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Friction Stir Welding
forfor
Marine ConstructionMarine Construction
Stephen Cater
TWI Ltd United KingdomTWI Ltd, United Ki...
Aluminium in ships – where and why ?
Wh l i ht i d d d f l ffi i• When low weight, increased speed and fuel efficiency are...
Aluminium – issues to be considered
St t l I t it• Structural Integrity
– Fatigue performance differs from that of steel
–...
FSW P t t d b TWIFSW Patented by TWI
swk
FSW Principle
FSW Principle
Process advantages
• Excellent in strength, fatigue, corrosion
V l di t ti• Very low distortion
• Automated process – cons...
FSW of 50 and 75mm thick AA6082-T6
50mm
75mm75mm
75mm
swk
20mm Section plate trials AA201720mm Section plate trials AA2017
Mid Section
HV
120
140
160
180
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60...
20mm Section plate trials AA508320mm Section plate trials AA5083
100
Hardness,HV
40
60
80
Mid Section
Distance frm weld ce...
20mm Section plate trials AA6082
Mid Section
20mm Section plate trials AA6082
,HV
1 0 0
1 2 0
1 4 0
1 6 0
D i t f l d t
- ...
20mm Section plate trials AA702020mm Section plate trials AA7020
Mid Section
ess,HV
100
120
140
160
D istance frm w eld ce...
350 35%
Properties of FSW in AA6082
301
254
300
260
244
310
250
300
350MPa]
25%
30%
35%
%]
22.9%
18.8%200
250
trengh[
20%
...
1000
Fatigue Results for FSW Butt Joints
100
nge,MPa
7075 welded
7075 plate
2014 welded
2014 l t100
Stressran
2014 plate
2...
Design S-N Curves for AA6005
FSW approvals
• Lloyds Register
• DNV
• Bureau Veritas
• RINA
ABS• ABS
• Germanisher Lloyd
• TUVTUV
• DB
• FAA
FSW hi b ildi li ti i E USAFSW shipbuilding applications in Europe, USA,
Japan, Australia and China
Sapa’s Deep Freezing Panels for Pressing Fish BlocksSapa s Deep Freezing Panels for Pressing Fish Blocks
2 Photos: Backlun...
FSW panels for Hovercraft at Aluminium Shipbuilders Ltd in EnglandFSW panels for Hovercraft at Aluminium Shipbuilders Ltd ...
FSW Modules for “Seven Seas Navigator”FSW Modules for Seven Seas Navigator
3 Photographs: Hydro Marine Aluminium3 Photogra...
FSW Modules for Kleven Verft’s “Finnmarken”
Photos: Thomas Müller, http://www.norwegen-
freunde.com/thomasm/skip_finnmarke...
Nichols Bros & Advanced Joining Technologies:
X-Craft ‘Sea Fighter’ for US Navy
Nichols BrosNichols Bros AJTAJT
Photos:Pho...
FSW t M i Al i i Off h M d lFSW at Marine Aluminium - Offshore Modules
swk
Photos: www.marine-aluminium.com
FSW at China FSW CentreFSW at China FSW Centre
12m
5m
www.cfswt.com
FSW and High Energy Rate Formingg gy g
by RFI, Univ of Adelaide and TWI
2 Photos: http://www.management-consultants.com.au...
Current Research and Development
• Improved tool designs
• Portable low cost machines• Portable, low cost machines
• FSW o...
SSFSW f Ti A li ti
Butt welds have recently been made at welding speeds
f t 200 / i
SSFSW of Ti - Applications
of up to 20...
TWI Trial on FSW of Al to Steel (Mechanical Interlock)TWI Trial on FSW of Al to Steel (Mechanical Interlock)
swk
St ti Sh ld FSWStationary Shoulder FSW
AA6082 T6 6 bAA6082-T6 6mm probe
Stationary Shoulder FSW
Thi k S ti W ldThick Section Weld
AA6082-T6 30mm probe
Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW
NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW
AA6082-T6 6mm probe
NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW
Tee Welding Schematicg
Rotating Pin
Profiled static
shoulder
WorkpieceWorkpiece
Workpiece
S...
Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW
NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
St ti Sh ld C FSWStationary Shoulder Corner FSW
8 thi k l t 6082 T6 T8mm thick plate 6082-T6 Tee
Weld
NLM Japanese Patent ...
Stationary Shoulder Corner FSWStationary Shoulder Corner FSW
Dissimilar Alloy Tee Weld
AA7075-T6
AA2014-T6
NLM Japanese Pa...
Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW
FORCE FORCE
Mechanical Testing Jig
NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW
6082-T6 310MPa
Force = 50kN
UTS = 230MPaUTS = 230MPa
Efficiency 75%
8mm thick plate 6082-T6...
St ti Sh ld C FSWStationary Shoulder Corner FSW
EXTERNAL CORNER
WELDING
Rotating Pin
Profiled static
shoulder
orkpiece
W
o...
• Many commercial applications of Friction Stir Welding in
Conclusions
y pp g
shipbuilding worldwide
• WPS or component ap...
Future Collaboration
• In 2010 the EU may call for proposals from SME Associations
for collaborative research under the Fr...
D. Stephen Cater TWI LTD
D. Stephen Cater TWI LTD
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D. Stephen Cater TWI LTD

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Presentación del ponente D. Stephen Cater TWI LTD, Technology Engineering, en la Jornada Transnacional "Demostración Tecnológica en la Industria Auxiliar del Naval" Realizada el 26 de enero de 2010, en Santiago de Compostela

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D. Stephen Cater TWI LTD

  1. 1. Friction Stir Welding forfor Marine ConstructionMarine Construction Stephen Cater TWI Ltd United KingdomTWI Ltd, United Kingdom Tel: +44 114 269 9046, stephen.cater@twi.co.uk swk
  2. 2. Aluminium in ships – where and why ? Wh l i ht i d d d f l ffi i• When low weight, increased speed and fuel efficiency are required: • Pleasure boats and large yachts • Patrol boats for custom, police, coast guard • Accommodation modules, cabins • Helicopter decksHelicopter decks • Hovercrafts • High speed ferries • Cruise ships superstructure • Fast intervention naval craft
  3. 3. Aluminium – issues to be considered St t l I t it• Structural Integrity – Fatigue performance differs from that of steel – Different design codes are requiredg q • Corrosion performance Selection of correct alloy– Selection of correct alloy – Attention to detail in design and elimination of corrosion pockets • Fabrication – Aluminium is lighter than steel and so requires less craneage – Aluminium is regarded as more difficult to weld than steel– Aluminium is regarded as more difficult to weld than steel
  4. 4. FSW P t t d b TWIFSW Patented by TWI swk
  5. 5. FSW Principle
  6. 6. FSW Principle
  7. 7. Process advantages • Excellent in strength, fatigue, corrosion V l di t ti• Very low distortion • Automated process – consistent quality • No fume no radiation no noiseNo fume, no radiation, no noise • Single pass process, even for thick sections • Cost benefits – no filler, no gas, low labour costs
  8. 8. FSW of 50 and 75mm thick AA6082-T6 50mm 75mm75mm 75mm swk
  9. 9. 20mm Section plate trials AA201720mm Section plate trials AA2017 Mid Section HV 120 140 160 180 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Hardness, 20 40 60 80 100 ASRS om,mm 18 Distance from the center, mm Distance, mm vs Hardness, HV Rpm=300 ASRS fromthebotto 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 120 130 140 150 160 Speed=100mm/min Distance frm weld center, mm -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Distancef 2 4 170 RS AS
