcapacity: simple, powerful, and communication to favor media thatrich. This is the world of hypervoice, can be easily structured andwhere voice on the Web is as native processed by machines.and natural as hypertext. Voice captures our creativity and You can tag a moment in the speechIf Web 2.0 was about transcending so much else of our essence thatplace, enabling us to become more as easily as the piece of text you have makes us different from machines.interactive and social online through Our most emotive and memorable typed. Indeed, any and every digitaltext and images, Web 3.0 will be conversations are vocal. Evenabout enriching conversation Spielberg’s E.T. didn’t fax home; gesture can be tied to its momentthrough the human voice. instead, he found his voice. in the spoken context.Voice: Gift or Demand? However, there is a tension in voiceOur Western culture is dominated by between being creative andvisual media. Nevertheless, the disorganized. Nevertheless, we wanthuman voice remains a precious and to structure voice so it is amenable topowerful form of communication. It is the tools that amplify our effort andthe easy and spontaneous mode in make it relevant to our personal andwhich we account for our day, make work lives. Too often, the use of voiceimportant statements, and express becomes a demand, rather than aour feelings and beliefs. gift; it seems that there is too much 22 | Megatrends Megatrends | 23
  13. 13. In the same way that hypertext did for text, hypervoice brings voice into the era of the Web.cost involved to create a structure, rendezvous and synchronous manipulating stored information, the totality of a voice recording intoand yet without some helpful communications. They are over- voice is by its nature live and text, purely to record and share a fewstructure there is too little benefit. demanding of participants’ time, synchronous; we speak and await an key parts of a conversation. given the customary practice of immediate response. Historically, asTempo and Timing attending the entire call. Typically, a result of technological constraints, Voice is Missing though, many participants are barely voice has also been ephemeral. Now From HypermediaA conversation calls for the present to the conversation; that computers can readily make andparticipation of at least two people. We have thus far failed to understand conference calls often run as store records of what we say, recordedAs the number of parties to a and work with the natural dynamics background noise while executives voice as a feature allows us toconversation increases, so does the of voice communications. Indeed, look at their emails, giving the group increase the number of parties tocost and complexity of making that the Web was conceived without conversation the status of a sort of a conversation in a way that is freedinteraction live and synchronous. voice being a part of it: corporate soap opera. from the time constraints of “needingDespite our valiant efforts on to have been there.”conference calls, the quality of the HyperText is a way to link and By contrast, we want voice to beinteraction appears to decline with access information of various alive, to feel alive, and to allow and Hitherto we lacked adequate meansadditional participants. kinds as a web of nodes in which encourage wide participation in to index, search, filter, and forward the user can browse at will. conversations. Ideally the interested voice conversations. This has turnedVoice communication remains Potentially, HyperText provides parties would be free of the every recorded voice artifact into apatterned on telephony, with a single user-interface to many obligation to be present for the liability rather than a digital asset,its model of interruption. “Live” large classes of stored information original conversation. We want a fast with the result that very few recordedvoice is seen as the ideal, and voice such as reports, notes, data-bases, tempo, and functional engagement, calls are ever listened to or createrecording is presented as a managed computer documentation and without the trouble of timing. value. Furthermore, our spokenfailure mode that is bolted on as an on-line systems help ... A program words are often stuttering andafterthought. This leaves us with the which provides access to thedismal experiences of dictating or Inclusion and Exclusion provisional. Key information or hypertext world we call a browser. decisions take up only a small partreceiving voicemail messages. In the past, the mix of computers and — . Berners-Lee, R. Cailliau, T of the conversation. Yet, we often chatter has been unsatisfactory. 12 November 1990, CERN Conference calls perpetuate take on the burdens of transcribing Whereas computers are adept at these problems of24 | Megatrends Megatrends | 25
