Cacao is a commodity crop grown commercially in many
It has been cultivated since pre-historic times in the
ancient civilization of the Mayas and Astecs in Mexico
At present, there is a need to revitalize the cacao industry
because of its high demand in the local and
ORIGIN, HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHIC
The cocoa tree,
Theobroma cacao L. is
indigenous to South
America, and it is
believed that the
Amazon and Orinoco
valleys were the first
home of this tree.
Introduced into Spain and so into
Europe, it became very popular and
created a rapidly expanding market.
Very high prices stimulated production
and cocoa started to be exported
subsequently from all islands in the
Caribbean with a suitable climate.
Monks probably introduced the famous
Mexican Criollo types into Venezuela
that became the next major producer,
exporting 4000 tons annually around
A century later, this industry was wrecked by the
wars of liberation and Ecuador, took the lead
and by about 1850 they were exporting 40,000
tons annually of a fine flavoured cocoa called “
Technological improvements in the
manufactury processes and emergence of new
product like chocolate bar in the late 1800’s and
created rapid increase of demand.
Brazil and West Africa took over the lead
producing about 60 million tons 60’s.
In the Philippines, it was believed that cacao
was introduced by Spanish mariner sometime in
1670. It flourish into an industry with 99%
average growth rate in production (1977-1986)
due to increase in hectarage from 4,400 in 1977
to 15,230 in 1986 with estimated production of
2,900 tons in 1977 to 6,240 in 1986.
Ironically, as the Philippine Cacao Industry was
starting to grow, the implementation of the
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform in 1998
fragmented the well performing commercial
At present, the area planted to cacao is between
8,000 to 11,000 hectares mostly located in
Davao del Norte, Davao del sur, Davao Oriental
and few in Basilan and Palawan. Total
production is about 7.8 MT.
An ‘affordable luxury food’.
The most common use of
cacao is in making chocolate
bars, candies, cakes , and
Oil of Theobroma or cacao butter
naturally contain a large quantity of
Vitamin E, topical applications can
reduce stretch marks, and is used to
soften and protect chapped hands and
Cacao butter is used for
The oil melts at body
temperature, it is used for
encapsulating certain drugs.
It can be stored safely and
dissolves readily in the body.
These capsules are primarily
used for suppositories.
Makeup and Soap
Cocoa is compound that naturally
This makes it ideal for products such
cosmetics and soap.
It is stable enough to last for years, and
because it is a natural ingredient, it can
appeal to niche markets and eco-
PHILIPPINE FACTS AND FIGURES
Around 10,000 to 15,000 cacao farmers nationwide
Annual consumption in beans equivalent is about 25,000MT
Average cacao beans production:5,380MT
Current average yield per tree is 1.30 kilos dried beans
Value of imports per year for cacao alone: USD 42 million,
chocolate products and consumable not included
Average value of exports: USD3.5 million
Major growing regions are: Davao Region, Northern Mindanao,
CARAGA, WestMindanao, & Eastern Visayas
Davao Region produced 77 % of cacao beans supply in the last 5
Major Producing Regions
Annual Consumption is about 25,000 metric ton
Volume of import is about 15,000 metric ton with a value of $ 42
Per Capita consumption rate is 1.4 kg/annum or a potential of
105,000 mt with a consuming population of 75 million, excluding
exports (beans, cocoa butter, finished products etc.)
Buyers : Commonwealth Foods, Mars Chocolate, Valmarce
Foods, Kennemer Foods, Antonio Pueo Inc. Achievers Food,
1/27/2019 David T. Santos
Cacao Demand in Philippines
Cacao a high value crop have not fully explored
the vast potential of the country for monoculture
and intercrop of coconut.
Over 1 million hectares highly suitable wet
zone coconut areas suitable for coconut-cacao
intercropping in the entire country
Province of Zamboanga Norte has a potential
area of 168,960 has of coconut cover for
intercropping – cacao, coffee, & other crops
Cacao tree and Cocoa tree
Cacao leaves are
cm (4–16 in) long
and 5–20 cm (2–8
• The flowers are
produced in clusters
directly on the trunk
and older branches;
they are small, 1–2 cm
(1/2–1 in) diameter,
with pink calyx.
• While many of the
world's flowers are
pollinated by bees
• Cacao Flowers
are pollinated by tiny
midges in the order
The hirsute form of the male chocolate midge,
Forcipomyia sp., which is essential for cocoa
pollination. The pin obscures one of the legs.
• The fruit, called a
cacao pod, is
ovoid, 15–30 cm
(6–12 in) long and
8–10 cm (3–4 in)
yellow to orange,
and weighs about
500 g (1 lb) when
• Bottleneck maybe present or
• Point or apex range from
long, acute to blunt or no
point at all.
• The pod is fully grown after
143 days and begins to ripe
after 170 days.
• Nature of pod surface
also varies from smooth to
warty which are deeply
ridged and furrowed.
• There are 20 known types of cacao beans. However,
only 3 are cultivated to produce chocolate.
• These are Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario.
• The Criollo is considered as
the most prized, rare and
• It is native to Central and
• It is believed that the 1st
cacao seed planted in the
Philippines was the Criollo
variety brought via the
Trade in 1670.
• Only 5% of the world’s cacao
production is Criollo. This variety is
difficult to grow, as extremely
susceptible to pests and diseases.
• The beans are white to pale pink in
colour and recognized as a
superior quality, less bitter and
• Considered as the “Prince of
Cocoas,” Criollo is an ingredient in
• The Forastero, a native of
the Amazon basin, is the
most versatile variety and
most commonly grown
• It is mainly grown in Africa,
Ecuador and Brazil and
accounts for 80% of the
world’s cocoa supply.
