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Food Additives


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Food Additives

  1. 1. Food Additives
  2. 2. Main Functions <ul><li>1. Maintain product consistency. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Improve or preserve the nutrient value. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Maintain the wholesomeness of foods. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Control the acidity and alkalinity, and to provide leavening. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Provide color and enhance flavor. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common types of food additives <ul><li>Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Emulsifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Flavorings </li></ul><ul><li>Gelling agents </li></ul><ul><li>Preservatives </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeteners </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-cake agents </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidants </li></ul><ul><li>Acidulants </li></ul>
  4. 4. Colors <ul><li>Color is commonly added to foods, for good visual appeal, tests show that when people eat food that looks good, it will taste better. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Color types <ul><li>There are three types of color additives </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Nature identical </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic </li></ul>
  6. 6. Natural Colors <ul><li>Natural color can be obtained from natural sources such as leafy vegetables, grasses, fruit skins, roots and seeds from plants. </li></ul><ul><li>They can also be made from animals. Cochineal, or carminic acid, is a red color that is obtained from the bodies of certain scale insects. These feed off cactus leaves and their bodies are commercially harvested in Africa, Spain and Central America. Their bodies are dried and crushed to extract the red coloring. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nature identical colors <ul><li>Because natural identical colors are costly, chemists found ways to create identical colors in the laboratory, which is cheaper and improves their purity. </li></ul><ul><li>They are exactly the same molecules found in natural sources but they are made synthetically. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Its difficult to add Most natural and nature identical colors directly to foods because you can dissolve in oil but they do not dissolve in water. They are usually processed to form their sodium or potassium salt, which makes them soluble in water and suitable for use in foods. They may also be dissolved in oil and incorporated into water-soluble beadlets. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Synthetic Colors <ul><li>Synthetic colors are colors that are made in a factory and don’t occur in nature. They have been carefully tested to make sure that they are safe. </li></ul><ul><li>The good thing about Synthetic colors, is that they are usually water soluble and can be used in foods without any further processing. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Amount of color added <ul><li>The amount of coloring allowed in food is very low. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic colors are much brighter than natural colors and so are needed in only very low concentrations. Typically just 10 - 50 milligrams (mg) in a kilogram of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural colors are less intense than synthetic colors and so need to be used in higher concentrations. Natural colors are used in concentrations in the range of 0.05-10 Grammies (10-10,000mg) per kilogram of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature identical colors vary in usage levels but can be very efficient. For example, beta-carotene is used at levels of 1 to 30 mg per kilogram of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic colors are also used because they are more stable than natural colors and so are suited to foods which may be stored before they are consumed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Amount of color added
  12. 12. Emulsifiers <ul><li>The emulsifier keeps oil and water mixed. With out an emulsifier water and oil would be separate. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Emulsifiers <ul><li>There are two types of emulsions. An oil-in-water emulsion contains small droplets of oil that are dispersed in water. Alternatively, a water-in-oil emulsion has small droplets of water that are dispersed in an oil </li></ul><ul><li>They are used to aid in the processing of foods and also to help maintain quality and freshness. In low fat spreads, emulsifiers can help to prevent the growth of moulds which would happen if the oil and fat separated </li></ul>
