Bio-metrics Technology


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Bio-metrics is the science and technology which is used to maintain security.
This technology is used to measure and analyze human body.

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Bio-metrics Technology

  1. 1. Biometrics
  2. 2. Overview • What is biometrics ? • How biometrics system works ? • Type of biometrics • Identification & Verification • Advantages & Disadvantages • Comparison • Face Recognization • Retina Scan • Fingerprint Recognization • Iris Recognization • Signature Recognization • Application of biometrics • Some Biometrics Still In Development • Conclusion • References Biometrics
  3. 3. What is Biometrics ? • The meaning of Biometrics comes from the Greeks. Biometry = bio(life) + metry(to measure). • Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data. • Biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics such as DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns,facial patterns and hand measurments for authentication purposes. • Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometrics
  4. 4. How Biometrics Works ? Biometrics
  5. 5. Types of Biometrics  Physiological  Face  Fingerprint  Hand geometry  Retina  Iris recognition  Behavioral  Signature  Voice Biometrics
  6. 6. A biometric system can operate in two modes Identification: • A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. Verification: • A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. • Verification is faster and performs better. • In a verification, the user must first enter his or her identity to the biometric system. User ID's can be forgotten and cards can be lost, making access impossible. Biometrics
  7. 7. Advantages of Biometrics • Biometrics are generally used for authentication. • It provides higher security .e.g. Iris recognition . • Voice Recognition works well over the telephone • User friendly e.g. Hand geometry recognization, finger print recognition. Biometrics
  8. 8. Disadvantages of Biometrics • Retina recognization requires close physical contact of the scanning device, may not be generally accepted by public • Costly • Voice recognization requires large amount of computer storage, people's voices can change, background noises can interfere. • Biometrics features may change over time. • Signature recognization has poor long-term reliability, accuracy difficult to ensure. Biometrics
  9. 9. Comparision of Biometrics Type Biometric Type Accuracy Easy to use User Acceptance Fingerprint High Medium Low Hand Geometry Medium High Medium Voice Medium High High Retina High Low Low Iris Medium Medium Medium Signature Medium Medium High Face Low High High Biometrics
  10. 10. Face Recognization • A facial recognization system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database. • It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. • Uses an image or series of images either from a camera or photograph to recognize a person. • Principle: analysis of the unique shape, pattern and positioning of facial features. • Passive biometrics and does not require a persons cooperation. • Highly complex technology and largely software based.
  11. 11. Face Recognization (cont…) Biometrics
  12. 12. Retina scan • It analyzing the layer of blood vessels situated at the back of the eye. • The machine takes around ten seconds to shine a “low intensity coherent light source” onto the retina to illuminate the blood vessels. • Once the machine has a copy of the scan, it compares the picture to all the different scans on file, looks for a match, and identifies the individual. • retina scan machines are fairly expensive. Biometrics
  13. 13. Fingerprint Recognization Biometrics
  14. 14. Fingerprint Recognization (cont…) • A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. • Biometrics reffers to that measure and analyze human body characteristics such as fingerprints recognization. • Fingerprint recognization is possible using the fingerprint scanner. • A fingerprint scanner has two basic jobs. • It needs to get an image of your finger. • It needs to determine whether the pattern of ridges and vellys in this image matches pattern of ridges and valleys in pre-scanned images. Biometrics
  15. 15. Fingerprint Recognization (cont…) Image Acquistition Template(s) MatchingFeature Extraction Image Acquistition Template(s) Feature Extraction A. Enrollment B. Authentication Biometrics
  16. 16. Fingerprint Recognization (cont…) • There are a number of different ways to get an image of somebody’s finger. • The most common method todays are optical scanning and capacitance scanning. • The heart of an optical scanner is a charge coupled device (CCD). • The CCD scanning process strats when you place your finger on a glass plate and a CCD camera takes a picture. • one of the largest fingerprint recognization system is integrated automated fingerprint identification system, maintained by FBI in the US since 1999. Biometrics
  17. 17. Advatages of fingerprint Recognization • Oldest form of Biometrics • Highly Reliable • Uses distinctive features of fingers • High Security access • Reduce cost • Instance Report Biometrics
  18. 18. Disadvatages of fingerprint Recognization • It is not a right tool for the ones who is work in the Chemical Industries. • If a person loses his/her fingerprint identity then that person will never be able to use or replace their fingerprint as their identity. Biometrics
  19. 19. Iris Recognization • Iris recognition is an automated method of biometric identification that uses mathematical pattern-recognition techniques on video images of the irises of an individual's eyes, whose complex random patterns are unique and can be seen from some distance. • retina scanning, iris recognition uses camera technology with subtle infrared illumination to acquire images of the detail-rich, intricate structures of the iris. Biometrics
  20. 20. Signature Recognization • Signature recognition is a behavioural biometric. • It can be operated in two different ways: • Static: In this mode, users write their signature on paper, digitize it through an optical scanner or a camera, and the biometric system recognizes the signature analyzing its shape. This group is also known as “off-line”. • Dynamic: In this mode, users write their signature in a digitizing tablet, which acquires the signature in real time. Another possibility is the acquisition by means of stylus-operated PDAs. Dynamic recognition is also known as “on-line”.
  21. 21. Application • Criminal identification • Prison security • ATM and other Financial Transactions • PC/LAN Login • Database access • Border crossing controls Biometrics
  22. 22. Some Biometrics Still In Development • Scent • Ear Shape • Finger nail bed • Facial 3D Biometrics
  23. 23. Conclusion • Technology is growing rapidly, but at the same time security breaches and transactions frauds are also in the increase world over. • All agencies including libraries who are in need of security and safety have to adopt biometrics • Let us hope for safe and secure future. Biometrics
  24. 24. References • • • • • Biometrics Avani & Dharmishtha
  25. 25. That’s all for biometrics…..