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Lesson 4 Muhammad the Quran and the Hadith

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Part 4 of the series - Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This

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Lesson 4 Muhammad the Quran and the Hadith

  1. 1. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 1 A Special Topic Course Presented by: www.IslamicStateOfAmerica.com Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Lesson 4: Muhammad, the Qur'an, and the Hadith
  2. 2. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith Lesson 3 Review • Islam is an “Abrahamic faith” tracing its roots to “Ibrahim” and son “Ismail” • Bible >> Hagar sent into wilderness with Ishmael in Desert of Pan – Qur’an >> Ibrahim took Hajar and infant Ismail far away to coast of Red Sea • Bible >> sacrifice Isaac – Qur’an >> Sacrifice Ismail • Bible >> silent on story of building the Kaaba – Qur’an >> Ibrahim and son Ismail rebuilt Adam’s forgotten house of worship – Site of modern Mecca and center of Islamic worship 2
  3. 3. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith Lesson 3 Review • Genesis 17:20 – “As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I have blessed him and will make him fruitful and multiply him greatly. He shall father twelve princes, and I will make him into a great nation.” • Genesis 21 – “God was with the boy as he grew up.” – “He lived in the desert and became an archer. His mother got a wife for him from Egypt.” • Ishmael had 12 sons… including one named “Kedar” – Became 12 tribal chiefs (Gen 25:13, I Chron 1:28-31) – Settled everywhere from Havilah to Shur (Assyria to Egypt) • Nomadic tribe of Kedar lived Meshech (Arabia?) – Psalm 120:5-6 “Woe to me that I dwell in Meshech, that I live among the tents of the Kedar. Too long have I lived among those who hate peace. I am a man of peace; but when I speak, they are for war.” – Isaiah 21:16-17 “… all the glory of the Kedar shall fail: And the residue of the number of archers… shall be diminished.” • Ishmael had a daughter Mahalath who married Esau • Ishmael was with Isaac at the burial of Abraham 3
  4. 4. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 4 Introduction to Muhammad • Sources – What You Need to Know about Islam and Muslims, Braswell – Muhammad: A Prophet for Our Time, Karen Armstrong – The Sword of the Prophet, Serge Tifkovic – Unveiling Islam, Caner – Understanding the Hadith: The Sacred Traditions of Islam, Swarup • Prophet or Opportunist? – Muhammad is the final prophet of Allah, revealing God’s word through the Qur’an and establishing peace in a warring region – Or… – Muhammad was an unreliable single source of revelation, using his Satan-inspired visions as justification for slaughter and power in Arabia • Challenge – Learn about Muhammad. Pray about this, and judge for yourself
  5. 5. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 5 Muhammad Background • 6th Century AD timeframe • History uncertain – History was passed through oral tradition until several generations after his life – Numerous bio’s exist, but not all are trustworthy • Born 570 AD in Mecca – Part of Quraysh tribe assigned to care for the Kaaba – Father died before his birth. Mother died when he was 6 – Grandfather, then uncle Abu Talib cared for him – Early days with Bedouins. Became skilled caravan driver. – Met wealthy widow (Khadija) through caravan trade Source: http://www.muhammadanism.org/maps/arabia_tribes_margoliouth.gif
  6. 6. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 6 Revelations Begin • Married Khadija age 25 (she was 40). One wife for 25 years – 2 sons died as infants. 4 daughters. • First revelation age 40 on Mount Hira (610 AD) – Fasting and praying during the holy month of Ramadan – Angel Gabriel (“Jibreel”) grabbed him and demanded that he “recite” • Surah 96:1-5 – Deathly afraid; feared a demon (jinn) – Told wife he thought he’d heard from Satan • Khadija encouraged him; not from the devil • Hadith 1.1.3 • No more revelations for 3 years – Despondent, deep self-searching – Considered suicide Cave at Mount Hira, site of first revelation Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad
  7. 7. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 7 Was It God Speaking? • Was Khadija’s confirmation valid?: “You are the Prophet of Allah” • Divine or demonic? – For a long time, Muhammad believed Satan spoke in first revelation. In later revelations, Muhammad oscillated between hearing from Satan and Allah. Gabriel later said some words came from Satan – Uncontrollable convulsions during some revelations • Muhammad changed some revelations… revised God’s words – Scribe Abdollah abandoned Islam when Muhammad changed recitations • Revelations became more and more eccentric – Eventually claimed to speak to the dead • No one can confirm his revelations. He is single author of the Qur’an – Surah 46:9 • Muhammad recited Qu’ran frequently; passed down in oral tradition
