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Blockchain: registros eletrônicos distribuídos, imutáveis e seguros

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O que o blockchain tem a oferecer para novas aplicações seguras para além do mundo financeiro. Conhecida pela sua primeira aplicação na criptomoeda Bitcoin, o modelo tem sido cada vez mais considerado e aplicado para outras aplicações distribuídas: processos eletrônicos, contratos inteligentes, registro de propriedade intelectual, etc. Exploramos algumas características e o potencial da ferramenta.

Published in: Technology
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Blockchain: registros eletrônicos distribuídos, imutáveis e seguros

  1. 1. BlockchainBlockchain registros eletrônicos distribuídos, imutáveis e seguros Augusto Herrmann Batista24/6/2016
  2. 2. 2 / 20 O que é? Blockchain Um banco de dados distribuído que mantém uma lista continuamente crescente de registros de dados, dificultando a manipulação e revisão.
  3. 3. 3 / 20 O que é? ● primeira aplicação: moedas digitais (≠ virtuais), ou “criptomoedas” ● Bitcoin ● outros exemplos: – “altcoins”: Namecoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, etc.
  4. 4. 4 / 20 Bitcoin: como começou ● artigo acadêmico: Satoshi Nakamoto, 2008 – moeda digital – transações assinadas digitalmente – peer-to-peer, modelo descentralizado – funcionamento baseado no blockchain – remuneração do trabalho computacional pela cunhagem de novas moedas (“mineração” de Bitcoins)
  5. 5. 5 / 20 Bitcoin: crescimento ● Bitcoin: software livre em 2009 ● rápida expansão a partir de 2012 Valor estimado das transações em US$/ano (Ladislav Mecir, 2016) Volume de transações (Zhitelew, 2016)
  6. 6. 6 / 20 Bitcoin: aceitação ● Exemplos de organizações que aceitam Bitcoin como pagamento incluem: –Paypal –Microsoft –Dell –Fundação Mozilla –Fundação Wikimedia
  7. 7. 7 / 20 Bitcoin: como funciona ● Blockchain: “livro-caixa” global de transações ● distribuído: cada nó na rede tem uma cópia do blockchain 7 / 20
  8. 8. 8 / 20 X → Y Valor: N Ref.: T1, T2 Bitcoin: transações ● cada transação tem informações de valores e destinatários pagador X envia N bitcoins para recebedor Y ● inclui referências às transações anteriores ● transação é assinada pelo pagador 8 / 20 T 1 T 2
  9. 9. 9 / 20 Bitcoin: mineração ● grupos de transações são verificados pelo minerador, que faz cálculos criptográficos e cria um bloco ● valores (“moedas”) são emitidos como recompensa pelo trabalho computacional de processamento BLOCO nBLOCO n-1 T1 Tm ...T2
  10. 10. 10 / 20 Bitcoin: blockchain ● blockchain é a cadeia de blocos onde cada um referencia o anterior ● o blockchain contém todas as transações já realizadas na história e é de conhecimento público ● as transações são identificadas por “endereços Bitcoin” – são pseudônimos, não anônimos BLOCO 1 BLOCO 2 BLOCO 3 BLOCO 4 ...
  11. 11. 11 / 20 Blockchain Será que só serve para moedas digitais?
  12. 12. 12 / 20 Blockchain: características ● Banco de dados distribuído; ● blocos podem conter quaisquer dados (no caso do Bitcoin, registros no livro contábil de transações); ● incentivo econômico: proof-of-work (mineração); – cálculo matemático caro computacionalmente de se fazer; – barato de se verificar; – funções de resumo criptográfico (hash)
  13. 13. 13 / 20 Blockchain: características ● assinatura digital a cada transação; ● assinatura digital do agente de “mineração” ● estado do blockchain é alterado ao acrescentar-se um novo bloco – nunca se retira ou altera um bloco anterior ● blocos devem incluir referência criptográfica ao estado anterior ● passado imutável
  14. 14. 14 / 20 Aplicações não financeiras ● Cartórios digitais; ● registro de patentes e propriedade intelectual; ● “carimbos de tempo”; ● registro de descobertas científicas; ● autoria de conteúdo; ● votação digital; ● contratos inteligentes Mais informações: The Impact of the Blockchain Goes Beyond Financial Services, Harvard Business Review
  15. 15. 15 / 20 Produtos comerciais ● Microsoft: Ethereum Blockchain as a Service (EbaaS) ● IBM: ADEPT (contratos inteligentes e internet das coisas) ● Deloitte e ConsenSys (banco digital)
  16. 16. 16 / 20 Considerações ● Ao considerar o uso do blockchain a uma aplicação: – considerar se as suas características (distribuído, transparente, rede de confiança, imutável, custo computacional, etc.) são compatíveis com as necessidades da aplicação – estudar, projetar e associar cada um de seus aspectos técnicos (ex.: gestão de identidade e par de chaves criptográficas, transação, bloco, mineração) a elementos da aplicação
  17. 17. 17 / 20 Considerações ● Fazer as adaptações necessárias, por exemplo: – se for necessário sigilo do conteúdo/transação em algum caso, usar criptografia. Projetar o controle de acesso pode ser complexo ● Estudar a distribuição / modelo econômico relacionado aos custos computacionais (“mineração”)
  18. 18. 18 / 20 Referência técnica
  19. 19. Referências: aplicação ● How The Cryptoconomy Will Be Created , Forbes ● New Initiative Aims To Eliminate Corruption With Blockchain Technology, Forbes ● Public-Sector Blockchain Pilot Pushes the Tech Forward, Govtech ● The Impact of the Blockchain Goes Beyond Financial Services, Harvard Business Review ● Block Chain 2.0: The Renaissance of Money, Wired
  20. 20. 20 / 20 Obrigado! augusto.herrmann@planejamento.gov.br Disponível em: http://pt.slideshare.net/AugustoHerrmannBatis/ Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0

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