  10. 10. 20mm Section plate trials AA508320mm Section plate trials AA5083 100 Hardness,HV 40 60 80 Mid Section Distance frm weld center, mm -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 20 40 Distance(mm) vs Hardness (HV) ASRS Rpm= 300 m,mm 18 86 Distance(mm) vs Hardness (HV) ASRS Speed=80mm/min fromthebotto 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 Distance from weld center, mm -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Distancef 2 4 100 102 RS AS
  11. 11. 20mm Section plate trials AA6082 Mid Section 20mm Section plate trials AA6082 ,HV 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 4 0 1 6 0 D i t f l d t - 6 0 - 4 0 - 2 0 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 Hardness 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 ASRS Rpm= 500, D i s t a n c e f r o m w e l d c e n t e r , m m d i s t a n c e ( m m ) v s H a r d n e s s ( H V ) ASRS ttom,mm 14 16 18 70 80 Speed=350mm/min ncefrombot 4 6 8 10 12 14 80 90 100 110 120 130 Distance from weld center,mm -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Dista 2 130 140 RS AS
  12. 12. 20mm Section plate trials AA702020mm Section plate trials AA7020 Mid Section ess,HV 100 120 140 160 D istance frm w eld center m m -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Hardne 20 40 60 80 ASRS ttom,mm 14 16 18 D istance frm w eld center, m m D istance (m m ) vs H ardness (H V ) Rpm= 200 ASRS cefromthebot 4 6 8 10 12 14 100 110 120 130 140 Speed=90mm/min Distance from weld center, mm -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Distan 2 4 RS AS
  13. 13. 350 35% Properties of FSW in AA6082 301 254 300 260 244 310 250 300 350MPa] 25% 30% 35% %] 22.9% 18.8%200 250 trengh[ 20% 25% gation[% 10.4% 6 4% 9.9%100 150 TensileS 10% 15% Elong 4.9% 6.4% 0 50 T 0% 5% T6 Parent T6 FSW T6 FSW & aged T4 Parent T4 FSW T4 FSW & aged Tensile strength MPa Elongation %
  14. 14. 1000 Fatigue Results for FSW Butt Joints 100 nge,MPa 7075 welded 7075 plate 2014 welded 2014 l t100 Stressran 2014 plate 2219 welded 2219 plate 5083 welded ECCS Class B3 5083 plate 10 Endurance, cycles 104 105 106 107 108
  15. 15. Design S-N Curves for AA6005
  16. 16. FSW approvals • Lloyds Register • DNV • Bureau Veritas • RINA ABS• ABS • Germanisher Lloyd • TUVTUV • DB • FAA
  17. 17. FSW hi b ildi li ti i E USAFSW shipbuilding applications in Europe, USA, Japan, Australia and China
  18. 18. Sapa’s Deep Freezing Panels for Pressing Fish BlocksSapa s Deep Freezing Panels for Pressing Fish Blocks 2 Photos: Backlund J et al: ‘FSW - Weld Properties and Manufacturing Techniques’. Inalco 98 swk
  19. 19. FSW panels for Hovercraft at Aluminium Shipbuilders Ltd in EnglandFSW panels for Hovercraft at Aluminium Shipbuilders Ltd in England FSWFSW FSW D kFSW D k BulkheadBulkhead PanelPanel FSW DeckFSW Deck PanelPanel Griffon 8000Griffon 8000 Quarterdeck HovercraftQuarterdeck Hovercraft 80 seat, 880 seat, 8--10t payload10t payload for Incheon Airport Korea1for Incheon Airport Korea1 Photos: Norsk Hydro UK Ltd, Aluminium Shipbuilders Ltd and Griffon Hovercraft www.griffonhovercraft.com swk
  20. 20. FSW Modules for “Seven Seas Navigator”FSW Modules for Seven Seas Navigator 3 Photographs: Hydro Marine Aluminium3 Photographs: Hydro Marine Aluminium swk
  21. 21. FSW Modules for Kleven Verft’s “Finnmarken” Photos: Thomas Müller, http://www.norwegen- freunde.com/thomasm/skip_finnmarken03.htm http://www.norwegische-postschiffe.de/hr_skip_ms_finnmarken02.htm & http://www.ham.no
  22. 22. Nichols Bros & Advanced Joining Technologies: X-Craft ‘Sea Fighter’ for US Navy Nichols BrosNichols Bros AJTAJT Photos:Photos: www.nicholsboats.com and www.ajtwww.nicholsboats.com and www.ajt--inc.cominc.com swk