  8. 8. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith Biblical Tests of a Prophet • 100% prophetic accuracy – Deuteronomy 18:22, Jeremiah 28:9 • Biblical faithfulness – Deuteronomy 13:1-4 • Exalts Jesus – 1 John 4:1-2, Revelation 19:10 • Commandment-keeping – Isaiah 8:20, 1 Corinthians 14:37 • Spiritual fruit – Matthew 7:20 • Tested by Scripture – 1 Thessalonians 5:20-21, Ephesians 4:11-13, 2 Peter 1:19 8
  9. 9. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 9 Mecca to Medina • Muhammad proclaimed that the gods and goddesses at the Kaaba were myths. “Allah is the one true god” – Khadija age 65 died as the persecutions began • First converts – Nephew Ali, Slave Zayd, Abu Bakr • One dozen converts in 621 AD – Medina worshippers join him at Kaaba • Attempt to assassinate Muhammad – Flees to Medina (hijra) with Abu Bakr – Arrives Sep 24th, 622 AD. – Year 1 of Islamic calendar • Muhammad emerged as new leader – Medina = “City of the Prophet” Muhammad prays at the Ka’aba Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad
  10. 10. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 10 Jihad in Medina • Muhammad unites factional area – Taught citizens to live in peace and how to defend themselves • Jews disputed his teachings – His revelations condemned Jews – Surah 9:29, 5:82, 98:6 • Began raiding caravans for booty – Some argue this was accepted – Major raid of caravan March 624 • Meccans respond with raiding force – Defeated by Muhammad • 627 AD Medina attacked by 10,000. Defeats Meccans – And beheads 850 Jews of Medina to eliminate this faction Muhammad unites Arabia and Islam spreads Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad
  11. 11. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 11 The War Years • 627 AD Muhammad subdues Meccans and their allies – Takes 1400 on pilgrimage to Mecca • 628 AD Muhammad signs peace treaty – Muhammad attacks Jews to take Khaybar. • 630 AD Meccans break truce – Muhammad marches on Mecca. Surah 9:5 – Destroys pagan gods at Kaaba • Made Kaaba focal point – Established pilgrimage • Unites Arabia 631 AD – Tribes submit to Allah: Surah 5:33 – “Year of delegations” Muhammad advanced on Mecca Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad
  12. 12. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 12 Centralizing Islam • Upon conquering Mecca, Muhammad circled Kaaba 7 times on a camel, then demanded the door be opened – Smashed a dove idol, clears out the sanctuary and declares “The truth has come and falsehood has passed away.” – Erased all pictures, including those of Christ and Virgin Mary • Demanded all Muslims make pilgrimage – Kaaba is now focal point of Islamic faith Pilgrims circle the Kaaba in Mecca Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad Source: http://www.muhammadanism.org/maps/arabia_tribes_m argoliouth.gif
  13. 13. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith The Wives of Muhammad • Khadija – Wealthy widow, 15 years older, married 25 years, 6 children • Sawda, age 30. Married year of Khadija’s death 620 AD • Aisha, age 6. Married 623 AD. Consummated at age 9 • Hafsah, age 18. Married 625 AD • Um Salma, age 29 (cousin and widow) in 626 • Three wives in 627 AD – Two Muslim, one Jewish • Three wives in 628 AD – Two Muslim, one Christian • Maimoona married in 629 AD • Total of 11 wives and 2 concubines 13
  14. 14. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 14 Muhammad and Women • Wives boasted he was a wonderful husband • Married 11 women, 2 more as concubines – Cultural tradition of the day to care for widows by marrying – His kindness and ethics are reputed to have exceeded those of the day • Protect, admonish, beat women – Surah 4:34 • “Be kind to women sprung from your rib… Accept women as they are… I love little children and women…” • Men have rights over women – Surah 2:228 • “Take to yourself any you wish” – Surah 33:51 – Aisha: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire.”
  15. 15. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 15 Death Through Muhammad’s Eyes • Final pilgrimage to Mecca in 632 AD (age 62) • Final days with Aisha (now 18 years old) – Died June 8, 632. Buried at home, later site of famous mosque • Grim view of death in his own revelations – Surah 8:50-51, Surah 14:17, Surah 16:30-31 – Surah 17:13 • “Every man’s fate we have fastened on his own neck.” – Surah 46: 8-9 • “…and I know not what shall be done with me or with you.” – Hadith: Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58 • “By Allah, though I am the Apostle of Allah, yet I do not know what Allah will do to me.”