  14. 14. Flavorings <ul><li>The brain interprets signals from taste, smell and even vision before turning them into an impression of the food's taste. Different people will find different tastes nice or unpleasant. Flavorings are added to food products to give, enhance or intensify flavor. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Flavorings <ul><li>Foods may contain more than a thousand chemical compounds that contribute to their flavor. Many of these naturally occurring compounds may be too unstable to be used in commercial flavorings where they may need to be stored for some time before being used. For this reason, 'copies' of the natural flavor are often developed. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The average flavoring contains between 5 and 50 ingredients. A few flavorings contain many more flavor molecules of a raspberry; hydrocarbons including Limonene and Pinene. 36 alcohols such as Ethanol, cis 3 Hexenol, Geraniol and Menthol. 17 aldehydes like Benzaldehyde and Phenylacetaldehyde. 22 ketones including Ionones, Hydroxybutanone and Camphor. 16 acids such as Acetic, Hexanoic and Benzoic acids. 27 Esters like iso Amyl acetate, Benzyl acetate and Methyl salicylate. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gelling Agents <ul><li>gives shape and structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Thickeners or thickening agents make foods thicker. </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizers help to maintain the physical and textural properties of foodstuffs through their production, transport, storage and cooking. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Gelling Agents <ul><li>The substances belonging to this group are high molecular weight compounds. They are usually proteins, such as gelatin, or complex carbohydrates like pectins , starches, alginates and gums. Most are long chain molecules (polymers) that are made up of hundreds of linked units called monomers. They can be divided into a number of categories depending on their source of origin. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Preservatives <ul><li>Preservation tries to alter the conditions to slow or stop the growth of microbes. Most preservatives today are actually fungistatic in their action. That means they prevent the growth of fungi, molds and yeast. They have little effect on bacteria but using a combination of preservatives, with antibacterial properties, can give good all round protection. Food preservatives help to control the spread of bacteria which can cause life threatening illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Preserving types <ul><li>Canning, freezing/chilling, Drying, pickling, jam-making, smoking, and preservatives. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sweeteners <ul><li>provide texture in baked goods it stops them from drying out. </li></ul><ul><li>lowers the freezing point in ice creams </li></ul><ul><li>it acts as a preservative in jams </li></ul><ul><li>it strengthens &quot;mouthfeel&quot; in soft drinks </li></ul><ul><li>adds bulk to baked goods </li></ul>
  22. 22. Anti-caking agents <ul><li>Processed foods often contain ingredients that are mixed as powders. Anti-caking agents are added to allow them to flow and mix evenly during the food production process. They rarely have nutritional value and only a small proportion of the additives find their way into the food. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Antioxidants <ul><li>Antioxidants are added to food to slow the rate of oxidation and, if used properly, they can extend the shelf life of the food in which they have been used. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Antioxidant <ul><li>There may be health benefits from the use of antioxidants. Oxidation reactions in the body could be linked to the build-up of fatty deposits that cause blockages in arteries that can cause heart attacks. Antioxidants may be important in preventing this and there could also be a link with the prevention of certain cancers, arthritis and other conditions. The picture is not yet clear and a great deal of research needs to be undertaken </li></ul>
  25. 25. Acidulates <ul><li>Acidulants are additives that give a sharp taste to foods. They also assist in the setting of gels and to act as preservatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Common acidulates; acetic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, phosphoric acid, tartaric acid. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Safety <ul><li>Many studies that test the safety of additives are based on animal trials. It is difficult to determine whether the results of an animal study equate to human health, though many of these studies show that the additives could be cancer-causing. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Twelve most dangerous food additives <ul><li>1. Sodium Nitrate, Sodium Nitrite </li></ul><ul><li>2.BHA and BHT </li></ul><ul><li>3.Propyl Gallate </li></ul><ul><li>4. Monosodium Glutamate </li></ul><ul><li>5.Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil </li></ul><ul><li>6.Aspartame </li></ul><ul><li>7.Acesulfame-k </li></ul><ul><li> colorings: blue 1,2; Red 3;Green 3;yellow 6 </li></ul><ul><li>9. Olestra </li></ul><ul><li>10.Potassium Bromate </li></ul><ul><li>11.White Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>12.Sodium Chloride </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1. Sodium Nitrate/Nitrite <ul><li>A preservative, coloring, and flavoring used with meat products, sodium nitrate you it is commonly added to bacon, ham, hot dogs, luncheon meats, smoked fish, and corned beef to stabilize the red color and add flavor. It also prevents growth of bacteria, but studies have linked eating it to various types of cancer. Under certain high-temperature cooking conditions such as grilling, it transforms into a reactive compound that has been shown to promote cancer. </li></ul>
