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Cacao varieties and its climatic requirements

cacao varieties

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Cacao varieties and its climatic requirements

  2. 2.  Cacao is a commodity crop grown commercially in many tropical countries.  It has been cultivated since pre-historic times in the ancient civilization of the Mayas and Astecs in Mexico and  At present, there is a need to revitalize the cacao industry because of its high demand in the local and international market.
  3. 3. ORIGIN, HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L. is indigenous to South America, and it is believed that the Amazon and Orinoco valleys were the first home of this tree.
  4. 4. Introduced into Spain and so into Europe, it became very popular and created a rapidly expanding market. Very high prices stimulated production and cocoa started to be exported subsequently from all islands in the Caribbean with a suitable climate. Monks probably introduced the famous Mexican Criollo types into Venezuela that became the next major producer, exporting 4000 tons annually around 1750.
  5. 5. A century later, this industry was wrecked by the wars of liberation and Ecuador, took the lead and by about 1850 they were exporting 40,000 tons annually of a fine flavoured cocoa called “ ARRIBA”. Technological improvements in the manufactury processes and emergence of new product like chocolate bar in the late 1800’s and created rapid increase of demand. Brazil and West Africa took over the lead producing about 60 million tons 60’s.
  6. 6. In the Philippines, it was believed that cacao was introduced by Spanish mariner sometime in 1670. It flourish into an industry with 99% average growth rate in production (1977-1986) due to increase in hectarage from 4,400 in 1977 to 15,230 in 1986 with estimated production of 2,900 tons in 1977 to 6,240 in 1986. Ironically, as the Philippine Cacao Industry was starting to grow, the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform in 1998 fragmented the well performing commercial cacao farm. At present, the area planted to cacao is between 8,000 to 11,000 hectares mostly located in Davao del Norte, Davao del sur, Davao Oriental and few in Basilan and Palawan. Total production is about 7.8 MT.
  7. 7. An ‘affordable luxury food’. The most common use of cacao is in making chocolate bars, candies, cakes , and chocolate beverage. Oil of Theobroma or cacao butter naturally contain a large quantity of Vitamin E, topical applications can reduce stretch marks, and is used to soften and protect chapped hands and lips.
  8. 8. Pharmaceuticals  Cacao butter is used for pharmaceuticals.  The oil melts at body temperature, it is used for encapsulating certain drugs.  It can be stored safely and dissolves readily in the body. These capsules are primarily used for suppositories. Makeup and Soap  Cocoa is compound that naturally resists rancidity.  This makes it ideal for products such cosmetics and soap.  It is stable enough to last for years, and because it is a natural ingredient, it can appeal to niche markets and eco- consumers.
  9. 9. PHILIPPINE FACTS AND FIGURES Around 10,000 to 15,000 cacao farmers nationwide Annual consumption in beans equivalent is about 25,000MT Average cacao beans production:5,380MT Current average yield per tree is 1.30 kilos dried beans Value of imports per year for cacao alone: USD 42 million, chocolate products and consumable not included Average value of exports: USD3.5 million Major growing regions are: Davao Region, Northern Mindanao, CARAGA, WestMindanao, & Eastern Visayas Davao Region produced 77 % of cacao beans supply in the last 5 years (2006-2011)
  11. 11.  Annual Consumption is about 25,000 metric ton  Volume of import is about 15,000 metric ton with a value of $ 42 million USD  Per Capita consumption rate is 1.4 kg/annum or a potential of 105,000 mt with a consuming population of 75 million, excluding exports (beans, cocoa butter, finished products etc.)  Buyers : Commonwealth Foods, Mars Chocolate, Valmarce Foods, Kennemer Foods, Antonio Pueo Inc. Achievers Food, T.P. Foods 1/27/2019 David T. Santos Cacao Demand in Philippines
  12. 12. Cacao Production Cacao a high value crop have not fully explored the vast potential of the country for monoculture and intercrop of coconut. Over 1 million hectares highly suitable wet zone coconut areas suitable for coconut-cacao intercropping in the entire country Province of Zamboanga Norte has a potential area of 168,960 has of coconut cover for intercropping – cacao, coffee, & other crops
  13. 13. Scientific Name: Theobroma cacao Common Name: Cacao tree and Cocoa tree
  14. 14. LEAVES  Cacao leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (4–16 in) long and 5–20 cm (2–8 in) broad.
  15. 15. FLOWERS • The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; they are small, 1–2 cm (1/2–1 in) diameter, with pink calyx.