  16. 16. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 16 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rU-o6BSMGio Video: The Iranian film being widely criticized for portraying Prophet Muhammad https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7w4TH-giaps Video: History Channel - Muhammad The Prophet (NOTE: This 42-minute biographic video tells a one-sided of story of the life of Muhammad, the Prophet)
  17. 17. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 17 Muhammad… Prophet or Opportunist?  Sought God earnestly  Cared for women, children  Generous, cared for destitute  Brought peace to warring tribes  Taught Arabs to defend  Successful general, tactician  Unified Arabia  United disparate tribal groups  Eliminated pagan worship  Final prophet for God  Spread Islam across Arabia  Exemplary leader. Surah 33:21  Deluded by demonic visions  Sexual appetite, sex w/ 9 yr old  Killed noncombatant women, kids  Ruthless general, killed dissenters  Raided caravans for financial gain  Allowed barbarous tactics  Slaughtered thousands to win  Forced Jews, Christians to submit  Killed critics, allow no objections  Built religion around his visions  Gained conversion thru coercion  Not Christ-like model. Phillip. 2:5
  18. 18. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith The Big Question • Who wrote the Qur’an? – Primary transmission in days of Muhammad, and shortly after, was oral. “Qur’an” means “recitation” – Many Muslims today memorize the entire book. Five year old children are reported to have memorized the final 5 chapters. – Muhammad’s companions transcribed many parts during his lifetime. His revelations came over a time span of 22 years. – The Qur’an did not exist in book form at the time of Muhammad’s death. His first convert Ali pulled together a version of all the Qur’an soon after the death of Muhammad. – 70 “reciters” of the Qur’an were killed in the Battle of Yamama. The first Caliph, Muhammad’s companion Abu Bakr (father of Aisha) compiled a book of the chapters and verses to preserve the oral tradition in book form. 18
  19. 19. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith Overview of the Qur’an • Literally, “the recitation” – Revered as the infallible and uncorrupted word of God. – Did not exist in compiled book form at time of Muhammad’s death – Compilation completed ~ 652 AD • Chapter = “surah” • Verse = “ayah” • Arranged longest to shortest surah – 114 “chapters” – 77,430 words – New Testament = 260 chapters, ~ 182,000 words • Arabic is the accepted language – Any other language is, at best, an interpretation of original meaning 19
  20. 20. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith Historical Authenticity of the Qur’an • Umayyad Period (44/661–132/750) – Hijazi script • The earliest known manuscripts of the Quran are collectively called the Hijazi script, and are mostly associated with the Umayyad period. Most of the fundamental reform to the manuscripts of the Quran took place under Abd al-Malik, the fifth Umayyad caliph (65/685–86/705). • Under Abd al-Malik’s reign, Abu’l Aswad al-Du’ali (died 688) founded the Arabic grammar and invented the system of placing large colored dots to indicate the tashkil. The Umayyad governor al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi later enforced this system. • During this time the construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in 72/691– 92 was done, which was complete with Quranic inscriptions. The inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock in fact represent the earliest known dated passages from the Quran. In these inscriptions, many letters are already provided with diacritical points. • The earliest codices of the Quran found in the Umayyad period were most likely made in single volumes, which can be determined from the large fragments that have survived. Also during this time, the format of the codex went from being vertical to horizontal in the 8th century. 20
  21. 21. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 21 The Qur’an and the Hadith • Qur’an is highest authority in Islam – Allah’s words transmitted through angel Jibreel to Muhammad – Recited and eventually captured in written word – These teachings form the Sunnah = “the way of the prophet” • Sunnah is the basis of legal code – Shari’a, literally “the path” – Authoritative ruling in Islamic states (e.g., Saudi Arabia) – Examples for ethics and living • Ahadith or hadith are drawn from the life of Muhammad – “Muhammad’s crucial everlasting commandments” – A narration from the life of the prophet and what he said • Understand the hadith to understand the Muslim lifestyle
