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Planning & Design Guidelines GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK for ALEAP, Nandigama, Andhra Pradesh, India

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A research and pilot work on preparing environment- friendly Development Plans or Site Master Plans for upcoming industrial parks to showcase integration of clean/green/energy efficient and environment-friendly technologies at the planning stage itself is a much needed effort.

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Planning & Design Guidelines GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK for ALEAP, Nandigama, Andhra Pradesh, India

  1. 1. Planning & Design Guidelines GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK for ALEAP, Nandigama, Andhra Pradesh, India
  2. 2. Planning & Design Guidelines GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK for ALEAP, Nandigama, Andhra Pradesh, India © 2014 Auroville Consulting
  3. 3. Page 3 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK © 2014 Auroville Consulting All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, wihtout permission in writing from Auroville Consulting. Funded by: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Layout: Auroville Consulting Content: Auroservice Auroville Botanical Services Auroville Collaborative Auroville Consulting Auroville Design Consultants Center for Scientific Research EcoPro Address: Auroville Consulting Saracon, Kottakarai, Irumbai Auroville, Tamil Nadu 605111 India Tel: +91 (0) 413 262 2571 info@aurovilleconsulting.com www.aurovilleconsulting.com
  4. 4. CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 5 - 8 DOCUMENTING ALEAP 9 - 23 24 - 39 Chapters Pages 40 - 199 199 - 216 GUIDELINES FOR MASTER PLANNING GUIDELINES FOR FUNCTIONAL AREAS Chapters Pages ANNEXES 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS FOREWORD 216 - 229
  5. 5. Page 5 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK 1 FOREWORD
  6. 6. Page 6 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK The Government of India has announced a National Manufacturing Policy (Nov 2011) with the objective of enhancing the share of manufacturing in GDP to 25% within a decade and creating 100 million jobs. The policy sup-ports clean/green/energy efficient and envi-ronment- friendly technologies, and resource efficient measures. The policy promotes inte-grated industrial townships, known as the Na-tional Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs) with atleast 5,000 Ha area, and calls for preparation of environment friendly Devel-opment Plans. Major environmental aspects are required to be taken care of in the NIMZ in the beginning itself by having proper zoning during Master Planning. Preparation of environment-friendly Devel-opment Plans or Site Master Plans for the manufacturing zones or the industrial parks requires integration of clean/green/energy efficient and environment-friendly technolo-gies. This requires further clarification on what are these clean/green/energy efficient and environment-friendly technologies and what are the guidelines and standards that are to be considered while preparing the De-velopment Plans or Site Master Plans. The Policy itself has no clarifications on this as-pect. It has broadly said that water conserva-tion measures a must, viz. water audits, waste water treatment, rainwater harvesting, and renewable energy usage and green buildings are a must. Also, it says that Inter ministeri-al “Green Manufacturing Committee” will be formed which will fix criteria for “Clean and Green Technologies”. The draft National Water Policy (2012), brought out by the Ministry of Water Resources of the Government of India, talks of industries having obligation to recycle/ reuse water in all water-short- regions and that the industries will be allowed to withdraw only the make up water. Also, the sources of water and water bodies will not be allowed to get polluted. Also, the ground waters will have to be protected. The National Action Plan on Climate Change has the following relevant missions for plan-ning of new industrial parks or manufactur-ing zones: National Solar Mission, National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency and National Water Mission. The national minimal environmental standards for industry sectors and the ambient air/water/noise standards as set under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 are to be complied with. The Green SEZ Rating System for Industrial Es-tates brought out by the Indian Green Build-ing Council (IGBC) has considered a few of the
  7. 7. Page 7 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK criteria, viz. site preservation and restoration, reduced use of fossil fuels, energy efficiency, water efficiency, handling of solid waste, ma-terials & resources and innovation & design process. The Indian Green Building Coun-cil (IGBC) has also rating for “Green Factory Buildings” and “Green Buildings”. The “Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Indexing” (CEPI) for Industrial Estates brought out by the Central Pollution Control Board was used to identify critically polluted industrial estates based on “pollutants” (Toxins. Prob-able carcinogens, known carcinogens), “path-way” (ambient pollutant concentration – criti-cal, high, moderate, low) and “receptor” (no. of people effected, level of exposure, addi-tional risks due to ecologically/socially sensi-tive area). The ASEM Programme of GIZ (formerly GTZ) has made several pilot attempts for planning and developing eco industrial parks in India (ref. publication on “Pathway to Eco Indus-trial Development in India”, GIZ, Oct 2012). The document has references to concepts and cases on site suitability assessment, en-vironmental impact assessment, Site Master Planning, transformation of existing industrial parks, waste management, common effluent treatment plants, disaster risk management, climate change mitigation & adaptation etc. A well planned and designed Industrial Park is expected to result in: • A Site Master Plan that integrates sustain-ability aspects (e.g., social, economic and environmental considerations). • Innovative and viable technical solutions in areas of waste water, storm water, wastes, ecological landscapes, energy ef-ficiency/ renewable energy, green build-ings etc. for upcoming industrial parks. • Address issues of environment protection (e.g., decreased emissions, wastewater and waste; reduction of potential negative environmental impacts), climate change (adaptation & mitigation), resource effi-ciency (e.g., reduced usage of natural re-sources, viz. water, materials, energy), and renewable energy & energy efficiency. • Integrate cost effective common infra-structure and services in the Industrial Park, including the special requirements of different groups, such as gender, differ-ently- abled, etc. • Use management structures for collective resource and service management within the industrial park. A research and pilot work on preparing envi-ronment- friendly Development Plans or Site
  8. 8. Page 8 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Master Plans for upcoming industrial parks to showcase integration of clean/green/en-ergy efficient and environment-friendly tech-nologies at the planning stage itself is a much needed effort. A team of national and international experts with several years of standing experience in applied research and collaboration services were brought together for this task. Auroville, which has won international acclaim for its efforts in environmental sustainability, has tried and tested several concepts that could very well be integrated into planning of new industrial parks and manufacturing zones. These include wastewater treatment, green buildings, building materials, renewable en-ergy systems, efficient rain water harvesting, landscaping/ afforestation, waste manage-ment etc. Five Units from Auroville have been invovled in this research: Auroville Consulting, Center for Scientific Research, EcoPro, Auro-ville Design Consultants, Auroservice and Botanical Garden.
  9. 9. Page 9 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK 2 DOCUMENTING ALEAP
  10. 10. 2 Page 10 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK DOCUMENTING ALEAP In a Green Industrial Park (GIP) businesses cooperate with each other and with the local community in an attempt to reduce waste and pollution, share resources (such as informa-tion, materials, water, energy, infrastructure, and natural resources) efficiently, and help achieve sustainable development, with the aim of increasing economic gains and improv-ing environmental quality. A GIP may also be planned, designed, and built in such a way that it makes it easier for businesses to co-operate, and that results in a more financially sound, environmentally friendly project for the developer. In such a case, the goal is to improve the economic per-formance of participating companies while minimizing their environmental impact. The combined environmental, economic and so-cial benefit will be more than the benefits of any individual company. Andhra Pradesh is one of the leading industri-alized States in India, with the Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Ltd. (API-IC) alone owning more than 300 industrial parks. When these industrial developments were originally planned, resource protection and energy conservation were not at the fore-front of design decisions and planning priori-ties. The potential for using renewable energy resources was untapped and energy manage-ment concepts were still being experimented. Taking into consideration the recent focus on global warming, climate change and empha-sis on creating socially responsible sustain-ability principles, the Government of Andhra Pradesh and its implementing organization – the Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (APIIC) – are promoting the con-cept of introducing green industrial parks as the way forward. APIIC has also been working in close collaboration with the Association of Lady Entrepreneurs of Andhra Pradesh (ALE-AP) to promote upliftment of women and em-powerment through establishing Small and Medium Enterprises. ALEAP developed the first Women Entrepreneur’s Industrial Estate in India at Gajularamaram, near Hyderabad in Ranga Reddy District of Andhra Pradesh. Fol- AUROSERVICE
  11. 11. Page 11 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK lowing that, the organization was involved in establishing another multi-product industrial cluster for women entrepreneurs with a focus in Food Processing at Nunna near Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh). ALEAP’s most recent venture envisions creat-ing a multi-product “Green Industrial Park” in Nandigama village near Hyderabad. The en-visioned Nandigama Green Industrial Park, which covers 78 acres of land, is envisioned to be a model sustainable industrial park that provides a conducive environment for wom-en entrepreneurs and employs state-of-the technologies, including clean technologies, renewable energy technologies, environmen-tal technologies and cost-effective common infrastructure. Under the Indo German Environment Partner-ship (IGEP) Programme of the Indo German Bilateral Development Cooperation, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenar-beit (GIZ), is providing technical support to ALEAP on the Nandigama Green Industrial Park project. Auroville Collaborative was re-tained by Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Interna-tionale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) to provide tech-nical assistance for the Nandigama site as a pilot research project. The overall goal of the project is to undertake research and pilot work on preparing environment-friendly strategic master plans for upcoming industrial parks to showcase integration of clean/green/energy efficient and environment-friendly technolo-gies at the planning stage itself. The Nandigama GIP will be planned, designed, and operated to fulfil the following goals: • Create a functional Green Industrial Park for women entrepreneurs at Nandigama (A.P.) for 190 enterprises over 78 acres. • Promote environmental restoration and rehabilitation of the Park and surrounding region • Disseminate the experience gained through designing, developing and oper-ating the Nandigama Eco Industrial Estate by conducting workshops and seminars. • Aid in the replication of similar Industrial Estates in India. Project Team: Integrated Systems Planning Approach Conceived as an integrated systems-based planning project, the Nandigama Green In-dustrial Park project involved assembling a multi-disciplinary team that provided ALEAP with a comprehensive set of creative solu-tions from the inception of the project. The following table illustrates the different roles.