  14. 14. In the same way that hypertext did for that can arise from text, hypervoice brings voice into the a true integration era of the Web. However, Web of voice and text. technologies like WebRTC or VoIP are neither necessary nor sufficient As we organize the gestures and to achieve this. It’s the content that responses that are our business matters, not its delivery mechanism: conversations, we believe we have How do you organize and flow value a choice of space travel versus time around voice? travel. With “hypervoice” we transcend that limit: We can associate Adding Voice to what is said with what is done using when, not where. Our Activity Streams Conversations are sequences of How Hypervoice Works “gesture-response,” and these moves create an activity stream. These Hypervoice turns voice into a native gestures and responses are much Web object, rather than trying to richer in their forms than merely convert it into a text object. It works spoken interactions and interjections, by tying together all the gesturesOur recorded conversations since we can also make parallel digital and interactions made during a gestures—such as pulling up Web conversation into a unified whole.remain impossible to index, The basis of the linking structure pages and advancing sharedsearch and use. That leaves presentations. We make digital is the relative time in which gesturesour voice artifacts as liabilities, responses, such as taking notes after and responses occur.rather than digital assets. someone else’s spoken comment. When you make a note during an oral Critically, these parallel activities are separated from their voice context, conversation, the words you type are with the result that there is no cross- connected to the words that have relation between what is said and been spoken. Your typed note is what is done. important, and therefore forms relevant searchable context for the The management of our digital voice. You can tag a moment in the artifacts does not yet extend to live speech as easily as the piece of text or recorded voice. Voice gestures you have typed. Indeed, any and aren’t captured at all, or are captured every digital gesture can be tied to its as whole recorded conversations that moment in the spoken context. These have little value because they cannot hypervoice conversations can be be searched, navigated, or integrated given fine-grained permissions for into our workflow. And who has the sharing, searching and syndication, time or the impetus to plow through resolving the privacy issues around an hour-long recording in real time, in coarse-grained voice recording. search of a crucial but tiny snippet? To progress, we must create a unified If you have an agenda for the activity stream, and enable richer conversation, this provides structure; conversations and the collaboration as you advance through the agenda 26 | Megatrends Megatrends | 27
  15. 15. Mobilityitems, the relevant people can be in our lifetimes will ever rival aincluded (if not already present), and human voice’s capacity to conveythose transitions are noted in the rich and complex social andactivity stream. Those agenda items emotional meaning.can also be rich objects, tying thevoice to its context. For instance, an Just as hypertext breaks andagenda item might be a customer reconnects the place metaphor forhelp desk request, drawn from a text, hypervoice separates and linksticketing system; the voice segment the time elements of spokenon that trouble ticket can then be conversation. As has become thedirectly linked to the discussion case for all manner of text material,about its resolution. voice will no longer be left to languish in the limited contextThus, hypervoice is a natural of its origination.extension of the fundamental Web TODAY’S 5 BIGGESTconstruct of linking both to and from Hypervoice allows other non-voicethe conversation object, in a manner metadata and digital gestures andthat is suitable for voice. responses to provide the structure COMMUNICATION around voice, as a natural byproductThere is value to the user in creating of our online behavior. By makingmetadata for hypervoice, as it is a voice easy to navigate using these TRENDSnatural byproduct of what people structures, it makes voice recordingsdo anyway, and it transforms the useful for those who are not presentvoice into a digital asset. This in at the live event.turn makes voice material easy toshare, consume, and distribute, and Hypervoice is like being hyper-there is no learning curve, no barrier present. It’s “better than beingto utility, no friction. By unbundling there” as it augments and enrichesvoice from synchronous telephony our conversations. The need to collaborate is driving everything(or telephony-like unified Hypervoice is like being hyper- from social business to video.communications services), voice, intelligent. You can accesstoo, can become an “anytime, everything ever said, with One of the first questions we ask the IT leaders who give us their time is, “What’sanywhere” asynchronous medium. unbounded working memory. the hottest area that you’re focusing on now? What’s keeping you up at night?”Hypervoice is at the Hypervoice is like being hyper- 1. Mobility is always at the top of that list. When you look at budgets, aboutCore of Communications organized. You retain the link 68 percent of the companies are increasing their spending on mobility, withWhy put hypervoice as the between recorded words or images an average increase