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Lesson 6 Sects Splinters and Rise of the Mahdi

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Part 6 of the series - Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This

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Lesson 6 Sects Splinters and Rise of the Mahdi

  1. 1. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi 1 A Special Topic Course Presented by: www.IslamicStateOfAmerica.com Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Lesson 6: Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi
  2. 2. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Review: The Spread of Islam The First “Rightly Guided” Caliphs Abu Bakr – 632 -634 AD Umar - 634 – 644 AD (died of sickness ??) Uthman - 644 – 656 AD (murdered in his palace) Ali bin Au Taleb - 656 – 661 AD (assassinated) - Shi’a follow the descendants of Ali Ali at the Battle of Badr, 624 AD 2
  3. 3. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi 3 Review: The Fruit of Jihad • 661 – 1095 AD – Internal strife subsided and Islam gained larger focus: Conquest – Cyprus 647 AD – Tunisia, northern Afghanistan (Kabul) 670 – Rhodes 672 – Constantinople 677 – Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem 691 – North Africa 700, Spain 711 – Turkestan 715, Morocco 722 – Damascus, Syria was capital
  4. 4. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Global Distribution of Muslims 4
  5. 5. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Sunni Islam • Base their religion on the Qur’an (the word of Allah) and the Sunnah (the way of the prophet, Muhammad) – Considered by many to be “orthodox Islam” • After the assassination of 4th Caliph, they followed the “customs of the prophet,” not the blood line of Muhammad (e.g., Ali) – Sunni state that the Prophet chose his friend Abu Bakr to lead prayers as he lay on his death bed. Abu Bakr was 1st Caliph, father of Aisha. • Based on four schools of Islamic jurisprudence – Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’I, Hanbali – Not different sects of Sunni Islam… four unique schools of Sunni law. 5
  6. 6. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Sunni Islam • Sunnah… “The way of the Prophet” or “Traditions” – Sunni = largest ‘denomination’ within Islam • Agreed to elect Muhammad’s successors = Caliph (Kalifa) • 87% of all Muslims aligned with Sunni sect Shari’a law systematized by Sunnis in 819 AD Shari’a = “The way to the watering hole” Religious duty = ibadat Ethics = m’Amalat Jurisprudence = fiqh 6
  7. 7. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Sufi Islam • Arose in response to perceived legalism within Islam. Consider themselves to be the pure representation of Islam. • Trace lineage through 4th Caliph, Ali. Opposed by Wahhabist and Salafist adherents. • Strong emphasis on mysticism. Seek personal experience with Allah through meditation. • Emphasis on self-denial and ascetism. Whirling dervishes. Sufi dancers meditate in a trance-like state during the dance. The sufi practice ihsan, the perfection of worship. 7
  8. 8. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi 8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxPwz8FqxYI Video: Sufi Soul: The Mystic Music Of Islam
  9. 9. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Ibadi Islam • Distinct sect from Sunni, Sufi and Shi’a – Dominant in Oman, Zanzibar. Also Algeria, Tunisia, East Africa • Founded 60 years after death of Muhammad – Arose out of Kharijite movement. Opposed the 3rd caliph, then 4th caliph • Key beliefs – Whoever enters hell will remain there forever. This is contrary to the Sunni belief that Muslims who enter hellfire will live there for a fixed amount of time to purify them of their sins, after which they will enter Heaven. – It is unnecessary to have one leader for the entire Muslim world, and if no single leader is fit for the job then Muslim communities can rule themselves. This is different from both the Sunni belief of Caliphate and the Shi'ite belief of Imamah. The leader need not be descended from Muhammad or his tribe. 9
  10. 10. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Nation Of Islam (NOI) • Only exists within the United States. Founded in 1930, based on the teachings of Noble Drew • Tenet that African Americans were actually of Arabic heritage and should be referred to as Moors. Islam should be the correct faith of all Africans in the United States. • Initially led by Elijah Muhammad, who established temples and a university. Later led by Malcolm X. • Louis Farrakhan reorganized NOI in 1977 based on founder’s model. Anti-Semitic focus. No whites allowed to join. NOI breaks with traditional Sunni and Shi’a Muslims on some prayer, Ramadan, and messiah issues. NOI believes that Wallace Fard, their founder, was Allah 10 Louis Farrakhan
  11. 11. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Shi’a: The Great Split Begins • Ali bin au Taleb, 4th Caliph, was Muhammad’s son-in-law (married Fatima) and cousin. – Succeeded the dreaded Uthman, 3rd Caliph. Muslims in Medina pressed for his leadership. – Some hadith report that Muhammad once took Ali’s hand and said that anyone who followed Muhammad should follow Ali. • Aisha, Muhammad’s last wife, raised forces against Ali. Defeated by Ali in 656 AD. • Rival leader Muawiyah, governor of Damascus, angry that Ali did not bring his cousin Uthman’s killers to justice Investiture of Ali as Caliph 11