  12. 12. Page 12 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK ALEAP: Project holder for the 78-acre Nan-digama site Murthy & Manyam: Architects and Engineers on-record for the project GIZ: Technical Advisors to ALEAP on incorpo-rating sustainability concepts into the plan-ning process Auroville Collaborative: Technical consultant to GIZ Auroville Collaborative’s role as part of this as-signment included proposing guidelines and parameters that assisted GIZ in promoting eco-industries as a model for development in other Indian cities with the goal of achieving the following objectives: • Recommending new policies or regula-tions to support implementation e.g., de-sign guidelines, site planning parameters, operations and management principles; • Prototyping a state-of-the-art industrial Site Master Plan as a best practice; • Demonstrating innovative and viable tech-nical solutions for future feasibility studies; • Addressing issues of environment protec-tion, climate change, resource conserva-tion and efficiency & renewable energy; • Integrating cost effective common infra-structure and services; and • Serving as a catalyst to develop the base-line guidelines for formulating a Green Rating system for industrial parks in the future. In order to fulfil these objectives, Terms of Reference were prepared for each of area of study listed below, and accordingly a team of experts were brought together to work collab-oratively with GIZ on this project. The experts represented the following disciplines: • Industrial planning and site master plan-ning • Energy master planning and system de-sign for solar PV (e.g., energy efficient buildings, solar street lamps, centralised solar power plant, solar applications in in-dividual building, solar heating systems, solar pumps etc.) • Water and waste water management, in-cluding recycle and reuse • Rainwater harvesting and storm water control • Ecological landscaping and organic farms • Waste management, including conversion to useful products • Green buildings and building materials
  13. 13. Page 13 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Planning Process From the inception of the project, a consulta-tive process with all the stakeholders includ-ing ALEAP, future tenants of the industrial park, GIZ and Murthy & Manyam was adopted by the Auroville Collaborative team. The Nan-digama ALEAP master planning project was conducted in three main phases as described below: Phase I: Visioning and Site Reconnaissance The initial phase entailed undertaking vision-ing sessions, site inventory, locational analy-sis, site suitability assessment, and under-standing the potential physical, social and environmental impacts of the project. The phase also included undertaking a through data collection exercise from various agen-cies and understanding the gaps and consis-tencies in available data with respect to prin-ciples of integrated systems based planning. Phase II: Formulating Guiding Framework Based on preliminary data analysis, site ob-servations and interaction with stakeholders, this phase focussed on establishing project boundaries and formulating broad guiding principles for the various functional aspects influencing the site. Phase III: Planning and Design Strategies The final phase of the ALEAP Nandigama Green Industrial Park ventured into develop-ing site planning alternatives taking into con-sideration the competing goals of achieving economic viability through maximization of saleable plots and ensuring application of sustainable guidelines formulated in the ear-lier phase. Limitations While the project scope was conceived with ambitious goals focussed on testing the ap-plication of principles governing the develop-ment of Eco-Industrial Parks in India, during the course of the project it was realized that several decisions had already been taken by the project holders that was more suited for adopting principles of green industries rather than strictly adhering to the concept of Eco- Industrial Parks (EIPs). EIPs are typically cen-tred on industrial ecology principles and by-product exchanges that were not aligned with ALEAP’s envisioned tenant mix. Other limita-tions related to the project included: • Site Selection: The Nandigama site was selected prior to the inception of the mas-ter planning process resulting in conflicts with efforts to integrate sustainable prin-ciples with the overall vision of the Green
  14. 14. Page 14 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Industrial Park and its relationship to its larger context. • Data Availability: A systems based plan-ning approach is typically data-centric in its application. Lack of accurate data and timing of availability for required data was a serious limitation during the various stages of the project. • Tenant Mix: This was predetermined for the first phase of site development. While a high-level analysis of the industries and its impacts in terms of transporta-tion needs, waste generated and water usage requirements was performed, the processes for these industries to interact with each other in terms of by-product ex-change or the type of pollutants that might be produced could not be undertaken. • Land Assemblage and Site Boundaries: Often in real estate developments, land acquisition and assemblage of land poses a problem in the development cycle. On the Nandigama site, there were similar issues with acquisition as the site bound-ary constantly changing due to delays in planned land purchases over the course of the project. Phase I: Visioning and Site Reconnaissance The following section discusses the activities conducted as part of Phase I for the Nandiga-ma project. During this phase, interactions with involved stakeholders including the po-tential tenants, ALEAP management, GIZ, Mur-thy & Manyam, and experts associated with the project were undertaken. The purpose was to compile all data available and conduct user surveys prior to establishing guiding princi-ples for the various functional components. Refining the Vision The first step in the master planning process for the Nandigama site was to validate and further refine the vision established for the proposed Park, and for each individual func-tional area. This was accomplished by review-ing the Vision of the Park as set by ALEAP, and by framing a more refined statement that in-corporated the essence of the women entre-preneurship and sustainable development goals into one succinct statement. The Original Vision statement for the Park (as given by ALEAP & GIZ) was “The Green Indus-trial Park, Nandigama is envisioned to be a model Green Industrial Park that provides a conducive environment for women entrepre-neurs and employs state-of-the art technolo-gies, including clean technologies, renewable
  15. 15. Page 15 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK energy technologies, environmental technolo-gies and cost-effective common infrastructure.” This was refined as “Empowering women by creating safe, supportive and replicable entre-preneurial environments that foster integral sustainability, collective prosperity, innova-tion and adaptability to local cultures.” Goal Setting for Functional Areas Based on the refined vision statement, the project team identified overarching goals for each of the nine “functional” areas or plan-ning components. These included: Master Planning a. Goal: Urban planning aimed at conserva-tion of resources through passive design strategies. b. Strategy: • Planning informed by geophysical condi-tions in and around the site • Contextual integrity; cultural, social, net-works and infrastructure • Integrative systems; human and environ-mental • Flexible and adaptive solutions • Energy a. Goal: Achieve a sustainable Energy Neutral or Energy Positive Industrial Park. b. Strategy: • Apply principles of the Energy Pyramid (need vs. greed, energy conservation, en-ergy efficiency, energy sourcing) • Distributed generation from renewable en-ergy sources • Energy security Built Environment a. Goal: Low impact design with multi func-tionality of space and efficiency of micro site planning b. Strategy: • Climatically efficient design • Low embodied energy materials • Local building material and technology, being informed by vernacular principles • Maximizing human resources in imple-mentation Social Services a. Goal: Gender sensitive social support sys-tem including security, health, education and family welfare b. Strategy: • Provision of onsite facilities for education and health including adult education • Door-to-door transportation facility with the last mile covered • Onsite child care up to primary school level • Insurance for health care and parental support system
  16. 16. Page 16 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK • Workplace safety • Paralegal support services • Networking and partnership with local NGOs Water a. Goal: To achieve a positive water balance with zero environmental impact b. Strategy: • Zero discharge of toxic substances to the environment • Total recycling and reuse • Efficient onsite management of water re-sources • Integration with the larger area for impact management Ecological Landscaping a. Goal: To create a landscape that is ecologi-cally integrated with the regional environmen-tal parameters, requiring minimal input for its maintenance. b. Strategy: • Landscaping that draws predominantly on local species • Integrate bio resources required for pro-duction • Integrate other functional areas, such as farming and water management • Aesthetic values and ecological productivity Waste Management a. Goal: Near zero waste generation and safe disposal b. Strategy: • Maximizing reuse and recycling technologies • Creating closed loop resource cycles • Making productive and hygienic use of biological waste • Regenerative procurement and manufac-turing processes • Avoiding processes that lead to by-prod-ucts that are difficult to re-use and recycle • Zero discharge of toxic waste Organic Farming a. Goal: Agricultural production based on or-ganic and sustainable farming principles inte-grated into the landscape and site activities. b. Strategy: • Biodiversity (strategies such as crop rota-tion and crop association) • Maximum reuse of biological resources and bio wastes (on-site composting, fer-mentation, mulching) • Water saving practices (by means of irriga-tion techniques and choice of low water demanding crops) • User participation • Aiming at socio-economic relevance (of crop choice and quality)
  17. 17. Page 17 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Park Management a. Goal: Leadership that believes in the ALEAP vision and ensures supportive and effective management that is inclusive, transparent and fair. b. Strategy: • To devise a management structure that al-lows for the manifestation and evolution of the Vision. • Proactive long-term infrastructure and fa-cilities planning • Vision and Values driven recruitment pro-cesses • Human Resources Strategy that focuses on attraction, retention and development of key personnel • To explore common / shared services for the participants in the Park Field Visits The project team conducted two site visits (in April 2013 and July 2013) to gain a better un-derstanding of the physical conditions, trans-portation connections, access, nature of the surrounding uses, and informal interviews with residents from nearby villages during dif-ferent seasons (pre-monsoon and monsoon). Based on these field visits, a detailed set of observations and queries were shared with the project holders. Data Collection, Mapping and Analysis In order to make the guidelines as site specific as possible, detailed data requirements were sent to the client team early on in the project (Refer Annexure). However, the quality of data that was received was found to be highly inac-curate and not to the level of detail that was needed to justify proposing sound recommen-dations at the site level. Following data collection, a detailed mapping exercise was conducted to analyse the vari-ous contextual relationships of the site with its surroundings. Historic evolution of the site and its surroundings, regional transportation connections and its position within the larger Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Au-thority area were also analysed to better un-derstand the dynamics between the site and it’s surrounding. (Refer Annexure) After the mapping exercise, a detailed analy-sis in the following elements was conducted using a SWOT Analysis method (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) • Regional Context • Regulatory Context • Existing Conditions- Physical + Environ-mental Context • Proposed Industry / Development Mix • Proposed Site Plan Analysis
  18. 18. Page 18 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK • Infrastructure Analysis • Management / O&M / Financing Consider-ations Establishing Boundary Conditions Taking the data reliability and accuracy is-sues into consideration and the preliminary analysis conducted earlier, the project team engaged in establishing boundary conditions for the site that served as assumptions, limi-tations and “guesstimates” for developing the guidelines for the project. • Socio Economic factors - Size of workforce in Industry - Movement of traffic in the Park • Management factors - Number and type of industry - Service requirement • Environmental factors - Water requirement - Waste water discharge - Waste output - Renewable energy supply and demand These were formulated using data shared by ALEAP, previous experience of the consultants in similar areas of work, national standards available through journals and inline docu-ments as well as through guestimates. The number of industries of each toxicity level was also limited as given below: High level of toxicity • E.g. Paints, dyes, solvents, pharmaceuti-cals, etc. • Limited to 10% of the EIP • 15-20 plots Medium level of toxicity • E.g. Glass, packaging, warehousing, engi-neering, etc. • Limited to 20% of the EIP • 30-40 plots Low level of toxicity • E.g. Herbal, food and juice, textile, etc. • ~ 60% of the EIP • 90-100 plots Green industries and amenities • E.g. Organic gardening & farming, green areas, (vermi) composting, etc. • At least 10% of the EIP • 15-20 plots plus demarcated area A summary of the Boundary Conditions is giv-en below, and a detailed version is presented in the Annexure to this document.