of 20 percent a year. They’re spending money on datacentral plank of your collaboration and their spoken context. services, they’re spending money on mobile device management platforms,strategy? Because the conversations and they’re spending money on integration and getting unified communicationsthat really matter are conducted The future of voice is hypervoice. • applications out to those mobile devices. They’re trying to enable a much morein the voice channel. No computer open model where employees can bring in their iPhone, they can bring in their Android device—whatever phone they want to use—and IT can potentially support it. Martin Geddes is a consultant on future telecom business models and technologies.He provides speaking, advisory, training, and innovation services to telcos, equipmentvendors, cloud services providers, and industry bodies. This article was adapted from a 2012 By Irwin Lazarwhite paper written for HarQen Inc. Please download the full version at hypervoice.org. Vice President and Service Director, Nemertes Research28 | Megatrends Megatrends | 29
  16. 16. much personal contact with others. A social platform can give you some of that. People are also starting to see social as part of their overall collaboration environment. If I’m looking up someone’s social profile and reading their likes and interests, shouldn’t I be able to click on their name, see if they’re available and immediately send them an IM or call them? 3. Another trend is the rise in managed and hosted services. We define that as any kind of third party you’re using to support IT, whether it’s professional services for architecture and build-out or managed services Managed and Hosted Services for day-to-day operations. Almost 90 percent of companies tell us they’re doing something hosted. And look at the plans for growth! Forty Social Business percent are adding more services: lower level application integration, mobile device management, social integration, unified communicationsThat has been easily the largest can lose a lot of time if they start integration, etc. We’re starting to seeoverall trend. playing games on their smartphones IT trying again to position itself much and tablets. So, “Can I lock that device more strategically. The drivers are theIT departments themselves have down so they can’t play those games, complexity of IT and finding staff.slightly different priorities. Data or can only do it on their own time?” If you haven’t really looked at managedsecurity is top of mind. What happens services carefully, our advice is: Take aif the person leaves the company? Can 2. Social business is about taking how hard look. When we measure success,I remotely wipe their applications? If people collaborate and communicatea device gets lost, will company data through Facebook and bringing it we look at things like cost of IT per Video employee, revenue per employee, andbe taken away? The second part is behind the firewall. Building a social IT spend per employee. Better metricsintegration with other applications. platform that your employees, your in these areas all tend to correlate Counselors with theHow do I make someone’s single partners, and your customers can all positively with higher use of managed Veterans Administrationphone number ring their mobile use to collaborate and communicate.phone as well as their desktop, or Being able to set up groups around services. Companies that outsource are checking for symptoms day-to-day support operations of theirenable them to quickly move calls projects, “Like” different things, applications tend to spend less per of PTSD in soldiers recentlyback and forth or participate in video suggest ways of finding informationsessions? The third is kind of a gotcha. to others, form communities of employee and have higher success returned from Iraq, using metrics. In this day and age, when easy-to-set-up desktopWhen people start bringing in these interest, etc. talent is so hard to find, being able todevices, they hammer the wireless videoconferencing. The biggest driver is collaboration: leverage third-party services seemsnetwork in the company. improving the way people work to show some significant financial andOne question that does come up a lot together. The secondary driver is this operational benefits. participate in room-based meetings.is, “How do we keep our employees age of telework where people work 4. With video, the focus is on giving So I don’t have to go to an office andfrom playing Angry Birds?” Employees from home and they don’t have as people at their desks the ability to find a videoconferencing center, 30 | Megatrends Megatrends | 31