  16. 16. CACAO POLLINATOR • While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera) or butterflies/moths (Lepidoptera), • Cacao Flowers are pollinated by tiny flies, Forcipomyia midges in the order Diptera. The hirsute form of the male chocolate midge, Forcipomyia sp., which is essential for cocoa pollination. The pin obscures one of the legs.
  17. 17. FRUIT • The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (6–12 in) long and 8–10 cm (3–4 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighs about 500 g (1 lb) when ripe.
  18. 18. • Bottleneck maybe present or absent. • Point or apex range from long, acute to blunt or no point at all. • The pod is fully grown after 143 days and begins to ripe after 170 days. • Nature of pod surface also varies from smooth to warty which are deeply ridged and furrowed.
  19. 19. Examples of Pod Surface Scoring:
  20. 20. Examples of Fruit Base Constriction (BottleNeck) Scoring:
  21. 21. Fruit Apex Shape
  22. 22. Fruit shape - matured fruit shape are gathered using the following: 1 – angolata 4 - oblate 2 – calabacillo 5 – others 3 – amelonado
  23. 23. Immature fruit color
  24. 24. THE SEEDS • The pod contains 20 to 60 seeds, usually called "beans", embedded in a white pulp. • The seeds are the main ingredient of chocolate.
  25. 25. M O R P H O L O G I C A L D E S C R I P T O R S
  26. 26. • The cocoa beans bean consists of essentially of a skin or shell (testa) which represent 10-14 percent of the dry weight. • Average weight of a dry bean range from 0.9 to 1.2 grams.
  27. 27. Seed from (above) and shape in cross section (lower part).
  28. 28. Types of Cacao Beans
  29. 29. • There are 20 known types of cacao beans. However, only 3 are cultivated to produce chocolate. • These are Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario.
  30. 30. CRIOLLO • The Criollo is considered as the most prized, rare and expensive variety. • It is native to Central and South America. • It is believed that the 1st cacao seed planted in the Philippines was the Criollo variety brought via the Acapulco-Manila Galleon Trade in 1670.
  31. 31. • Only 5% of the world’s cacao production is Criollo. This variety is difficult to grow, as extremely susceptible to pests and diseases. • The beans are white to pale pink in colour and recognized as a superior quality, less bitter and more aromatic. • Considered as the “Prince of Cocoas,” Criollo is an ingredient in premium chocolates. CRIOLLO
  33. 33. FORASTERO • The Forastero, a native of the Amazon basin, is the most versatile variety and most commonly grown cocoa. • It is mainly grown in Africa, Ecuador and Brazil and accounts for 80% of the world’s cocoa supply.
  34. 34. FORASTERO • It is significantly harder, disease resistant and high yielding. • Beans are purple- coloured and mainly used to give chocolate its full- bodied flavor. • They have bitter taste, thus, often blended with superior cocoas.
  35. 35. TRINITARIO • Trinitario, the hybrid of Criollo and Forastero combines the best of the two other main varieties: the hardiness and high yield of Forastero and the refined taste of Criollo.
  36. 36. • It is the predominant fine flavor cocoa and can be found in all the countries where Criollo cocoa was once grown including Southeast Asia and the Philippines. • It is being used in about 10% of the world cacao supply. TRINITARIO
  37. 37. Recommended Varieties: • Cacao is said to be a non-self-pollinating plant thus, scientists and industry experts are recommending to have at least 3-5 clones in one farm site to facilitate pollination. • At present, there are 15 approved varieties/clones registered in the National Seeds Industry Council, to wit: UF18, BR25, K1, K2, PBG123, K4, K7, K8, K9, K10, ICS40, UIT1, TSO1, TSO2 and TSO3. • Of these major clones, six (6) are prevalently used, namely: UF18, PBC123, BR25, K1, K2 and K9.
  38. 38. 1. BR 25 (CC-99-05)  Pod color- Reddish (red with green)when still young that turns yellow as it matures Leaves are elliptical in shape with wavy leaf margins Leaf length and width ratio is 11.0 cm is to 4.04 cm. First flowering starts at 16.12 months and fruiting follows at 17.70 months Pod index is 23.1pods/kg of dried beans. Pod length is 17.02 cm and has width of 7.07.
  39. 39. 2. K 1 It has an elliptical leaf shape with smooth leaf margins. Leaf length is 31.31 cm with a mean width of 13.44 cm. It flowers at 23.20 months and bears fruit at 25.10 months. Pod shape is Amelonado with a superficial ridges and a smooth surface.