• It is significantly harder,
disease resistant and
• Beans are purple-
coloured and mainly used
to give chocolate its full-
• They have bitter taste,
thus, often blended with
• Trinitario, the hybrid
of Criollo and
the best of the two
other main varieties:
the hardiness and
high yield of
Forastero and the
refined taste of
• It is the predominant fine
flavor cocoa and can be
found in all the countries
where Criollo cocoa was
once grown including
Southeast Asia and the
• It is being used in about
10% of the world cacao
• Cacao is said to be a non-self-pollinating plant thus,
scientists and industry experts are recommending to
have at least 3-5 clones in one farm site to facilitate
• At present, there are 15 approved varieties/clones
registered in the National Seeds Industry Council, to
wit: UF18, BR25, K1, K2, PBG123, K4, K7, K8, K9, K10,
ICS40, UIT1, TSO1, TSO2 and TSO3.
• Of these major clones, six (6) are prevalently used,
namely: UF18, PBC123, BR25, K1, K2 and K9.
1. BR 25 (CC-99-05)
Pod color- Reddish (red with
green)when still young that turns
yellow as it matures
Leaves are elliptical in shape with
wavy leaf margins
Leaf length and width ratio is 11.0
cm is to 4.04 cm.
First flowering starts at 16.12
months and fruiting follows at
Pod index is 23.1pods/kg of dried
beans. Pod length is 17.02 cm and
has width of 7.07.
2. K 1
It has an elliptical leaf shape
with smooth leaf margins.
Leaf length is 31.31 cm with a
mean width of 13.44 cm.
It flowers at 23.20 months
and bears fruit at 25.10
Pod shape is Amelonado with
a superficial ridges and a
Rugosity also appear in some cases.
Pod index is 19.20 pods/kg of dried
Pod length is about 17.97 cm and
has width of about 8.67 cm.
Pod is red in color while still young
and becomes yellow/orange when
It has a pod wall thickness of around
Bean color is violet and a hundred
beans weigh about 182 grams. It is
moderately resistant to known
insect pests and diseases.
3. K 2
Leaf shape is elliptical with smooth leaf margins.
Leaf length is 32.73 cm with a mean width of 12.52
It flowers at 21.10 months and bears fruit after
three months or at 24.12 months
Pod shape is Amelonado and is red in color while
still young and becomes yellow/ orange when
It has pod wall thickness of around 1.40 cm with 34
beans per pod.
Pod index is 25 pods /kg of dried beans.
It is moderately resistant to known insect pest and
4. UIT 1 (CC-99-02)
It has an elliptical leaf shape with wavy leaf
Leaf length and width ration 22.36 cm is to 8.13
It flowers at the age of 16.80 months in the stage of
Pod shape is Cundeamor. Pod length is 20.07 cm
and width of 8.65 cm.
Pod is yellow when old from the original color of
green color of green when still young with wall
thickness of 1.02 cm.
Pod index is 21.69 pods/kg having 46 beans/pod.
Bean is violet in color.
Canopy diameter is 278 cm. Moderately resistant to
insect pests and diseases.
5. ICS 40
Leaf shape is elliptical with wavy leaf margin.
Leaf length and width ratio is 29.95 cm is to 10.01
Starts to flower at the age of 17.63 months and
fruiting follows at 19.63 months.
Pod shape is Cundeamor describe as a variety with
elongated cylindrical fruit with ridges, a rugose
surface, pronounced bottleneck and sharp point.
Pod length and width ratio is 16.02 cm is to 9.45 cm.
Pod color is green when young and turns yellow
when mature with wall thickness of 1.35 cm.
Pod index is 16.2 pods/kg with 44 beans per pod.
Canopy diameter is 195 cm.
Moderately resistant to insect pests and diseases
Newly released variety
Has big beans (approx.
80 dry beans/100 grams)
Has good yielding ability
Good pest resistance
With high butter content
KEE 42 x K72-124Selected Cacao Hybrid Trees from PNG
Selected hybrid trees from USM crosses
K2 x Br 25
Br 25 x S5
Br 25 x K1
Ideal rainfall for cacao cultivation ranges from 1250 to
3000 mm per annum, preferably 1500-2000 mm with
dry season of not more than 3 months.
Temperature ideal for cacao lies between a mean
maximum of 30-32°C and mean minimum of 18°C.
Altitude of the area should lie between 300-1200
meters above sea level.
Suitable temperature is generally found in an altitude
up to 700 m.
Cacao thrives best in areas under Type IV climate
which has an evenly distributed rainfall throughout
On the other hand, weeds growing along spaces in
between the blocks may be controlled by cutting down
with scythes. The use of herbicide is not
Therefore weeding could be done manually or by
mulching with available materials such as rice hull.
Coconut and Cacao Comparison
1/27/2019 David T. Santos
Factor coconut cacao
Altitude(asl) <600 <300
Temperature ˚C 24-29 18-32
LIght >2000 sunshine/hrs/yr Shade tolerant
Total Rainfall (mm) 1500-2500 1,250-2,800
Typhoon Frequency <20 <20
Cacao Production Guide.
Overview of Cacao Industry in the Philippines by Dr. Romulo Cena, USM powerpoint slide
The flowers that give us chocolate are ridiculously hard to pollinate.
The Unexpected Pollinator Of The Cocoa Tree. https://www.sciencefriday.com/articles/meet-the-flies-