  12. 12. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Driving a Wedge Into Islam • Muawiyah held Egypt; marched on Iraq and Ali’s forces in 657 AD at the Battle of Sifin – Bribed Caliph Ali’s forces to turn against him. Ali forced to make peace. Umayyad Caliphate was subsequently established • Kharijites later formed their own sect to oppose all contenders for leadership of caliphate • Caliph Ali killed by Kharijites using a poison coated sword while praying in the mosque at Kufa, Iraq, capital of caliphate, Jan 27th 661. • Ali requested he be buried in secret. Most believe he is entombed in Iraq (An Najaf). Battle of Sifin, 657 AD 12
  13. 13. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi The Rise of Yazid and Death of Ali • Kharijites later defeated in series of uprisings. 500,000 descendants survive today in Yemen, Oman, Zanzibar • Muawiyah succeeded Ali as Caliph, moved capital from Kufa to Damascus. Created monarchy. Died 680, succeeded by son Yazid. • Followers of Caliph Ali stayed in Kufa. Hussein, youngest son of Ali and Fatima invited to become their leader. Left Medina with family. • Yazid sent forces to stop him. Battle at Karbala, Iraq killed Hussein. Said to have fought heroically, sacrificing his life for survival of Shi’a 13
  14. 14. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi The Last Straw: Battle of Karbala • Hussein refused to pay homage to Yazid and the monarchy established by his father in Damascus. • Yazid’s forces of 6,000 men surrounded Hussein’s caravan of family, 32 horsemen, and 40 infantry. • Cut them off from water only 2 days travel from Kufa. Hussein asked that Yazid spare them a day so that they could pray all night. • The following day the Hussein forces fought an overwhelming army. • Voice from the sky reported to have said “we are satisfied with your deeds and your sacrifice.” • Yazid beheaded Hussein and his men, sending heads to all tribes of the region. • Hadith report that Angel Jibreel brought Muhammad a handful of soil from the location where his grandson Hussein would be slain. • Muhammad’s wife Salamah said to have seen grieving Muhammad in a dream, who stated “I have just been present at the slaying of al-Husayn.” 14
  15. 15. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi The Shi’a Identity • Battle of Karbala one of most significant events in Shi’a history – Basis for strong theme of martyrdom in Shi’a Islam • Battle of Karbala is celebrated annually on the Day of Ashura • Millions of pilgrims visit Imam Hussein mosque and shrine in Karbala, Iraq, participating in symbolic acts of self-flagellation. 15
  16. 16. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Other Muslim Views of Shi’a • Shi’a give preference those hadith and sunnah credited to Muhammad and close associates. All other writings require scrutiny. • Sunni consider all hadith and sunnah, narrated by as many as 12,000 of Muhammad’s companions, to be valid. • Hierarchy of Shi’a clergy exists, funded by religious taxes. • No clergy hierarchy in Sunni Islam. Imams funded by the state or through zakat gifts. • Sufi provide bridge between Sunni and Shi’a theologies • Some orthodox Sunni reject Shi’a concept of a messiah (Mahdi) because no mention of it exists in Qur’an or sunnah. • Wahhabi movement within Sunni Islam sees the Shi’a veneration of Imams and shrines to battles as heretical • Radical Sunnis disparage Shi’a as Rafidi (rejecter) and apostate 16
  17. 17. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi The Shi’a Mahdi • Caliph Ali was followed by a series of Imams (spiritual guides) in whom Shi’a Muslims placed their trust • 7th Imam was Muhammad ibn Ismail => Ismaili Muslims • 12th Imam (born 868 AD) was Muhammad Al’ Mahdi – Hidden by Allah at age 5, is still alive but in an “occultation” awaiting the time that Allah has decreed for him to return – He will be a young man of medium build… he will not come in an odd year… will announce himself in Mecca near the Kaaba. He will call people to pay allegiance to him – The Hidden Imam will return as the Mahdi with a company of “chosen ones.” His enemies will be led by the one-eyed Dajjal (Anti-Christ), fighting in an apocalyptic battle where the Mahdi prevails over evil near Mecca. • Note: Many Sunnis say that Shi’a Mahdi = Sunni Dajjal (antichrist) 17
  18. 18. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Two Sides of the Tale • Mahdi reported to have stated (by letter through his four agents): – “The Shi’a believe that Imam al-Mahdi will reappear when the world has fallen into chaos and civil war emerges between the human race for no reason. At this time, it is believed, half of the true believers will ride from Yemen carrying white flags to Mecca while the other half will ride from Karbala, in Iraq, carrying black flags to Mecca. At this time, Imam al-Mahdi will come wielding Ali’s Sword, Zulfiqar, the Double-Bladed Sword.” • Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, pp. 161–66 – The Eleventh Imam, Hasan al-Askari, was kept more or less a prisoner by the Abbasids in the camp at Samarra, about 100 kilometers north of Baghdad, and died there in 874 A.D at the age of twenty-eight. It appears that none of the Shi’a notables knew of the existence of the son of eleventh Imam. The only possible occasion the son of eleventh Imam is said to made a public appearance was at the time of his death, then as a child and the boy was seen no more. 18