  17. 17. DO COLLABORATION TOOLS BOOST WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION? A REVIEW OF THE ACADEMIC RESEARCH SIP TrunkingI can sit in an airport, in a hotel room, that a lot of the vendors go to marketor in my home office and participate with the idea that if we just make itin a video call with people who are cheap enough and easy enough toin conference rooms. That’s the killer use, everyone will use it and it willapp right now. replace phone calls. That’s not really what we’re seeing.One of my favorite examples is theVeterans Administration (VA), which 5. The final trend is SIP trunking.implemented videoconferencing for This often gets confused in thesoldiers returning from Iraq. Soldiers market. When we say SIP trunking,download a high-quality, high-definition we’re talking about how you connectvideo app on their desktop and and make calls outside your company,then have a videoconference with not how you connect devices internallya counselor to determine if they have through SIP. What we see with SIP isany PTSD (post-traumatic stress that costs aren’t really the big driversdisorder) -related issues. The counselors anymore. What is getting people interested in SIP is some of the thingscan now see many more patients per you can do with it. I can have a wholeday. They can help out remote areas lot more control over how calls getthat were understaffed. And they to me. I can route them to failovercan read body language and see the centers. I can load-balance callsattitude of the person with whom across facilities. I can implementthey are talking. SIP as part of a disaster recoveryVideo is extremely attractive for scenario. Plus, I can take advantagesuch applications. The challenge is of SIP services in the cloud. •Irwin Lazar is Vice President and Service Director at Nemertes Research, where heoversees research on unified communications, contact center, and social business.Nemertes is a leading research-advisory and strategic-consulting firm specializingin emerging technologies. This article is adapted from a 2012 presentation by Lazar By Dr. Charles Law,sponsored by Avaya. Assistant Professor, Penn State University32 | Megatrends Megatrends | 33
  18. 18. Should organizations continue to rely on text-based,asynchronous communication when researchoverwhelmingly indicates that there are better options?Anyone in the working world knows 126 emails a day in 2006, upthis: Meetings are as hard to kill off as 55 percent from 2003. Employeesa supervillain in a James Bond film. were spending 26 percent of theirDespite the mainstreaming of email time managing email. That wasand other collaboration technologies predicted to grow to 41 percentin the past decade, senior managers of their work day in 2009. Thisstill spend about 23 hours per week enormous increase in usage hasin face-to-face meetings (Rogelberg elevated the cost of supportingand colleagues, 2007). Seventy-two email to $17 billion annually today.percent of those managers said theyspend more time in meetings than 2) mail wastes time. Jackson and Ethey did five years earlier. colleagues (2003) found that employees are interrupted by emailThe move toward globalization and about every five minutes, hurtingthe reality of geographically separated the productivity of both sender andteams is accelerating the move receiver (Wilson, 2002). Source: The New Yorker.toward new forms of communication.Recent research has shown that this 3) Email is not good for urgent is beneficial for group task cohesion decisions. A sender doesn’t know if Here’s how it might work in real life. work hard to finish and send theirand performance (Shin Song, the receiver is available, nor if he or “Zestion” is a large Denver-based work to everyone a couple days later.2011). Will emerging collaboration she will read the email in a timely telecommunication company. Sophia,technologies continue to offer the manner (Luor, Wu, Lu Tao, 2010). who is the marketing director of However, neither Theodore norsame benefits? In this paper, I’ll review Zestion, recently initiated a process Luciana respond. Theodore was 4) Email is not rich. It is not real- action team to better understand sick and thought that Luciana hadthe academic research on the impact time, lacks verbal and non-verbal how customers use its products. The replied to Sophia, while Lucianaof email, instant messaging (IM), and cues, and conveys emotion badly team included two members from the was waiting for Theodore’s returnvideo on business collaboration, and (Cameron Webster, 2005). The corporate office (Sophia and Oliver), to reply. After three days, Sophiasuggest the good and bad things that use of emoticons can help, though two members from the Houston office emails asking if they had received herthe use of virtual avatars and social only if they are positive, as negative (Juan and Theresa), and two members initial message. Luciana immediatelynetworking might bring. emoticons tend to be disruptive from the New York office (Theodore becomes concerned that Sophia is (Luor, Wu, Lu Tao, 2010). and Luciana). They have three weeks angry at their lack of communication.Email: Convenient, but Limited to complete their project and present She forwards the message to 5) Email increases the number of Theodore, who still doesn’t respond.Cartwright and Kovacs (1995) it to management. “social loafers” and “free riders.” Worried about the reaction fromidentified three advantages to email: The former describes someone What happens if they use only email? Sophia, Luciana decides to do allIt is quick, it is convenient, and it is who reduces his/her own individual Sophia and Oliver