  29. 29. 2. BHA and BHT <ul><li>Butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydrozyttoluene, are used to preserve common household foods. They keep fats and oils from going rancid and are found in cereals, chewing gum, potato chips, and vegetable oils. These substances are oxidants, and anything that oxidizes or reduces a substance, changes the chemical structure. Some of them oxidize to form these compounds that react in the body, and some times some people may at risk for cancer. </li></ul>
  30. 30. 3. Propyl Gallate <ul><li>used to prevent fats and oils from spoiling and is often used in conjunction with BHA and BHT. This additive is sometimes found in meat products, chicken soup base, and chewing gum. Propyl gallate has not been proven to cause cancer, but studies done on animals have suggested that it could be linked to cancer </li></ul>
  31. 31. 4. Monosodium Glutamate <ul><li>Monosodium glutamate is an amino acid used as a flavor enhancer in soups, salad dressings, chips, frozen entrees, and restaurant food. It is commonly associated with Asian foods and flavorings. MSG can cause headaches and nausea in some people, and animal studies link it to damaging nerve cells in the brains of infant mice. Gerbstadt recommends replacing MSG with a small amount of salt when possible </li></ul>
  32. 32. 5. Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil <ul><li>Hydrogenated vegetable oil, also called partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and commonly known as Trans fat. Trans fats are proven to cause heart disease, and make conditions perfect for stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, and limb loss due to vascular disease. Experts recommend we consume no more than 2 grams of trans fat per day, an amount easily accounted for if you eat meat and dairy. </li></ul>
  33. 33. 6. Aspartame <ul><li>Aspartame, also known by the brand names Nutrasweet and Equal, is an additive found in “diet foods” like, low-calorie desserts, gelatins, drink mixes, and soft drinks. It also comes in individual packages used in place of sugar as a sweetener. Aspartame is a combination of two amino acids and methanol that may cause cancer or neurological problems, such as dizziness or hallucinations. Studies conducted in the 1970s, and more recent studies from 2006 on, suggest that lifelong consumption may increase a person’s risk of cancer. Gerbstadt says that aspartame could be unhealthy for some people—especially those with the disease phenylketonuria, an enzyme disorder—because it contains phenalalanine. </li></ul>
  34. 34. 7. Acesulfame-k <ul><li>This is a relatively new artificial sweetener, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1998 for use in soft drinks. It is also found in baked goods, chewing gum, and gelatin desserts. Acesulfame-K—the “K” is the chemistry symbol for potassium—is considered 200 times sweeter than sugar. While Gerbstadt isn’t specifically concerned about this sweetener when used in moderation, there is a general concern that testing on this product has been scant. Some studies showed the additive may cause cancer in rats, but the substance makes top 12 lists of additives to avoid because further study is needed to conclude whether or not acesulfame-K is harmful. </li></ul>
  35. 35. 8. food colorings: blue 1,2; Red 3;Green 3;yellow 6 <ul><li>some specific dye colors do promote tumor formation, in the right combination and conditions.” Blue 1 and 2, found in beverages, candy, baked goods and pet food are considered low risk but have been linked to cancer in mice. Red 3, used to dye cherries, fruit cocktail, candy, and baked goods, has been shown to cause thyroid tumors in rats. Green 3, added to candy and beverages, though rarely used, has been linked to bladder cancer. Studies have linked the widely used yellow 6—added to beverages, sausage, gelatin, baked goods, and candy—to tumors of the adrenal gland and kidney </li></ul>
  36. 36. 9. Olestra <ul><li>Olestra, a synthetic fat known as the brand name Olean and found in some potato chip brands, prevents fat from getting absorbed in your digestive system. This often leads to severe diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and gas. More significantly, though, Olestra inhibits healthy vitamin absorption from fat-soluble carotenoids that are found in fruits and vegetables and thought to reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease. It blocks fat absorption, but it also blocks vitamin absorption. </li></ul>
  37. 37. 10. Potassium Bromate <ul><li>Potassium bromate is rare, but still legal in the U.S., and used as an additive to increase volume in white flour, breads, and rolls. Most bromate rapidly breaks down to an innocuous form, but it is known to cause cancer in animals—and even small amounts in bread can create a risk for humans. California requires a cancer warning on the product label if Potassium bromate is an ingredient. </li></ul>
  38. 38. 11. White Sugar <ul><li>Some foods, such as fruits and carrots, naturally contain sugar, but foods with added sugars, such as baked goods, cereals, crackers, even sauces and many other processed foods. Simple sugars are nontoxic but large amounts are unsafe because they take nutrients from your body in order to metabolize them. Most Americans lose 20-40% of their daily calories to sugar when it shouldn’t take more than 10%. Too much sugar leads to problems with weight control, tooth decay and blood sugar levels in diabetics. </li></ul>
  39. 39. 12. Sodium Chloride <ul><li>Small amounts of salt are essential to the body but too much can cause health problems such affecting cardiovascular function, leading to high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure. </li></ul>
  40. 40. The End