  40. 40. Rugosity also appear in some cases. Pod index is 19.20 pods/kg of dried beans Pod length is about 17.97 cm and has width of about 8.67 cm. Pod is red in color while still young and becomes yellow/orange when mature. It has a pod wall thickness of around 1.80 cm. Bean color is violet and a hundred beans weigh about 182 grams. It is moderately resistant to known insect pests and diseases.
  41. 41. 3. K 2 Leaf shape is elliptical with smooth leaf margins. Leaf length is 32.73 cm with a mean width of 12.52 cm. It flowers at 21.10 months and bears fruit after three months or at 24.12 months Pod shape is Amelonado and is red in color while still young and becomes yellow/ orange when mature. It has pod wall thickness of around 1.40 cm with 34 beans per pod. Pod index is 25 pods /kg of dried beans. It is moderately resistant to known insect pest and diseases.
  42. 42. 4. UIT 1 (CC-99-02)  It has an elliptical leaf shape with wavy leaf margin.  Leaf length and width ration 22.36 cm is to 8.13 cm.  It flowers at the age of 16.80 months in the stage of first fruiting.  Pod shape is Cundeamor. Pod length is 20.07 cm and width of 8.65 cm.  Pod is yellow when old from the original color of green color of green when still young with wall thickness of 1.02 cm.  Pod index is 21.69 pods/kg having 46 beans/pod. Bean is violet in color.  Canopy diameter is 278 cm. Moderately resistant to insect pests and diseases.
  43. 43. 5. ICS 40 Leaf shape is elliptical with wavy leaf margin. Leaf length and width ratio is 29.95 cm is to 10.01 cm. Starts to flower at the age of 17.63 months and fruiting follows at 19.63 months. Pod shape is Cundeamor describe as a variety with elongated cylindrical fruit with ridges, a rugose surface, pronounced bottleneck and sharp point. Pod length and width ratio is 16.02 cm is to 9.45 cm. Pod color is green when young and turns yellow when mature with wall thickness of 1.35 cm. Pod index is 16.2 pods/kg with 44 beans per pod. Canopy diameter is 195 cm. Moderately resistant to insect pests and diseases
  44. 44. 6. UF-18 Newly released variety by NSIC Has big beans (approx. 80 dry beans/100 grams) Has good yielding ability Good pest resistance With high butter content
  45. 45. A 3 - yr old Grafted UF 18 Cocoa Trees
  46. 46. BR 25 x K2 BR 25 x S5 UF 18 x Br25 UF 18 x PBC 123 UF 18 x K2 K2 x K1 UF 18 x S5 Hybrid breeding of cacao at USM
  47. 47. D 64
  48. 48. Selected Trees from Malaysia QH 22 x NA 33 Sel’n # 1 Sel’n #2
  49. 49. Selected Trees from Malaysia PBC 123 x QH 22 Sel’n #1 Sel’n # 2 Sel’n #3
  50. 50. Sel’n #1 Sel;n 2 Sel’n #3 Sel’n #4 PBC 123 x LAFI 7 Sel’n #3
  51. 51. KEE 42 x K72-124Selected Cacao Hybrid Trees from PNG
  52. 52. Selected hybrid trees from USM crosses K2 x Br 25 Br 25 x S5 Br 25 x K1
  53. 53. Climatic Requirements Ideal rainfall for cacao cultivation ranges from 1250 to 3000 mm per annum, preferably 1500-2000 mm with dry season of not more than 3 months. Temperature ideal for cacao lies between a mean maximum of 30-32°C and mean minimum of 18°C. Altitude of the area should lie between 300-1200 meters above sea level. Suitable temperature is generally found in an altitude up to 700 m.
  54. 54. Cacao thrives best in areas under Type IV climate which has an evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year.  On the other hand, weeds growing along spaces in between the blocks may be controlled by cutting down with scythes. The use of herbicide is not recommended. Therefore weeding could be done manually or by mulching with available materials such as rice hull. Climatic Requirements
  55. 55. CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS Coconut and Cacao Comparison 1/27/2019 David T. Santos Factor coconut cacao Altitude(asl) <600 <300 Temperature ˚C 24-29 18-32 LIght >2000 sunshine/hrs/yr Shade tolerant Total Rainfall (mm) 1500-2500 1,250-2,800 Typhoon Frequency <20 <20
  56. 56. Resources:  Cacao Production Guide.  Cacao.  Overview of Cacao Industry in the Philippines by Dr. Romulo Cena, USM powerpoint slide  The flowers that give us chocolate are ridiculously hard to pollinate.  The Unexpected Pollinator Of The Cocoa Tree. that-pollinate-cocoa-trees/
  57. 57. Thank You!