  23. 23. FSW t M i Al i i Off h M d lFSW at Marine Aluminium - Offshore Modules swk Photos: www.marine-aluminium.com
  24. 24. FSW at China FSW CentreFSW at China FSW Centre 12m 5m www.cfswt.com
  25. 25. FSW and High Energy Rate Formingg gy g by RFI, Univ of Adelaide and TWI 2 Photos: http://www.management-consultants.com.au/members/ profile.asp?who=19DE10E86E90C46DC0AEADF5EF3ED42431343636
  26. 26. Current Research and Development • Improved tool designs • Portable low cost machines• Portable, low cost machines • FSW of Steel, Titanium • FSW of thick section Al (LNG applications) • FSW of dissimilar materials • Friction Stir Processing S f• FSW for more complex shapes
  27. 27. SSFSW f Ti A li ti Butt welds have recently been made at welding speeds f t 200 / i SSFSW of Ti - Applications of up to 200mm/min: 6.35mm Ti-6Al-4V welded at 100mm/min 6 356.35mm Ti-6Al-4V welded atwelded at 200mm/min
  28. 28. TWI Trial on FSW of Al to Steel (Mechanical Interlock)TWI Trial on FSW of Al to Steel (Mechanical Interlock) swk
  29. 29. St ti Sh ld FSWStationary Shoulder FSW AA6082 T6 6 bAA6082-T6 6mm probe
  30. 30. Stationary Shoulder FSW Thi k S ti W ldThick Section Weld AA6082-T6 30mm probe
  31. 31. Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
  32. 32. Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW AA6082-T6 6mm probe NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
  33. 33. Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW Tee Welding Schematicg Rotating Pin Profiled static shoulder WorkpieceWorkpiece Workpiece Support NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
  34. 34. Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
  35. 35. St ti Sh ld C FSWStationary Shoulder Corner FSW 8 thi k l t 6082 T6 T8mm thick plate 6082-T6 Tee Weld NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
  36. 36. Stationary Shoulder Corner FSWStationary Shoulder Corner FSW Dissimilar Alloy Tee Weld AA7075-T6 AA2014-T6 NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
  37. 37. Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW FORCE FORCE Mechanical Testing Jig NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
  38. 38. Stationary Shoulder Corner FSW 6082-T6 310MPa Force = 50kN UTS = 230MPaUTS = 230MPa Efficiency 75% 8mm thick plate 6082-T6 Tee Weld NLM Japanese Patent : 11-320128
  39. 39. St ti Sh ld C FSWStationary Shoulder Corner FSW EXTERNAL CORNER WELDING Rotating Pin Profiled static shoulder orkpiece W orkpie W or piece Support
  40. 40. • Many commercial applications of Friction Stir Welding in Conclusions y pp g shipbuilding worldwide • WPS or component approvals by major classification societies • 193 licensees worldwide, 1600 patent applications Process will be used more when its advantages are appreciated by• Process will be used more when its advantages are appreciated by naval architects and designers – High quality mechanised welds with no consumablesHigh quality, mechanised welds with no consumables – No corrosion traps Hi h j i t ffi i– High joint efficiency – Can join dissimilar alloys – ie 6XXX to 5XXX or 2XXX or 7XXX… swk
  41. 41. Future Collaboration • In 2010 the EU may call for proposals from SME Associations for collaborative research under the Framework 7 programme. • TWI would be pleased to work with a consortium of shipbuilding SMEs to submit a research proposal to further develop friction stir welding for the benefit of the Europeandevelop friction stir welding for the benefit of the European maritime sector. swk

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