  19. 19. Page 19 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK COMPARATIVE BASE LINE FIGURES FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT se.no items M&M ppt Aleap info anaylsis Auroville 1 plot area in m2 315,652.00 289,879.00 2 number of plots 140 69 165 3 number of 840 m2 plots 165 4 number of 1680 m2 plots 5 ground coverage inside plot 60% 6 floor space Index 1.5 7 number of enterprises 50 50 8 population in industry 12000 1746 7500 9 population in service 1500 10 population in residences 1000 11 water requirement (litres/ day) 1062000 1153000 12 sewage (litres per day) 348000 773900 13 solid waste (tons per day) 1118 174.85 14 trucks (trips per day) 283 515 15 two wheelers per day 490 3,500.00 16 four wheelers per day 177 430.00 17 energy production per day 6.58 MW 18 energy consumption per annum 6.58 MW Table 2.1
  20. 20. Page 20 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Phase II: Formulating Guiding Framework In Phase II of the planning process, learnings from the previous phases with respect to proj-ect objectives, vision statements, stakeholder meetings, site observations, data findings and established site boundaries were col-lated and shared with the various functional area experts to draft a set a guidelines that could be used as overarching principles in developing master planning alternatives, de-sign solutions and implementation strategies in the final phases. The following section dis-cusses briefly the topics covered in the func-tional guidelines with the actual guidelines presented in Chapters 3 and 4. Purpose and Content of the Guidelines The guidelines aimed at providing an integrat-ed set of principles and measures to guide the development of the Nandigama Green Industrial Park project. These guidelines are an important tool that the project architects (Murthy & Manyam) and project holders (ALE-AP) were requested to follow while finalizing the site master plan with a goal of aligning it with the principles of developing ‘green’ in-dustries. Guidelines were formulated in the following areas that were applicable at the site-level: 1. Master Planning 2. Site Layout 3. Mobility 4. Open Space Management 5. Building Envelope Design 6. Waste Water Management 7. Surface Water Management 8. Solid Waste Management 9. Ecological Landscaping 10. Organic Farming 11. Energy 12. Management Furthermore, functional guidelines for de-tailed design of physical elements were also proposed for the following topics: 1. Amenities 2. Plot-level buildings 3. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 4. Fencing 5. Management Guidelines 6. Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment 7. Signage 8. Wastewater Treatment 9. Tenant Guidelines
  21. 21. Page 21 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Phase III: Planning and Design Strategies Based on the functional guidelines, the proj-ect team was also involved in reviewing the Master Plan proposed by the architects and in providing technical input for incorporat-ing sustainable development into the final design. The process went through several it-erations and involved design “charettes” or workshops with the project holders and the design team. Critique of Preliminary Master Plan Before the Auroville Collaborative team came on-board as technical consultants, Murthy & Manyam, the project architects, had already prepared a preliminary master plan for the Nandigama site. The assembled team of ex-perts reviewed the initial proposal by apply-ing different layers of the functional areas identified in the previous phases. The find-ings of the team were shared over several meetings with the clients and the project ar-chitects, and the development programme was updated accordingly. Key critiques of the preliminary master plan were focussed on the lack of attention given to the site’s natural features such as the nalla and consideration of the site’s overall drainage patterns in iden-tifying utility infrastructure facilities. Annex-ure G contains the critique provided for the preliminary site plan. Preliminary Cost Estimates Building upon the boundary recommenda-tions established in Phase II, as well as a re-view of the initial development programme and conceptual site plan, a preliminary cost estimate was made to gauge the financial im-plications of introducing a layer of sustainabil-ity into the basic development programme. The total project cost amounted to approxi-mately INR 30 crores, as shown below in the detailed breakdown.
  22. 22. Page 22 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Item Amount Building portion, fully covered, ground plus 2 Rs. 2.28 crores Services (electrical, wiring, cabling, EMC, fire alarm, etc.) Rs. 0.75 crores Water (Bore well, OHT, DEWATS, sewerage for irrigation, etc.) Rs. 13.32 crores Energy (Sub station, street lighting, telecommunications, excluding RETs) Rs. 5.22 crores Site development (security, weighbridge, etc.) Rs. 6.04 crores Waste management Rs. 0.60 crores Consultancy Rs. 1.70 crores Total Rs. 29.89 crores Cost per m2 for site development Rs. 1031 Cost per ft2 for site development Rs. 96 Table 2.2
  23. 23. Page 23 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Master Planning Charette: Alternative Analysis Following the initial review of the conceptual master plan, ALEAP was successfully able to purchase additional land parcels adjoining the site that called for changes to the master plan. A 2-day working charette was organ-ised in Auroville with GIZ, Murthy & Manyam, ALEAP and the Auroville Collaborative team to brainstorm alternatives for accommodating the required 165 industrial plots on the site from an economic viability perspective while at the same time balancing the environmental and social goals for the project. At the end of the visit, the design team formulated a revised detailed development programme with a pre-ferred development scenario. This was further refined by Murthy & Manyam based on exist-ing local regulations and detailed site geom-etry and sent back to the Auroville Collabora-tive team for review and comments. Chapters 3 and 4 contain the final recommendations provided by the team to the client and project architects.
  24. 24. Page 24 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK 3 MASTER PLANNING
  25. 25. 3 Page 25 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Guidelines for Sustainable Development The following guidelines provide an integrat-ed set of principles and measures to guide the development of a provisional master plan for the Association of Lady Entrepreneurs at Andhra Pradesh (ALEAP) at the Nandigama site. These guidelines are an important tool that the architects and ALEAP are invited to follow when refining the existing master plan for the site, in order to align it with the prin-ciples of creating an eco-industrial estate. The following have not been considered while framing these guidelines: 1. Ground water investigations (i.e. the stra-tigraphy report) 2. Boundaries and survey maps of the addi-tional land which are to be integrated in the master plan 3. Clarification on the 18 m-wide road run-ning through the site as per the plans shared A tentative list of industries expected to be included in the site consists of the following: dyes, engineering, food and juice, glass, herb-al products, paints and solvents, paper and packaging, pharma and labs, textile, ware-housing. The guidelines are presented under the fol-lowing headers, with cross links where appli-cable: idelines for Sustainable Development ge • Master Planning • Site Layout • Mobility • Open Space Management • Building Envelope Design • Waste Water Management • Surface Water Management • Solid Waste Management • Ecological Landscaping • Organic Farming • Energy • Management Master Planning Certain tests and surveys of the site and the surrounding area are critical for master plan-ning and design making, as well as for under-standing the implications on project costs early in the planning process 1. Topography Understanding topography is essential for MASTER PLANNING AUROVILLE CONSULTING AUROSERVICE AUROVILLE BOTANICAL SERVICES AUROVILLE COLLABORATIVE AUROVILLE CONSULTING AUROVILLE DESIGN CONSULTANTS CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ECOPRO
  26. 26. Page 26 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK placement of buildings, planning for drainage, and minimization of earthwork. • Create an elevation model of the site along with the contour map (25 cm) to un-derstand the site’s slope characteristics (steepness and slope length). • Map the micro- and macro-drainage chan-nels to produce a slope area map in or-der to identify potential critical areas of erosion, rainwater harvesting tanks and ponds with percolation points. 2. Soil Testing Sustainable water resource management, landscape design, and land use distribution on site are dependent on soil tests. Conduct and obtain test results on the exist-ing soils that show chemical/biological com-position, percolation/drainage rates, infiltra-tion rates, and contamination data. 3. Existing Vegetation Surveys Minimize site disturbance. Trees and vegeta-tion are the most fragile parts of the eco sys-tem, and most susceptible to damage during construction, therefore they deserve special attention early in the planning process. • Identify and map site vegetation during different seasons on the site and in the surrounding area. • Mark significant trees and areas rich with vegetation that need to be retained, and resurvey the site, if not demarcated clearly. 4. Existing Land Use Surveys Identify seasonally productive agricultural lands in the immediate vicinity, and exist-ing industrial developments in the adjoining lands to better understand the impact of de-velopment on the site and vice versa. 5. Infrastructure Assessment Identify sources for water supply, wastewater systems, solid waste disposal and collection systems, sewage treatment plants, sub-sta-tions for power. 6. Regulatory Context • Review the by-laws and regulations to determine the setbacks, parking require-ments, and the required natural buffers with shelter belt plantations for the Nalla. • Conduct Environmental Impact Assess-ment (EIA) studies for the site. 7. Socio-Economic Context • Conduct a socio-economic survey of Nan-digama and other surrounding villages to understand the following components, at a minimum: • Workforce composition, availability and skill levels for potential employment, trav-