  19. 19. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Signs of the Mahdi’s Return • Mahdi is a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. He will bear the name Muhammad. His face shines like the moon. Long nose, beard, high forehead, rings around eyes, fair skin. He will have a black mark on his cheek. A lunar and solar eclipse will occur during Ramadan. A star with a luminous tail will rise from the East before him. • Before his coming will be the red death (sword) and the white death (plague). One third of the world will die from the red death, then a third from the white death. • Death and fear will afflict the people of Baghdad and Iraq. A fire will appear in the sky and a redness will cover them. His coming will be accompanied by the appearance of the one-eyed Dajjal (the false messiah) in the East. Mahdi will conquer on a white horse, judging by the Qur’an, “and with whom will be men with marks of prostration on their foreheads.” (see Al Mahdi and the End of Time, Muhammad ibn Izzat and Muhammad Arif) • He will sign four agreements with the Romans, conquer the world, and reestablish the Caliphate. He will rule for seven years before the arrival of Isa (Jesus). Isa will return to establish Islamic rule. Alongside Isa, the Mahdi will rid the world of wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny. • http://www.al-islam.org/articles/signs-reappearance-twelfth-imam-ajtf • http://www.inter-islam.org/faith/mahdi1.htm 19
  20. 20. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi The Sunni Mahdi • Sunni do not believe that Mahdi has yet been born or revealed • Many Sunnis (excepting the ultra-orthodox) view the Mahdi as the successor of Muhammad. The Mahdi is expected to arrive to rule the world and to reestablish righteousness. Mahdi = “guided one.” – Qur’an 43:61 “And Isa shall be a sign for the coming of the Hour of Judgment: therefore have no doubt about the Hour, but follow ye Me: this is a Straight Way.” – Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:43:656 “Allah's Apostle said, ‘The Hour will not be established until the son of Maryam descends amongst you as a just ruler, he will break the cross, kill the pigs, and abolish the Jizya tax. Money will be in abundance so that nobody will accept it.’” – Sahih Muslim, 41:7023. Isa (Jesus) will return to aid the Mahdi against Masih ad-Dajjal, the false messiah, and his followers. Isa will descend at the point of a white arcade, east of Damascus (Syria), dressed in yellow robes with his head anointed. Isa will slay Dajjal and unite humanity. 20
  21. 21. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Sunni Summary of the Mahdi Reign • The Caliphate will be reestablished during a terrible period of worldwide injustice and evil. The whole Muslim world will unite and the Caliphate will reemerge overnight. • Chaos will arise during the Hajj season and the Mahdi will be forced to reveal himself in Medina. Three princes will march on Mecca to take the treasures from the Kaaba but the Mahdi will turn them back. • An army will then rise in Syria to destroy the Mahdi, marching on Mecca, but the Syrians will all be swallowed up in the ground before they arrive. • Eastern Muslims will arise under a Black Flag of war in Khorasan (Afghanistan) and march to Mecca to support the Mahdi. Established as the Caliph, he will distribute loads of wealth so that money is no longer needed. He will reign over a period of great abundance. Many Europeans will convert to Islam, and later, the Muslims will defeat Rome. • A third army will arise, and a major battle will break out on the plains of Megiddo (Armageddon) where a third of the Muslims defect and are never forgiven, one third are slaughtered, and a third survive to win, defeating the third army and Rome. The Mahdi will reign over an abundant and green Arabian peninsula and even those averse to Islam will convert. • The Dajjal (false messiah) will arise and spread tribulation for three years, drying up crops and laying waste to the global abundance. Jesus will return, descending on the wings of two angels and kill the Dajjal, establishing a new kingdom to bring justice, and Islam to the whole world. Shortly after Jesus returns, the Mahdi will die and be mourned by many. • http://www.discoveringislam.org/sunni_mahdi.htm 21
  22. 22. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi ISIS End Times Prophecy 22 • ISIS believes that there will be only 12 legitimate caliphs, and that Abu Bakr al Baghdadi is 8th. • The armies of Rome will mass to meet the armies of Islam at Dabiq. • Islam’s final showdown with an anti-Messiah will occur in Jerusalem after a period of renewed Islamic conquest. Dabiq Russian and Syrian forces are battling rebels for control of Aleppo, close to Dabiq. Tens of thousands of refugees are flowing into Turkey and Europe.
