& Comm. Engg.
History of fingerprints
Fingerprint scanner in mobile phones
General structure of fingerprint scanner
Different identification on fingerprint
Finger print matching techniques
Block diagram of fingerprint process system
Advantages and Disadvantages
Fingerprint recognition or fingerprint
authentication refers to the automated method
of verifying a match between two
human fingerprints. Fingerprints are one of
many forms of biometrics used
to identify individuals and verify their identity.
Fingerprinting was first created by Dr.Henry
Fault, a British surgeon in 1882.
Fingerprint is based on “Key”
History of fingerprint:
Human fingerprints have been discovered on a large number of
archaeological artifacts and historical items.
In 1684, the English plant morphologist, Nehemiah Grew,
published the first scientific paper reporting his systematic study on
the ridge, furrow, and pore structure.
In 1788, a detailed description of the anatomical formations of
fingerprints was made by Mayer.
In 1975, The FBI funded the development of fingerprint scanners.
Fingerprint scanner in mobile
Two of the first
scanner into their
phones were Motorola
with ATRIX4G in
2011,And apple with the
iphone 5s on
Arch- The ridges enter from one side of the finger, rise in
the centre forming an arc, and then exit the other side of the
Loop-The ridges enter from one side of a finger, form a
curve, and then exit on that same side.
Whorl-Ridges form circularly around a central point on
Arch Loop Whorl
The human population has fingerprints in the
Loop – 65%
Whorl -- 30%
Arch -- 5%
Different Identification on Fingerprint
Crossover: two ridges cross
Bifurcation: ridge separates
Ridge ending: end point
Island: small ridge b/w two
Delta: space between ridges
Pore: human pore
Fingerprint matching techniques
There are two categories of fingerprint matching techniques:
1. minutiae-based .
2. correlation based.
Minutiae-based techniques first find minutiae points and then
map their relative placement on the finger.
The correlation-based method is able to overcome some of the
difficulties of the minutiae-based approach.
Two main technologies used to capture image of the fingerprint
Optical Scanner – use light refracted through a prism. An optical
sensor based reader uses light to read and acquire fingerprint images.
Optical sensors can be affected by a number of real life factors such as
stray light, surface contamination or even prior fingerprint impressions
present on the sensor surface. Hence it is essential to clean the
fingerprint reader glass on a regular basis for optimal performance.
Capacitive Scanner – detect voltage changes in skin between ridges
and valleys. Capacitive sensors use electric current to sense a fingerprint
and capture the image. As sensors apply a small voltage to the finger, a
real fingerprint is required rather than a visual impression of it. This
technique makes the fingerprint reader more reliable as it becomes harder
to fake enrolment.
Capture the fingerprint images and process them through a series of
image processing algorithms to obtain a clear unambiguous skeletal
image of the original gray tone impression, clarifying smudged areas,
removing extraneous artifacts and healing most scars, cuts and breaks.
A new generation of touchless live scan devices that generate
a 3D representation of fingerprints is appearing.
Several images of the finger are acquired from different
views using a multicamera system, and a contact-free 3D
representation of the fingerprint is constructed.
This new sensing technology overcomes some of the
problems that intrinsically appear in contact-based sensors
such as improper finger placement, skin deformation, sensor
noise or dirt.
•Banking Security - ATM security,card transaction
•Physical Access Control (e.g. Airport)
•Information System Security
•National ID Systems
•Passport control (INSPASS)
•Prisoner, prison visitors, inmate control
•Identification of Criminals
•Identification of missing children
•Secure E-Commerce (Still under research)
Advantage of Fingerprint:
a. Very high accuracy.
b. Is the most economical biometric PC user authentication technique.
c. Easy to use.
d. Small storage space required for the biometric template, reducing the size
of the database memory required
e. It is standardized.
Disadvantage of Fingerprint:
a. For some people it is very intrusive, because is still related to criminal
b. It can make mistakes with the dryness or dirty of the finger’s skin, as well as
with the age (is not appropriate with children, because the size of their
fingerprint changes quickly).