  27. 27. Page 27 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK el behaviour patterns of the workforce • Site Layout 8. Develop an Integrated Land Use Strategy • Allocate land uses on the site based on the clustering alternatives, development envelope and boundary conditions. Clus-tering alternatives may include: −− Industries based on their toxicity levels in terms of waste generation and services accessibility (see #9 under Site Layout be-low) −− Shared public facilities based on vis-ibility and access to visitors and users (see #10 under Site Layout below) −− Residential uses and affordable hous-ing for workforce (see #10 under Site Lay-out below) −− Education and training facilities (see #10 under Site Layout below) −− Utilities and services including facili-ties for parking, water, waste, energy, tele-communications, transport, security, recy-cling facilities (see #10 under Site Layout below) −− Mixed uses, such as residential + of-fice/ industries + office −− Open space + recreation (active and passive) • Preserve and improve productive agricul-tural soil, and identify potential locations for gardens. • Include agro-eco-industrial units as part of the Nandigama site. • Allow flexibility of phased development and future expansion through adequate land reservation for future extension of roads, open space and supporting facili-ties. Plan for long-term expansion oppor-tunities on undeveloped lands abutting the site. • Limit outdoor storage areas to the rear and side areas, screened from main entrances and streets. • Minimize building footprint to the maxi-mum extent possible. • Identify activities along the site edges that respond to the existing surrounding uses such as the RC Cola facility and seasonal agricultural lands (see #4 Master Planning). 9. Clustering industries based on toxicity lev-els of waste generated could be as follows: • High level of toxicity - e.g. paints, dyes, solvents, pharmaceuticals, etc. −− Limited to 10% of the EIP −− 15-20 plots • Medium level of toxicity - e.g. glass, pack-aging, warehousing, engineering, etc. −− limited to 20% of the EIP −− 30-40 plots −− Low level of toxicity - e.g. herbal, food
  28. 28. Page 28 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK and juice, textile, etc. −− ~ 60% of the EIP −− ~ 90-100 plots • Green industries and amenities - e.g. or-ganic gardening and farming, green areas, (vermi) composting, etc. - At least 10% of the EIP - 15-20 plots plus demarcated area 10. Consider non-industry clusters as follows • Cluster based on need for visibility: in-clude a business center, a space for out-door events, and cafeteria for visitors, etc. sited near the main entry. • Cluster focusing on the upkeep of the park: includes service sites for the municipal services such as management of roads, water, waste, energy, telecommunications, transport, security, etc. • Cluster requiring a silent environment: in-cludes low-cost accommodation for the workforce, guesthouses for visitors, train-ing facility for vocational training pro-grams, crèche/play school, etc. 11. Define development envelope • Prepare a development envelope for the site by identifying the following compo-nents: −− Identification of buildable areas −− Setbacks −− Productive agricultural areas based on soil composition −− Buffers from natural features and other protected areas - planting of shelter belt for 20 mt. from the Nalla on either side is recommended (also see #25 under Eco-logical Landscaping) −− dentifying protected areas −− Topographic features −− Existing vegetation and trees −− Steep slopes −− Natural drainage areas −− Site orientation for day lighting / venti-lation and reduction of heat islands 12. Minimize site disturbance • Reduce limits of clearing and grading to areas that have lower impact in terms of hydrologic functions and avoid develop-ing areas with high infiltration rates. • Avoid removal/clearing of mature trees and vegetation while laying out built-up areas (see #3 under Master Planning). • Minimize impervious surfaces/areas on site. • Maintain existing topography and associ-ate natural drainage flows. • Integrate storm water management drain-age system into the overall circulation net-work of the site in the form of location of building sites, alignment of pathways and
  29. 29. Page 29 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK roadways, and location of open spaces (see #21 under Surface Water Manage-ment). • Control soil erosion, contamination and sedimentation caused by storm water run-off during construction phase (see #21 un-der Surface Water Management). • Clearly define and limit development to the construction access route/area, stor-age and parking areas (see #18 under Open Space Management). • Collect/store and protect topsoil in areas designated for development to be re-used for landscaping (see #18 under Open Space Management and #23 under Eco-logical Landscaping). Mobility 13. Ensure Regional and Local Connectivity • Accommodate a bus stop and a pedestri-an access point near the main access road providing easy access to regional bus ser-vice based on travel behaviour patterns of the workforce (see #7 under Master Plan-ning). • Consider an employee shuttle service to minimize the demand for parking on site in order to accommodate personal vehicles based on travel behaviour patterns of the workforce (see #7 under Master Planning). 14. Prioritize Pedestrian and Cycling Infra-structure • Create a hierarchy of pedestrian, vehicular and service access roads to minimize con-flicts between the different vehicle types and modes of transport. −− Principal roads should be provided by dual two-lane standards, with each car-riage way at least 7.30 mt in width. −− Width on curves of radius less than 150 mt. to be at least 7.90 mt. −− A solid landscaped median of at least 3 mt. in width should be provided. −− The minimum width of footpaths to cater for pedestrian flow on site should be 3.0 mt. • Establish a shaded and inter-connected network for pedestrians and bicycles com-posed of trails, walkways, cycling lanes and sidewalks, preferably along natural drainage and slope areas. • Provide multiple (and controlled) pedes-trian entry points to the site allowing for easy access for the workforce from the surrounding villages. • Provide secure, weather-protected bicycle parking areas (i.e. within 200 metres of a building) for building occupants based on travel behaviour patterns of the workforce
  30. 30. Page 30 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK (see #7 under Master Planning). • Accommodate amenities that encourage pedestrian movement, such as benches, street trees, waste receptacles, pedestri-an- scaled street lighting, shelter at public areas and curb cuts for accessibility to ar-terial and collector roads or all roads. • Locate food and other related kiosks along pedestrian-only zones to avoid conflicts in movement of vehicles and people. • Pedestrian routes should be shaded with avenue trees of indigenous shade-pro-viding species (see #24 under Ecological Landscaping) interspersed with hard land-scaping, comprising of benches, street lighting and accessible curbs for the phys-ically challenged, with raised pedestrian crossing and tactile paving for the visually challenged. • Incorporate design features such as per-meable pavers in pedestrian access, park-ing and lay-abouts with storm water drain-age provisions including bio-swales to reduce storm water runoff (see #21 under Surface Water Management). 15. Internal Circulation and Access Management • Site circulation patterns must provide more than one entry point for delivery trucks that are accessible from the main regional access routes. • Provide well-defined access for emer-gency vehicles (fire and ambulance) and unblocked access to individual sites.Use the planned permanent roads as the con-struction access route (see #12 under Site Layout). 16. Truck and Freight • Provide service roads to relieve conges-tion created by queuing trucks and on-site loading and unloading, based on varied needs of industries. • Identify more than one entry/exit point and parking areas for trucks, preferably concentrated along the periphery of the site, in order to avoid access of trucks through the site. • Separate employee parking from truck routes, so that employees can access the facility without conflicting with delivery and receiving routes. • Set aside sufficient land in the parking ar-eas to allow for queuing of loaded vehicles and empty vehicles, truck wash areas, me-chanical bays, and weigh station queuing. • Consider providing a fleet of non-polluting delivery vehicles as a service to the indus-tries for movement of goods between the industry and truck parking area(s).