complete their of the work herself. The result?inexpensive. However, as email has effort when working in a group portion and email their work to the Poor communication, hurt feelings,proliferated, researchers have begun with the assumption that others will other team members during the first and a “free rider” (Theodore).to note its disadvantages. make it up. The latter is an extreme week. Juan and Theresa “reply all”1) Email is no longer cheap. According example of a social loafer (Karau as soon as they get the email and Although email use has been steadily to the Radicati Group (2007), Williams, 1993; Lantane and indicate that they will be done with declining among university students employees received an average of colleagues, 1979). their portion soon. Juan and Theresa since 2005 (Judd, 2010), the number 34 | Megatrends Megatrends | 35
  19. 19. The Good and Bad of Email The Good and Bad of Instant Messaging Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Easy-to-use Asynchronous Richer, synchronous communication Potential privacy concerns Almost universally adopted Disruptive Cost-effective May be disruptive Convenient Social loafers/free riders Indicates “presence” Potential drop-off in usage Easy to send/receive documents Expensive to support Interoperability of email users will still grow from for 5 percent of workplace What might have happened if the IM-Using Workers (Millions)2.1 billion in 2012 to 2.7 billion in 2016 interruptions (others being Zestion team had used IM instead of(Radicati). While antiquated to some, 140 telephone calls, email, face-to-face (or in addition to) email? Sophia couldemail clearly remains one of the most communication, and meetings). IM the “available” team members with 120important ways that organizational her and Oliver’s portion of the work,members communicate. 3) bandonment. Birnholtz (2010) A and follow up by email with those 100 studied 21 IM users who had that were unavailable. When Luciana 80 adopted and then abandoned IM. receives the email, she sends an IM toInstant Messaging: They believed that IM left them too 60 Theodore letting him know about it.Getting Closer available (privacy) and that they He sends a message back to LucianaIn 2007, more than 67 million people 40 were often interrupted by people letting her know that he is sick, butused IM at work, up from only 11 million with whom they did not want to will try to be back to work in a few 20 talk, or had a hard time finishingin 2004 (Shiu Lenhart, 2004). While days. Meanwhile, Luciana sends andata hasn’t been recently collected, 0 IM conversations. IM to Juan and Theresa in HoustonRadicati (2007) estimated that over 2004 2007 2011 letting them know that Theodore is 120 million people would be using IM Source: Radicati Group.in the workplace by 2011.IM has several advantages. It’s real-time. It’s richer than email. And it could be saved and forwarded tolets users easily switch to even richer others. Those employees were alsomediums, such as voice or video over concerned that IM logs could bethe Internet (Anandarajan et al., 2010). saved and retrieved at some futureIM users can also know the presence time, leading to problems withof the people with whom they are misinterpretations. Some were evencommunicating. Finally, IM can be concerned that their “available”more cost-effective than telephone, status could be used as evidenceemail, and travel (Peslak, Ceccucci that they weren’t being productive. Sendall, 2010). 2) nterruptions. Cameron and I Webster (2005) found that overWhat are the potential downsides? half of the people they interviewed1) Privacy. Patil and Kobsa (2004, indicated that IM interrupted 2005) interviewed employees their work. However, more recent who use IM and found they were research indicates that might be uneasy that their IM conversations overstated. Ou and Davison (2011) found that IM only accounted36 | Megatrends Megatrends | 37
  20. 20. The Good and Bad of Videoconferencing Advantages Disadvantages Decreased travel costs May decrease task participation Effective in information gathering, Junior employees may find it training, brainstorming, and difficult to participate distance collaboration Rich communication medium Potential privacy concerns Synchronous May result in less participation sick, but that she is working on their other meeting participants, and this portion of the project. helps make you feel more connected to them.” But when Juan doesn’t answer her initial IM, Luciana sends No medium is perfect, of course. several subsequent messages. Olaniran (2009) interviewed Juan perceives this as pushy and employees at a large governmental domineering. Annoyed, he forwards organization. While 88 percent a copy of the messages to Sophia thought videoconferencing was more as a record of what he considers “convenient” than travel, 85 percent “harassment” by Luciana. When had problems dialing, 71 percent Sophia tells Luciana, Luciana is angry believed that videoconferencing at the violation of privacy. So what attendees sometimes “lurked” IM giveth, it also taketh away. rather than participated, and others Newer technologies might