  23. 23. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi 23 http://www1.cbn.com/content/exclusive-iranian-video-says-mahdi-near Video: Exclusive: Iranian Video Says Mahdi is 'Near' https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czQRTgTZhJ4 Video: Glenn Beck and Joel Rosenberg discuss Iran and the 12th Imam
  24. 24. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi The Father of It All… • “The great dragon was hurled down--that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray. He was hurled to the earth, and his angels with him…He (The Dragon) pursued the woman who had given birth to the male child… The woman was given the two wings of a great eagle, so that she might fly to the place prepared for her in the desert, where she would be taken care of for a time, times and half a time, out of the serpent's reach. Then the dragon was enraged at the woman and went off to make war against the rest of her offspring--those who obey God's commandments and hold to the testimony of Jesus.” – Revelation 12:1-6,9,13,14,17 24
  25. 25. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Does Revelation Predict the Mahdi? • Revelation 6:1-2 (The White Horse of the Mahdi?) – “I watched as the Lamb opened the first of the seven seals. Then I heard one of the four living creatures say in a voice like thunder, “Come!” I looked and there before me was a white horse! Its rider held a bow, and he was given a crown, and he rode out as a conqueror bent on conquest.” – Three interpretations for this rider: • Jesus (per Rev 19:11), the Antichrist, or a Spirit of conquest per God’s judgment • Revelation 6:3-5 (The Red Death [sword] before the Mahdi arrives?) – “When the Lamb opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature say, “Come!” Then another horse came out, a fiery red one. Its rider was given power to take peace from the earth and to make people kill each other. To him was given a large sword.” 25
  26. 26. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Does Revelation Predict the Mahdi? • Revelation 13:16 (Marks of prostration of Mahdi’s followers?) – “He also forced everyone, small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead, so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark.” Sujood = prostration in the act of prayer 26
  27. 27. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi Does Revelation Predict the Mahdi? • Daniel 9:27 (Seven Years of the Mahdi Reign?) – “He will confirm a covenant with many for one ‘seven.’ In the middle of the ‘seven’ he will put an end to sacrifice and offering. And at the temple he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him.” • Revelation 11:2 (Desecration and destruction during Dajjal’s rule?) – “They will trample on the Holy city for 42 months.” • Revelation 17 (Mecca is surrounded by [built on] seven hills) – 17:3 “I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was covered with blasphemous names, and had seven heads and ten horns.” – 17:9 “The seven heads are seven hills on which the woman sits.” – 17:18 “The woman you saw is the great city that rules over the kings of the earth.” • Is Mecca the “Babylon the Great, the Mother of Prostitutes and the Abominations of the Earth” described in John’s Revelation? 27
  28. 28. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi 28 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QDq8SypJEpM Video: 7 Signs of Army of Imam Al-Mahdi
  29. 29. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Sects, Splinters, and Rise of the Mahdi In the Next Lesson • Lesson 7 – Saudi Arabia and Iran – The Divided House of Islam – The Islamic “superpowers,” oil, nuclear weapons, allies, treaties, proxy wars, and subterfuge – Progenitors of proxy wars around the Middle East – The world’s two leading sources of terror funding • Pray! 29

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