  31. 31. Page 31 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK 17. Parking • Determine the modal split (persons ar-riving at the site by different transport modes) based on travel behaviour pat-terns of the workforce (see #7 under Mas-ter Planning) in order to assess require-ments and design of parking areas. Design of non-freight parking spaces should give priority to bicycles, two-wheelers, and then four-wheelers. • Determine maximum truck parking re-quirements based on industry needs and requirements stipulated in the by-laws. Most of the maximum parking require-ments are typically excessive and could be adjusted by introducing well-designed overflow parking areas. • Minimize the size of parking facilities and avoid large barren areas while providing tree cover to avoid heat island effect. • Include sustainable features such as per-meable pavement, pedestrian connec-tions, landscaping, trees and applicable storm water drainage with bio-swales for water retention systems in parking areas. Open Space Management 18. Open spaces in the site • Segregate and protect all planned open spaces during infrastructure development to prevent storage of building materials and/or processing of materials to prevent contamination of space. • Design and implementation of all public green spaces should be taken up simulta-neously with, if not in advance of, project implementation so that trees and shrubs are allowed to grow to a sufficient size before occupation (also see #23, #24 and #25 under Ecological Landscaping). • Construct all surface water drainage (bio-swales), and rainwater harvesting struc-tures before roads and other infrastructure development is undertaken so that soil humidity and fertility is not compromised. • Provide for food needs within the Park by allocating at least 50% of all public spaces to productive landscaping. Only indigenous species to be used for avenue and shade trees; lawns with local grass as ground cover to be limited to the first year to stabilize the top soil; subsequently natural ground cover takeover is recommended (also see #23 under Ecological Landscaping and #26 under Organic farming). • Use indigenous flowering plants for all ornamental gardens, in the hedges and fences to encourage and support bees, birds and local insects to support bio-di-
  32. 32. Page 32 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK versity of flora and fauna (see #24 under Ecological Landscaping). • Grow aquatic plants, fishes and water edge vegetation in rainwater harvesting ponds for effective mosquito control and balance of nutrients in the water (also see #24 under Ecological Landscaping). • Follow the natural morphology of the site while designing hard landscaping such as feature walls and earth beams.Design the boundary as a “green fence” using local thorny shrubs that are drought resistant, if security curcumstances allow. Minimal hard fencing can be considered until the shrubs take over. Tree planting along the boundary line should respect concerns of the neighbouring tenants in terms of shading and roots invasion. Building Envelope Design 19. Building layout, shape and internal func-tional flow • Provide for climatically suitable building envelope shape and/or orientation for tropical Wet-Dry climate to reduce opera-tional energy use (also see #27 under En-ergy). • Design all apertures for maximum sun and rain protection in order to minimize glare and allow the space to be used with open windows ensuring ventilation. This will reduce heat intake and reduce cooling needs while modulating natural lighting conditions. • Integrate solar passive features such as shading of walls, windows and roofs in order to reduce the temperature differ-ence between indoor & outdoor temper-atures by 6-8oC. This will reduce or even eliminate the need for air-conditioners be-tween October and March (i.e. 6 months per year). • Use building materials and finishes that have low VOC content and emission, low embodied energy, minimum carbon miles, and potential for re-use when dismantled. • Use sustainably renewable and local building materials that have minimum processing and pre-treatment. • Use solar thermal and solar PV energy on roof tops, combined with roof shading to reduce cooling needs (also see #27 under Energy). • Design spaces with multifunctional uses, in order to derive maximum benefit for the costs invested (lifecycle, as well as real and monetary costs). • Maximise sound and air pollution controls with appropriate layout in intra-plots, to
  33. 33. Page 33 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK reduce screening which is counter-pro-ductive to natural light and ventilation. Waste Water Management 20. Decentralised Effluent Treatment Plant(s) • The size, number and location of DEWATS plants should be determined based on the number and type of industries, the clustering methods used, as well as the industrial processes employed. • Position the Decentralised Effluent Treat-ment Plant or Plants (DEWATS) at the low-est elevation area to allow for maximum gravity flow and to also avoid electrical energy for pumping during treatment. Treated effluent should be supplied for secondary use as much as possible by a gravity flow system to re-use the recuper-ated water for horticulture and orchards. • Employ a waste water treatment method-ology based on the characteristics of sub-stances that need to be addressed along with appropriate technical solutions com-bined with Good Ecological Practices viz. efficient water usage, treatment of waste water and re-use, and practices related to solid waste management. • Ban all toxic effluents (such as biocides, carcinogenic substances, heavy metals, any tenacious and non-degradable syn-thetic substances and mineral oil prod-ucts) from the sewer system. Treat them in a separate and independent closed loop treatment system within the company’s premises, or alternatively, an expert must be called upon for advice on manufactur-ing processes that can replace toxic with non-toxic substances. • Establish a waste water exchange plat-form during the planning phase for the ETP, to allow for a symbiotic neutralization of opposite characteristics in waste water: e.g. acidic and alkaline effluents (pH regu-lation), hot and cold effluents, or effluent with high BOD but low COD and vice versa. There are also known effluents that can be used as flocculants or pH regulators. Industry clustering and plot allocation should be done with due consideration (also see #8, #9 and #10 under Site Layout). • Install two separate water distribution sys-tems, one for drinking water supply, and the second one for the re-use of recycled water for flushing and process water. Surface Water Management 21. Surface water management Surface water management takes into consid-
  34. 34. Page 34 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK eration the rainfall distribution pattern, water harvesting in various forms for the re-charge of the aquifer, through inter-connected open water bodies, swales, holding tanks and pits. • Manage different streams of rainwater separately viz. Rainwater from building roofs, terraces, paved areas and parking should be handled separately from rain-water from natural streams and gullies. • Conduct a water audit at concept design and pre-tender stage to better understand on-site water requirements. • Provide all industries with a list of water efficient fixtures along with retail outlets and price lists; minimize indoor water us-age by using low flow water fixtures. • Plant only drought resistant flora and veg-etation, and prevent any use of potable water for landscaping. Indigenous plants such as Vetiver should be planted in areas which are at risk of soil erosion, especially in and around gullies and trenches, to al-low an active soil flora to act as bio media filter (also see #24 under Ecological Land-scaping). • Prevent pollution of the aquifer by using safety zones around infiltration devices (30mt), sand filtration and first flush de-vices that are integrated into the rainwater harvesting infrastructure. • Avoid roofing materials with zinc-plated steel, in order to avoid zinc dissolving with rainwater and entering the rainwater stream. Use observation wells and water gauges in all open ponds to evaluate the performance of the rainwater harvesting system, and to calculate the Water Bal-ance (the balance between water con-sumed and water recharged). Frequent water analysis will indicate pollution, and/ or scope for improvement. Solid Waste Management 22. Solid waste management • Differentiate the waste generated based on the clustering model employed (see #8, #9, #10 under Site Layout). • Prepare a waste stream analysis at concept design and pre-tender stage, and map the potential for cycling and re-use of waste (both on site and with external areas). • Segregate waste within each plot to the maximum extent possible: −− Bio-degradable waste generated by non-industrial processes should be com-posted on site before transfer to external areas. −− Non-biodegradable waste such as pa-per, plastic, metals and glass should be segregated, and stored within the site in
  35. 35. Page 35 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK a demarcated space that is dry and well-ventilated for collection. −− Sanitary waste (without plastic com-ponents) should be segreated for inciner-ation at a cluster level. A low-tech inciner-ator should be commissioned, preferably next to the solid waste sorting and stor-age facility. −− Toxic and hazardous waste should be stored in safe containers within the site for collection and disposal. −− Coordinate disposal of bio-medical waste (for instance from the health center and first-aid stations), by linking with rele-vant agencies for collection and disposal. • Determine the location of waste collection centers based on the number and type of industries, as well as the industrial pro-cesses employed, and waste generated. • Identify and partner with the local collec-tion/ recycling agencies for waste collec-tion and disposal. In the absence of such an agency, relevant micro-enterprises should be established that also provide a means of income generation. Ecological Landscaping 23. Soil and topography • Give significant inputs to the soil initially to establish organic farming and garden-ing plots. In due course, with the estab-lishment of a perennial green cover, these inputs will be necessary only to maintain the productivity of organic agriculture. • Give special consideration to the topogra-phy of the land whilst preparing the master plan. Plots and roads should be levelled in a manner that deals with the potential erosion and subsequent sedimentation loads in the rainwater runoff (also see #21 under Surface Water Management). • Scrape the topsoil from areas where devel-opment will occur, and relocate to green - landscape or farming areas. The value of good topsoil and the importance of con-serving it cannot be stressed enough. • Create a water budget for each plot tak-ing into account the estimated output of the STP, along with a sustainable yield diagnostic of the site ground water. This budget, presented as budget for virgin and recycled water, should be allocated for industrial needs, with the remainder being available for agriculture and land-scaping (also see #21 under Surface Water Management). • Flag particular niches that need special attention within the Master Plan, so that specific plants can be recommended by a landscaping expert for those areas.
  36. 36. Page 36 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK • Install a green shelter belt around the site to enhance the environment of the project (also see #18 under Open Space Manage-ment). 24. Plant species • List choices of plant species for landscap-ing within categories such as avenue trees, shade trees, shelterbelt shrubs/ trees, hedging plants, flowering borders and ground covers. • Use plants that add value as follows: Native plant species that make a positive contribution to bio diversity conservation, particularly with reference to pollinators. Increase awareness of tenants to the ben-efits of biodiversity, instilling in them a sensitivity to conservation of biodiversity −− Drought tolerant species that will re-duce the use of water resources −− Plants that have commercial potential in the preparation of herbal products −− Pest tolerant species that do not re-quire toxic chemicals to control them. The maintenance program must have a clear reference to pest control, and plant feed-ing through organic principles. Use of standard plant species will lead to pest problems in the future, and require toxic chemicals to control them which must be avoided. 25. Nalla • Make the Nalla the focal landscape point; it presents opportunities for recreation, in a similar manner as the presently proposed “green spine”, as well as for implementing best practices in water conservation. • Increase the landholding along the Nalla, and/or obtain legal control of the land as-sociated with the Nalla if possible. Organic Farming 26. On-site activities • Consider the following activities on site: −− Develop a few organic gardens that are ornamental as well as productive in edible crops and medicinal herbs. −− Make compost from bio-waste (kitch-en waste, food waste, from gardening, from food and herb processing). −− Prepare mulch from leaf litter. −− Prepare terra preta from biochar (ex-ternally purchased), bio-waste and urine. • Do not use herbicides (such as Roundup and Glyphosate), pesticides, fungicides etc. on the site, as well as in and around the buildings (e.g. against cockroaches, flies, termites etc.) • Catch rainwater by allowing surface water to run off and by collecting it in a few ap-
  37. 37. Page 37 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK propriate sites from where it can percolate into the aquifer or be used for irrigation. Initially, “bunding” or dyking are not rec-ommended, since the soils are rich in clay, and it may lead to water logging and an-aerobic soil conditions (also see #21 un-der Surface Water Management). • Dispose urine through sub-surface drain-ages into the garden soil, thereby avoid-ing costs related to storage and disposal. • Partner with an experienced local NGO (such as the Deccan Development Society or CSA) for educational programs on site management and organic farming. Energy 27. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy • Summarize relevant State and National policies for grid connected energy sys-tems, and subsidies available for Renew-able Energy Technologies. • Conduct a virtual energy audit and pre-pare a baseline for electrical load and energy consumption at concept and pre-tender stage. • Conduct site assessment with regards to renewable energy technologies (solar, wind, biogas etc) and determine on-site Renewable Energy Capacity. • Plan for energy production on rooftops and other underutilized areas to cover at least all non-process energy requirements using renewable energy. • Recommend roof typologies that sup-port grid tied Solar PV and Solar Thermal installations. Slanted roofs should be at 17¬0 angle and south-facing for optimal capture of solar radiation. • Provide all industries with an on-line di-rectory of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) rated appliances with retail outlets and price lists. Advocate only low power density and energy-efficient appliances. • Plan and design facilities considering electrical wiring needs for Renewable En-ergy technologies. • Light all open spaces using centralized, grid-tied Solar PV Streetlights to minimize operations and maintenance costs. • Focus on energy efficient transmission and distribution systems. Management 28. Facilities and revenue generation • Provide service lanes for trucks and heavy duty vehicles to freely enter and exit each industrial plot. Consider more than one entry point (especially service entries for
  38. 38. Page 38 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK trucks), as well as more than one truck parking bay, since different industries will have different transport requirements for raw materials and finished products (also see #15 and #16 under Mobility). • Demarcate an admin block for park man-agement, common services, a residential block and public toilets clearly on the Master Plan. • Allow for the cycling of waste resources within the Park, and to external areas as well. Sale of waste/by-products can be-come a source of revenue for the Park. This includes and is not limited to: sale of scrap metal, sale of paper and plastic to local vendors, sale/exchange of waste wa-ter with surrounding agricultural land for organic produce, etc. • Make provisions for the following services (and associated revenue generation mod-els) as municipal services (costs borne by the Park), common services (provided by the park at nominal cost) and collective services (provided as micro entrepreneurships). 1. Accommodation for workers/visitors 2. Business centre/Exhibition hall 3. Canteens for workers 4. Common security services 5. Common toilets 6. Conference rooms 7. Fire station 8. Garage / mechanics for trucks, two wheelers 9. Information desk 10. Medical clinic/first aid/health center 11. Optical fiber communications 12. Park & space for outdoor functions 13. Training centre 14. Warehousing / centralized packing and dispatching unit 15. Waste collection • Encourage micro-entrepreneurship amongst the entrepreneurs, some of which are given below for future reference: 1. Bank/ATM 2. Biogas plant 3. Composting unit 4. Day care / crèche 5. Human resource, financial and ac-counting services 6. Gardening and landscaping services 7. Grocery shop (fair price) 8. Handmade paper unit 9. Horticulture/floriculture/Terra preta 10. Internet centre 11. Kiosks 12. Legal advisory services 13. Medical clinic/first aid/health center 14. Outdoor functions/event venue 15. Pharmacy 16. Post office, courier services, printing and DTP services
  39. 39. Page 39 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK 17. Residential block for visitors 18. Restaurants and cafeterias 19. Solar energy through roof top renting 20. Sports club 21. Stationery shop 22. STD telephone booth 23. Supermarket 29. Green rating • Plan in accordance with the following rat-ing systems for the site: −− LEED 2011 Certification for India-Core & Shell, provided ALEAP controls the de-sign and construction of the entire core and shell base building including MEP/FP systems, and hands over control of the de-sign and construction of the tenant fit-out. −− IGBC Green Factory Building rating system for the individual factories. −− IGBC Green Landscape rating system for ecological landscaping. • Conduct an Environmental Impact Assess-ment for the site as well as EcoSystem Services Study for evaluating the develop-mental impact on the environment. • Commission a comprehensive Environ-mental Monitoring Data Management Sys-tem that provides a central unified dash-board for managing all data. Publish the results of the monitoring system in a clear and transparent manner.