assuage worried that videoconferencing these problems. would completely replace travel. Still other workers view Videoconferencing: videoconferencing as a way for their Richer and Richer bosses to track their participation. Much of the attention on Indeed, some workers do clam up videoconferencing has focused and participate less, whether due on its ability to decrease travel to shyness in large group meetings costs. But as collaboration among (Boutte Jones, 1996) or, according geographically separated team to Nandhakumar and Baskerville members requires audio and/or (2006), due to senior-level managers visual cues (Bekkering Shim, 2006; exerting their authority in a way that Wegge, 2006), videoconferencing makes it hard for subordinates to may be the primary tool to which participate or contradict senior-level organizations turn. It provides a managers’ ideas. This can be very rich, real-time medium with counteracted. One way, according much of the intimacy of face-to- to Yoo and Alavi (2001), is for face communication. As Alavi and participants to have a rapport colleagues (1995) put it, “You based on a pre-existing history can see the body language of the of teamwork. 38 | Megatrends Megatrends | 39
  21. 21. It should be pointed out that existing well as make work more dynamic and The Good and Bad of 3-D Immersive Environmentsstudies are based mostly around engaging, and collaboration moreroom-based videoconferencing effective. 3-D immersive environmentsenvironments, not newer PC or mobile may also motivate and interest users Advantages Disadvantagesvideo chats. As videoconferencing more, as well as produce a deeper Decreased need for communication Learning curvemoves from the performance art understanding of subject matter Rich communication content Increased need for networkof the boardroom to the intimacy of (Jonassen, 2004). bandwidth, computer processingone-on-one conversations, it’s unclear Decrease in social loafers power, and graphics cardswhether these same issues will apply. 3-D environments seem to help high- and free riders performing teams most, because they are adept at using the environments3-D Immersive Environments to read each others’ non-verbal with Sophia being present might collaboration. Similarly, mobileIn a 3-D immersive environment, cues and gestures (Montoya et al., also be decreased. There are some collaboration and video offers thea computer generates a space in 2011). They also encourage equal hurdles: training, Sophia’s fear of new convenience of rich, synchronouswhich participants can interact participation in teams, especially high- technology, and Juan’s insufficiently collaboration anytime, anywhere.through the use of an avatar, or performing ones. Avatars aren’t able powerful PC. While these problemsvirtual representation of oneself. This to “free ride,” just as workers in small can be overcome, they do pose As collaboration continues to gomimics face-to-face communication teams can’t loaf off in real life. significant issues for managers. global, organizations will increasingly(Montoya, Massey Lockwood, 2011) seek new technologies to ensureby enabling non-verbal cues like How would this work for Zestion? that their employees can effectively Theresa, who is shy and doesn’t The Future and efficiently communicate acrossdirection of gaze and gestures(More, Ducheneaut Nickell, 2007). want to be on video, might feel more By 2009, computer-mediated time and distance. While it may comfortable as an avatar. Theodore, communication accounted for be impossible to predict exactlyOthers like Reeves, Malone, and who is recovering from his cold, can 30 to 50 percent of employee which technology organizations willO’Driscoll (2008) found that participate from home and not be interactions (Johnson, Bettenhausen embrace, it is likely that the trendimmersive online games may promote concerned about the appearance of Gibbons, 2009). Face-to-face toward a richer, more synchronouscollaboration and communication, as his red nose. The power differential interaction is already in the minority communication medium will continue. for many organizations and Will email and IM fade away into employees, and may already be obscurity anytime soon? Probably not. in the minority overall today. But should organizations continue to rely on text-based, asynchronous In addition to the technologies communication when research discussed above, there are other overwhelmingly indicates that there emerging tools. Take social are better options? Clearly, there are networking. While Facebook can better ways to communicate and hurt worker productivity (Nucleus collaborate if organizations are willing Research, 2009), it—along with to evolve and adapt, and it is likely that the business-focused LinkedIn— offers huge potential for business successful organizations will do so. • Dr. Charles Law is an assistant professor at Penn State University and President of SMART Consulting. He received his bachelor’s degree in psychology from the United States Air Force Academy and his Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology from Rice University.40 | Megatrends Megatrends | 41