  22. 22. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 22 The Science of the Hadith • A detailed criteria established to evaluate each hadith • Collection of Sahih al-Bukhari considered most authentic – Each report checked for compatibility to Qur’an and veracity – 16 yrs compiling 3,295 ahadith into 97 books w/ 3,450 chapters – Most stringent evaulation criteria • Collection of Sahih Muslim is more extensive – Evaluated over 300,000 ahadith, and accepted over 12,000 Reference to authority Links (generations) of story Number of reporters Nature of the textReliability and memory of the reportersHadith
  23. 23. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 23 How Muslims Revere Teachings • Qur’an – Holy word of God, passed through Muhammad via Jibreel – Translations out of Arabic (e.g., English) are inherently lacking, considered by some to be no more than commentary – Muslims will cleanse themselves (wudu) before reading or reciting • Hadith – In most cases, these are the words of Muhammad, not of God • Exception: Qudsi are those few revelations not recorded in Qur’an – Translations to other languages are accepted – No requirement to cleanse oneself before reading or recitation • Tafsir – Use the hadith to interpret Qur’an when it’s hard to understand
  24. 24. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 24 Four Classifications of Hadith • Qudsi – The exact words of Muhammad, revelations of God not recorded in the Qur’an • Marfu – Reports from a direct witness to Muhammad’s words • “I heard the Prophet say…” • Mauquf – A statement by a companion who heard Muhammad make a statement (2nd hand) • Maqtu’ – Narration from a successor Source: http://fortyhadith.iiu.edu.my/images/hadith02arabic.gif
  25. 25. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 25 Lack of Agreement Among Sects • Sunni view (Source: Wikipedia) – Sahih Bukhari 7275 hadiths – Sahih Muslim 9200 hadiths – Other Sunan: Abi Da'ud, al-Tirmidhi, al-Sughra, Ibn Maja • Shi’a view (Source: Wikipedia) – Do not use the six collections above because the collectors erred in accepting the Caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman – Shi’a trust traditions transmitted through the Imams, descendants through Fatima, Muhammad’s daughter (via first wife, Khadijah) – Usul al Kafi:15,176 hadiths – Man la yahduruhu al-Faqi: 9,044 hadiths – Al-Tahdhib: 13,590 hadiths – Al-Istibsar: 5,511 hadiths
  26. 26. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith 26 Summary of the Hadith • The hadith will help you decipher the lifestyle and cultural motivations of the Muslim – Understanding the Hadith: The Sacred Traditions of Islam by Ram Swarup • Topical summary of the hadith written by Indian philosopher, critical of Christianity and Islam • “Best summary of hadith” or “agenda-driven specious scholarship”… his views depend largely on what your religion world view happens to be • Critically evaluate what is taught in the hadith – As in Mormon literature, Islam’s commentary on the Prophet provides important insights into this religion’s singular “focus on the man” and its lack of complete focus on God • Significant lack of agreement on hadith
  27. 27. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith Wrap Up • Muhammad 570 – 632 AD • Revelations in the cave of Hira, thought he heard from Satan • Wife (Khadijah) encourages that he is hearing from God • Revelations last 22 years. Recites everything he hears from Jibreel • Cast out of Mecca, to Medina. Later conquers Mecca • Cleans out the Kaaba, establishes pilgrimage and worship of Allah • Unites Arabia, marries 11 women, final sermon in 632 AD • Not sure of his own salvation, has dark view of death • Revelations captured in book form by 652 AD • Qur’an is considered final and authoritative word, Arabic preferred • Hadith capture traditions of Muhammad and his relatives • Significant lack of agreement across sects on veracity of hadith 27
  28. 28. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith The Final Exam 28 • 100% prophetic accuracy – Deuteronomy 18:22, Jeremiah 28:9 • Biblical faithfulness – Deuteronomy 13:1-4 • Exalts Jesus – 1 John 4:1-2, Revelation 19:10 • Commandment-keeping – Isaiah 8:20, 1 Corinthians 14:37 • Spiritual fruit – Matthew 7:20 • Tested by Scripture – 1 Thessalonians 5:20-21, Ephesians 4:11-13, 2 Peter 1:19 Does Muhammad and his his compiled revelation pass the Biblical test? Prophet… or antichrist? 1 John 2:22-23 1 John 4:2-4
  29. 29. Understanding Islam: For Such A Time As This Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the Hadith In the Next Lesson • Lesson 5 – The Caliphate and the Great Split – Rise of the caliphate – The great split: Sunni and Shi’a – Why do Islamists want to conquer the world? – Why do Muslim sects hate each other so much? – The rise of terror – The foundations of Wahhabism – The roots of modern terror 29 Abu Bakr, Successor of The Messenger

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