  40. 40. Page 40 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK 4 FUNCTIONAL AREAS
  41. 41. 4.1 Page 41 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK AMENITIES Guidelines For Provision Of Amenities In Pub-lic Spaces Provision of Amenities for public spaces within an industrial park is dependent on the following a. The size of the industrial park i.e; land area and population b. The Location of the iIndustrial park, the de-velopment model and the impact on the region c. The type of industries, profile of the employ-ees and the activities undertaken d. The type of services provided to the users of the industrial park and co-development with sharing of amenities within the region The following guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and measures to guide the pro-vision of amenities for the Green Industrial Park for the Association of Lady Entrepreneurs at Andhra Pradesh (ALEAP) at the Nandigama site. Basic Amenities The basic amenities to be provided are: 1. Parking 2. Public toilets 3. Banks and ATMs 4. Emergency services 1. Parking: Safe and convenient parking should be juxtaposed between the working areas and the basic amenities. This will ensure that people walk to the amenities during their rest time rather than drive to use the ameni-ties, thereby reducing traffic. If parking is far from the basic amenities, then either they will be underutilized, or they will only be used by persons who have personal vehicles. 2. Public toilets: All the plots with the industri-al units should provide toilets and rest rooms with lockers for their employees and vendors. At an overall site level, provision of toilets is essential to meet the needs of visitors. Toilets must be located in relation to the clustering of plots to allow for easy access. Location should ensure that they are visible from street cross-ings and lanes, with no dead spaces around them in order to prevent misuse of the space with littering, dumping and loitering. The pho-tograph shows a public toilet using bamboo and recycled wood located along cycling tracks. AUROVILLE DESIGN CONSULTANTS
  42. 42. Page 42 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Figure 4.1.1
  43. 43. Page 43 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK 3. Banks and ATM’s: They should be provid-ed in centrally located spaces. Ideally these should be clustered with allied amenities such as shops, pharmacies, club house, sports fa-cilities and housing. The photograph shows a bank ATM clustered with the parking lot . 4. Emergency services: Primary health servic-es, fire tender and emergency response sys-tems should be provided at nodal points Secondary Amenities The list of secondary amenities to be provided are: 1. Crèches 2. Paramedic centre 3. Counselling services 4. Micro financing Figure 4.1.2 Figure 4.1.3 1. Crèches: Day care centres and nursing moth-ers care rooms should be centrally located, thereby allowing easy access. There should be open spaces attached to these amenities to accommodate a toddler’s playground. These amenities should have their own toilets, wash areas and small pantry so that meals for the children can be prepared. The surrounding areas should be quiet and safe, with proper fencing to prevent children from wandering out. The photograph shows a day care centre that is secure Figure 4.1.4
  44. 44. Page 44 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK 2. Paramedic centre: This is ideally located near the cluster of ATM / Bank and emergency services. There should be a clear signage, and easy access for ambulances. It can be coupled with a pharmaceutical. 3. Counselling services: This service for trauma and emotional needs should be incorporated in the park. It should cater to diverse socio-economic groups and hence be designed accordingly. 4. Micro financing: This service with a banking centre and financial counselling should be provided to help under-educated employees to open bank accounts and manage their savings. General Amenities The general amenities to be provided are: 1. Food services and kiosks 2. Convention centre 3. Indoor fitness centre 4. Guesthouse and dormitories 5. Exhibition and marketing centre 6. Delivery services Figure 4.1.5 1. Food services to be provided for beverages, refreshments, snacks, fast food, meals and take away. These can include • Food kiosks (with pavement seating) at cluster level providing hot and cold bever-ages, snacks for quick breaks • Canteens that provide subsidized meals • Restaurants / cafeterias attached to the convention centre, recreational facilities, guest houses and dormitories • Shaded picnic areas with tables and benches located close to the food kiosks Figure 4.1.6 Figure 4.1.7
  45. 45. Page 45 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK 2. Convention centre with meeting rooms for common use. The centre should be located close to the green space, to allow for spill over during exhibitions. The green spaces could be used for stalls. The convention centre should accommodate 250+ participants, and the meeting rooms should be in 2 to 3 sizes to accommodate different sized groups. An incu-bation centre can also be provided with labs for innovation, prototyping and benchmarking of new products, systems and services. The photograph shows a convention centre as an iconic green building with green roofs, natu-ral lighting and ventilation. A business centre, guest house and short terms stay rooms could be provided within the convention centre to accommodate the needs of visitors to the centre 3. Indoor fitness centre could be coupled either with the convention centre or the restaurant / recreation centre. Walking and jogging tracks could be provided along the peripheral roads that are essential for emergency vehicle access 4. Guest houses and dormitories are needed for overnight stay from price range of 1 to 3 stars. The restaurant / cafeteria, fitness centre, library and business centre can be clustered together as the user profile for most of these ac-tivates may be generated by the visitors. Figure 4.1.8 Figure 4.1.9 5. Exhibition and marketing centre could be combined with the visitor’s information centre. It should be located close to the main entrance to allow for maximum foot fall. Space can also be rented to agencies who would like to inform, promote and market their goods and services to the industrial units. 6. Delivery services such as a post office, cou-rier offices and overnight delivery services should be provided at various points on the site to enable efficient pick up and drop off between the industrial units and the service provider. They need to be wired with security devices such as CCTV’s to prevent damage and pilferages Figure 4.1.10
  46. 46. Page 46 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK References http://www10.aeccafe.com/blogs/ h t t p : / / w w w . g o o g l e . c o . i n / imgres?imgurl=http://templeuabroad.files. wordpress.com/ http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ mumbai/ http://www.thestar.com/life/food_ http://sae.edu.au/campuses/byron-bay/ http://www.sustainabilitysolutions.ca/ http://www.google.co.in/imgres? http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=
  47. 47. 4.2 Page 47 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK BUILDING GUIDELINES Guidelines For Plot Level Building ALEAP project at Nandigama is planned to showcase and benchmark sustainable indus-trial development. Each aspect of the park is expected to have full consideration of meth-ods of construction, site layout and building design to encourage conservation of natural resources during the construction phase and for the life of the building. The following guidelines provide an integrat-ed set of principles and measures to guide the design and construction of buildings at plot level for the Green Industrial Park for the Association of Lady Entrepreneurs at Andhra Pradesh (ALEAP) at the Nandigama site. They seek to embody sustainable development principles through practical application. Chapter Contents Climate data Plot level zoning Building Building design and articulation Building orientation Building envelope Roof form and orientation Rain water harvesting and collection Renewable energy and energy efficiency Renewable energy and energy efficiency Waste management Building functionality Zoning Circulation and work flow Amenities / facilities Accessibility Building materials and technology Table 4.2.1 Climate data Climate plays an important role in determin-ing the design and construction of buildings. Climate data for the region is given in the fol-lowing graphs/tables: AUROVILLE DESIGN CONSULTANTS
  48. 48. Page 48 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Figure 4.2.1 Source: NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center; New et al. 2002 Table 4.2.2
  49. 49. Page 49 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Rain fall pattern Direction / time period / quantity Jul/Aug - up to 400-450 mm / month Temperature Maximum / minimum Apr/May - 42ᵒC Dec - 15ᵒC Temperature Diurnal temperature variation / maximum + minimum - seasonal with time period March - 14ᵒC Aug 8.25ᵒC Relative humidity Max / minimum Jan - 56% / Apr - 35% / Jul - 70% / Oct - 75% Wind Speeds / direction / extreme weather occurrence + frequency Avg. max. wind – 4.5m/s Min. wind – 3.5 m/s with cyclonic storms in the bay bringing down trees Sunshine Hours / cloudy days Avg. - 5.22 kwh/m² /day Max (Apr) - 6.7 kwh/ m²/day Table 4.2.3 Figure 4.2.2
  50. 50. Page 50 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Plot level zoning Plot orientation: This gives the angle of inci-dence most of the plots on the site vis a vis the North to evaluate the optimum orientation for climatic comfort. Figure 4.2.3 Figure 4.2.4 Main plot orientation: Most of the plots of. the proposed layout follow this orient ation i.e. 30° to the North.
  51. 51. Page 51 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Figure 4.2.5 Incidental plot orientation: Some of the plots have an angle of incidence between 9.7° to 19.4° N.
  52. 52. Page 52 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Distance from electric lines: No veranda, balcony or like shall be allowed to be erected or any additions or alterations made to any building within the distance be-tween the building and any overhead electric supply line as indicated below. Vertically: Horizontally: a) Low and medium voltage 2.4 1.2 meters meters b) High voltage lines up to 3.7 meters. 1.8 meters c) Extra high voltage lines 3.7 + 0.305 meters for every additional 33,000 volts 1.8 + 0.305 meters for every additional 33,000 volts Means of access: No building shall be erected so as to deprive any other building of the means of access. Abutting plots should share a common load-ing and unloading dock. Plot level recommended development controls: Plot size Ground cover in % Ground cover in meters Maximum FAR 1. 836m² 50 % 418m² 1.5 2. 704m² 45% 317m² 1.3 Table 4.2.4 Table 4.2.5
  53. 53. Page 53 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Built-up area: Figure 4.2.6
  54. 54. Page 54 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Recommended setbacks within the plots: Plot size Front Side (non-abutting ) Back 1. 836m² 5.00m 5.00m 6.00m 2. 704m² 5.00m 5.00m 6.00m Emergency access: All the plots should have access for emer-gency vehicles like fire tender, ambulance and cranes. No point of the building should be more than 10 meters from the emergency access. All the buildings that are more than one floor should have fire escapes and extin-guishers. Planting and landscaping: 1. Peripheral tree plantation should be pro-vided in the front, side and back of the plot with evergreen trees to shade the building and open areas, to prevent heat island ef-fect, with a minimum of 1 tree per 100m². 2. Trees with high canopies and low growing shrubs should be adequately spaced and located within the front setback to allow views into and from the site. Landscape elements shall be less than 900mm or above 2000mm in height. Mature trees are to be pruned clear to a minimum of 1800mm above ground level. 3. Landscape in the vicinity of the crossover into the site should be designed in a man-ner that preserves the sightlines for ve-hicles. 4. Only low flow and trickle irrigation will be permitted for the irrigation of landscaped areas and these could also be connected to timers to ensure that the irrigation is done early morning or after sunset to en-sure least evaporative loss. 5. Each industrial plot should be made re-sponsible for the road frontage space to the plot. They should maintain the road side avenue plantation, irrigation, control of vandalism and litter management. This will ensure quality of public spaces. 6. No storm water from the plot or building should be discharged into the street storm water system. Minimum 20% of the plot has to be permeable to percolate storm water. Additional systems for storm water percolation such as wells may be required. Refer to guidelines on the same. 7. Grey water and black water should have separate systems at building level. Grey water is to be reused at plot level for toilet flushing and landscaping. Refer to guide-lines on waste water management. 8. Each site requires adequate garbage and recycling areas. Solid waste is to be segre-gated by category and material. Table 4.2.6
  55. 55. Page 55 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Building Building design and articulation 1. Development shall be articulated to con-tribute to the streetscape. Buildings are to be provided with street façades that: • Incorporate a variety of building mate-rials • Include variation in depth (i.e. projec-tions, recesses, eave overhangs etc.) • Avoid large expanses of blank walls. 2. Entrance points to buildings are encour-aged to be designed as focus points. Building entries are to be enhanced by landscape design and be clearly lit at night. 3. Representative components such as of-fice and sign-in areas are to be designed to face the primary street and act as fo-cus points. Any such representative com-ponents must include a building element such as a veranda, canopy or colonnade, with a minimum depth of 2.0 metres, fac-ing the public street. 4. Large expanses of highly reflective build-ing materials and mirror glass windows shall be avoided to prevent heat and glare impacts on the adjacent public streets and properties. 5. Side and back walls are to include open-ings (such as windows, clerestory win-dows, doors, rolling shutters, wall vents etc.) in order to promote cross ventilation. 6. Materials used for the construction of walls near boundaries shall be rendered or painted and fully integrated into the building design. Building orientation Site layout and building design should: 1. Minimise the length of any East and West facing façades wherever possible to avoid heat gain. 2. Provide adequate shading and protection from direct summer sun. 3. Maximise natural cross flow ventilation by providing intake air windows at the work-ing level (desk / floor) and exhaust at roof levels. The building is to be designed to take advantage of the prevailing winds which are North-Easterly in winter and South, South-East in summer. 4. External lighting shall be contained within the site and not directed beyond the plot boundary in order to minimise adverse impacts on adjoining properties and pass-ing motorists. Building envelope 1. Provide for climatically suitable building envelope shape and/or orientation for tropical composite to dry climate to re- Figure 4.2.7
  56. 56. Page 56 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK potential for re-use when dismantled. 7. Use sustainably renewable and local building materials that have minimum processing and pre-treatment. 8. Use solar thermal and photo voltaic pan-els on roof tops, combined with roof shad-ing to reduce cooling needs. Refer guide-lines on energy. Roof form and orientation 1. Glazing on East and West façades should be avoided or minimized with the excep-tion of street facing façades which shall be appropriately shaded or treated to avoid solar glare. 2. External shading devices (overhangs, aw-nings, shutters and directional louvers) are encouraged for all North, South, West and East facing openings. 3. Internal lighting should be achieved pri-marily through natural daylight using light shelves to provide glare free, indi-rect lighting, as the local sunlight tends to be harsh with glare. Also, allowing direct penetration of sunlight into the buildings results in heating of internal spaces. 4. Ventilation: Windows and/or roof vents are to be provided at all levels within the building to ensure cross ventilation and heat purging. Extractor fans at the roof level vent the hot air under the roof. This duce operational energy use. Refer guide-lines on energy. 2. Design all apertures for maximum sun and rain protection in order to minimize glare and allow the space to be used with open windows, ensuring ventilation. This will re-duce heat intake and cooling needs while modulating natural lighting conditions. 3. Integrate solar passive features such as shading of walls, windows and roofs in order to reduce the temperature differ-ence between indoor & outdoor temper-atures by 6-8oC. This will reduce or even eliminate the need for air-conditioners be-tween October and March (i.e. 6 months per year). Roof insulation with green roofs and shading with roof top photovoltaic panels will reduce the heating of internal spaces considerably. 4. Design spaces with multifunctional uses in order to derive maximum benefit for the costs invested i.e. life cycle cost as well as real and monetary costs. 5. Maximize sound and air pollution controls with appropriate layouts in intra-plots and hence reduce screening which is counter-productive to natural light and ventilation. 6. Use building materials and finishes that have low Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content and emission, low embod-ied energy, minimum carbon miles and Sun path between equinox and summer / winter for the latitude of Nandigama Figure 4.2.8
  57. 57. Page 57 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK helps to increase the air flow velocity within the room, venting the hot air and drawing in the cool night air. To ensure the extractor fans work efficiently, there should be provi-sion Figure 4.2.9 of floor level ventilators, positioned for cross ventilation, which are left open in the night.
  58. 58. Page 58 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Figure 4.2.10 Figure 4.2.11
  59. 59. Page 59 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Figure 4.2.12 Figure 4.2.13
  60. 60. Page 60 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Figure 4.2.14 Figure 4.2.15 Rain water harvesting and collection Figure 4.2.16
  61. 61. Page 61 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Green Roof Types: Figure 4.2.17 The following criteria can be used to characterize three different forms of green roofs: Item Extensive Green Roof Semi-Intensive Green Roof Intensive Green Roof Maintenance Low Periodically High Irrigation No Periodically Regularly Plant communities Moss-Sedum-Herbs and Grasses Grass-Herbs and Shrubs Lawn or Perennials, Shrubs and Trees System build-up height 60 - 200 mm 120 - 250 mm 150 - 400 mm on under-ground garages > 1000 mm Weight 60 - 150 kg/m2 13 -30 lb/sqft 120 - 200 kg/m2 25 - 40 lb/sqft 180 - 500 kg/m2 35 - 100 lb/sqft Costs Low Middle High Use Ecological protection layer Designed Green Roof Park like garden Table 4.2.7
  62. 62. Page 62 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Green roofs can also be combined with photo voltaic cells. The roof top hence becomes a source of renewable energy and at the same time provides shade to the roof to minimize heating, thereby reducing cooling loads. Refer images below. Figure 4.2.18 Figure 4.2.19 Figure 4.2.20
  63. 63. Page 63 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Renewable energy and energy efficiency Buildings should maximize energy efficiency through measures such as insulation and low embodied energy building materials. 1. Use high efficiency light systems. 2. All toilet and unfrequented areas should be fitted only with motion sensors lights. 3. For external lighting, high efficiency sys-tems (e.g. T5 Triphosphor Fluorescent, motion sensors, timed clock and/or photo sensitive cells to control operation hours) are encouraged. 4. Provision of solar hot water systems (mini-mum 4 star rating) for all buildings that re-quire hot water facility. 5. Consider the use of solar cell technology to supply some portion of the power for the buildings. 6. Developments shall incorporate 4 star cooling/heating systems and water saving shower heads, taps and dual flush toilets. Waste management To ensure proper manage of waste the follow-ing measures must be considered. 1. Arrange for sufficient space for short term storage of separated waste items such as a) biodegradable or compostable waste, b) paper, plastic and mixed packaging, c) e-waste and d) industry-specific hazardous waste. In general, such spaces should be dry and well ventilated. 2. Arrange for easy access to waste collection facilities. 3. For sanitary and biomedical waste (without plastic components), consider the construction of a small low-tech incinerator on the plot. 4. On the allotted plot, arrange for odour free composting of all biodegradable waste, at least of the comparatively small quantities generated by non-industrial processes. 5. Arrange for proper waste storage containers with lids, protected from rains and non-accessible to rodents and stray animals. 6. The staff must be trained to separate the waste items, as a minimum, into the following categories: • Biodegradable and compostable mat-ter • Paper, plastics, packaging materials and other potentially non-composta-ble by recyclable material • E-waste • Industry specific, hazardous waste • Sanitary or bio-medical waste 7. The management team and work force of a particular industry must be educated re-
  64. 64. Page 64 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK garding the concerns of solid waste man-agement and conscientious management of resources, solids, water and energy. 8. The industry management should educate and train staff in avoiding unnecessary and excessive packaging of brought-in materials, in particular of goods with compostable and non-compostable components. Building functionality The design of buildings should allow for the possibility of some alteration and flexibil-ity. The internal layout, position of entranc-es, staircases and methods of construction should allow some flexibility in its use to en-hance its life expectancy and long term value. Zoning Zoning inside the building with regard to function. Figure 4.2.21 Zoning inside the building with regard to natural light.
  65. 65. Page 65 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Figure 4.2.23 Figure 4.2.24 Circulation and work flow Figure 4.2.25 Circulation and work flow
  66. 66. Page 66 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Amenities / facilities Each floor should be equipped with toilets, drinking water fountains and staff rest room. Accessibility All spaces within and around the plot should be designed for accessibility for wheelchairs and visually impaired individuals. This is ex-tension of the accessibility standards that would be integrated at the industrial park level. Building materials and technology Building materials used should have the fol-lowing properties: 1. Low embodied energy 2. Local availability and accessibility 3. Ease of assembly 4. Low operational energy needs 5. Suitability for the project function 6. Dismantling and recycling Appropriate building materials should be identified based on the following: 1. Regional and local building materials must be chosen based on rapid renewability, haz-ardous materials and recyclable content. 2. Analysis of traditional building methods and typologies and their adaption to in-dustrial building typology must be con-ducted. 3. The embodied energy in locally available building materials taking into consider-ation transport, processing, origin, manu-facturing and operational energy require-ments must be determined. 4. Building methods and technologies that maximize climatic efficient design prin-ciples must be identified. 5. Local human resources and skills related to construction must be identified. 6. Building methods which use the maximum of human resources where appropriate must be determined. 7. Buildings should incorporate the use of recycled and recyclable building materials where possible. 8. Materials that are likely to contribute to poor internal air quality such as polyure-thane or those that may create a breathing hazard in case of a fire must be avoided. The following factors must be considered when selecting materials for finishes: 1. Suitability for the use and context 2. Long term appearance of development 3. Durability 4. Environmental impacts 5. Thermal performance All developments within a site should have consistent use of colours, form and materials. 1. Outbuildings and ancillary installations Figure 4.2.26
  67. 67. Page 67 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK should be compatible with the design theme established by the primary building. 2. The number of different building materials to be applied on the exterior of the build-ing should be limited, to avoid chaotic urban building composition and achieve legible designs. 3. The visual impact of colours, wall finish-ing and roof cladding materials should be considered in relation to the background and context of the building. Generally, more subdued and non-reflective finishes are encouraged as they can reduce the overall visual impact of a building. 4. Light coloured, roof and wall materials with a solar absorbency of less than 0.35 are to be used to reduce heat gain. This in-cludes colours such as soft and light pas-tels, for these, under the hot / dry tropical sun feel psychologically cooler. 5. Buildings should incorporate the use of recycled and recyclable building materi-als and finishes where possible, including construction and demolishing waste. 6. The use of windows and glazing on the street frontage is encouraged. Glazed ar-eas are to be divided into sections to ar-ticulate large expanses of glass and to re-inforce horizontal lines at the built form. Glazing should be applied with consider-ation of solar heat impacts on internal areas.
  68. 68. 4.3 Page 68 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK ENERGY Guidelines for Energy Efficiency and Renew-able Energy Industrial energy use is a key lever for sus-tainable industrial development. This requires innovative solutions, national and global, for minimizing energy consumption, particularly for carbon intensive sources; using resourc-es more efficiently and improving productiv-ity and competitiveness. In tandem with im-proving energy efficiency, industry needs to consider switching to energy sources which will reduce the environmental impacts of en-ergy use. The ALEAP project at Nandigama is planned to showcase and benchmark sus-tainable industrial development. In order to achieve energy sustainability, an energy strat-egy must be developed, allowing the indus-trial park to be energy neutral. This chapter summarizes some of the guiding principles for setting up an energy strategy for AUROVILLE CONSULTING the Green Industrial Park for the Association of Lady Entrepreneurs at Andhra Pradesh (ALEAP) at the Nandigama site. Chapter Contents Integrated Energy Planning STEP 1 Set Overall Energy Vision and Goals STEP 2 Establish an energy demand baseline STEP 3 Set Energy Benchmarks and Objectives STEP 4 Site Assessment for RETs STEP 5 Define Strategies to meet energy goals STEP 6 Design an energy management system for the Park Specific Guidelines for Nandigama References Annex 1: Example of Industrial Energy Efficiency Annex 2: Recommended Light Levels Annex 3: Check list for setting up wind turbines Annex 4: Typical Diagram of a Grid-Connected Solar PV System Table 4.3.1 Integrated Energy Planning Integrated Energy Planning (IEP) translates the principles of the Energy Pyramid into a process for implementing a more sustainably integrated management system for industrial parks and campuses. The objective of IEP is to decide how to meet energy service needs in the most efficient and socially beneficial manner, keeping control of the economic costs.
  69. 69. Page 69 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK It also allows for consideration of substitution of energy carriers, e.g. reducing electricity demand through mandatory introduction of solar water heating or fuel switching away from imported oil (Sustainable Energy Briefing 4: Integrated Energy Planning, 2005). The foundation of planning begins with a comprehensive description of the whole en-ergy systems within the boundary conditions defined by the park allowing developing of energy baselines, forecasting and scenarios to deliver certain services within the industrial zones; and then identify a mix of appropriate sources and forms of energy to meet these energy service needs in the most efficient and socially beneficial manner. Key requirements for a meaningful integrated energy planning are the accessibility of data regarding the industries process and non-process energy demand, the inclusion of appropriate supply - as well as demand side solutions with focus on energy conservation and efficiency and low-carbon intense technologies, financial viability and social acceptance of proposed solutions and the support of the park management.
  70. 70. Page 70 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK Step Item Comments STEP 1 Set overall Energy Vision and Goals for the Park STEP 2 Establish a baseline and energy demand and forecasting scenarios Process Energy , Non-Process Energy STEP 3 Set measurable energy benchmarks for the parks energy management Energy Efficiency Goals: , RET Goals, Economic Goals, Environmental Goals STEP 4 Site Assessment for Renewable Energy Technolo-gies STEP 5 Define strategies to meet energy goals Action plan for energy conservation and efficiency (ECE), Action plan for Renew-able Energy Technology STEP 6 Design energy management system for the park STEP 1 Set Overall Energy Vision and Goals The vision is the starting point to set objec-tives and plan actions. The vision should be inspiring and far-reaching and can be a simple statement. The vision statement can be elab-orated with a set of stand-alone goals such as reducing energy demand by 30 percent by a certain year for a certain process. Goals pro-vide a long-term reference for all planning processes hence it is important that they are formulated in a collaborative process with all stakeholders. STEP 2 Establish an energy demand baseline Industrial energy use is a key lever for sus-tainable industrial development. This requires innovative solutions, national and global, for minimizing energy consumption, particularly for carbon intensive sources; using resources more efficiently and improving productivity and competitiveness. In tandem with improv-ing energy efficiency, industry needs to con-sider switching to energy sources which will reduce the environmental impacts of energy use. Acquiring reliable information on the energy performance of the industries and the facilities Table 4.3.2 Steps for Integrated Energy Planning
  71. 71. Page 71 / 229 GREEN INDUSTRIAL PARK to be established in the industrial park is the first step towards the development of a base-line. Distinctions need to be made between process and non-process energy consump-tion. Too often it is seen that the industries are very reluctant to provide such information or do not have adequate data to produce a clear picture of their energy consumption. In such cases national average or international aver-age data should be used. STEP 3 Set Energy Benchmarks and Objectives Benchmarking is the process of comparing cost, cycle time, productivity or quality of a specific process or method to another that is widely considered to be an industry standard or best practice (Ecocare International Ltd. , 2013). Benchmarking is most used to measure performance using a specific indicator such as the Energy Use Index (EUI) resulting in a metric of performance that is then compared to others. A commonly used EUI for facilities such as buildings is the annual energy use normalized with floor area. Other indicators such as Specific Energy Consumption in energy per ton of output (for manufacturers), energy per worker (in case of office buildings) or energy per bed (in case of hotels) may also be used. Benchmarking curves helps to assess the relative performance of individual plants and help to estimate the aggregate saving potential of an industry. For renewable energy systems use a benchmark such as the Prosumption Index, which is a ratio of the renewable energy produced on site to the total energy consumption of the Park. Process Energy Bureau in Energy Efficiency (BEE) has initiated diagnostic studies to prepare cluster specific energy efficiency manuals covering specific energy consumption norms, energy efficient process and technologies, best practices, case studies, etc. Industrial energy intensity can be reduced through technological progress and system changes that improve technical energy efficiency – changes that increase output using the same amount of energy or that delivers the same output using less energy (UNIDO, 2011). These changes include replacing old technologies, adopting energy-saving technologies (preferably best available technologies), improving processes and optimizing systems, and employing energy management practices.

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