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Infection control ppt copy


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Infection control ppt copy

  2. 2. Audrey Bulacan, Kendra Koenig, Donna Morsaint, Matthew Smith, Yesenia TrevinoMiraCosta College RN Students Nursing 283
  3. 3. Hospital acquired infections affect nearly 2 millionpatients each year and contribute to nearly 100,000 deaths (Warye & Graneto, 2009).
  4. 4. CATHER ASSOCIATEDURINARY TRACT INFECTIONS aka CAUTI Incidence/ Prevalence: One of the most common types of nosocomial infections Attributable to over 40% of HAI’s Estimated costs increase $1,006 per patient
  5. 5. CAUTI Definition: A complicated urinary  Diagnosis: “CAUTI is onlytract infection that is the result of diagnosed when signs & symptoms ofpathogen invasion and inflammation an infection coexist with microbiologicof the urinary tract. During catheter evidence of bacteriuria and a hostinsertion, a densely adhering biofilm response is present” (Parker etforms on the catheter tubing; this al., 2009, p.24)biofilm is an optimum medium forbacterial growth and reproduction andmakes offending organisms resistant totreatment.
  6. 6. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS Elimination/ avoidance of urinary catheters unless inserted forabsolute medical necessity (i.e. urinary retention, critical I & O’s, or asurgical requirement) Adopting the use of modified sterile technique, as compared withstrict aseptic technique, during catheter insertion Removal of the catheter ASAP; once the catheter isn’t needed tomanage the patient’s condition, it should be removed
  7. 7. PREVENTION OF CAUTI Prior to insertion: Appropriate catheter selection (i.e. size/ type of catheter) Smallest bore catheter size possible to prevent urethral trauma & subsequent bacterial colonization (preferably smaller than an 18 FR) Consider using a silver alloy catheter if short-term (< 2 weeks) indwelling time is anticipated Newton & associates found that “The incidence of catheter associated UTI’s fell from 7.2 per 1000 catheter days to 4.4 per 1000 catheter days following the introduction of silver alloy catheters” (Park et al., 2009, p.31) Consider using an antibiotic impregnated catheter if < 1 week indwelling time is anticipated
  8. 8. PREVENTION OF CAUTI After insertion: Ensure proper maintenance of the drainage system(i.e. drainage bag below the level of the bladder and tubing that is adequatelysecured and free of kinks) Perform routine perineal care at least Qshift Empty drainage bag regularly AVOID application of antibiotic creams and ointments AVOID routine bladder irrigation
  9. 9. CAUTI CONCLUSIONS The RN has a large role & many responsibilities in preventing CAUTI’s In general, CAUTI’s are common, costly, and complicate patient care The declaration that reimbursement for some hospital acquiredinfections, including CAUTI, will not be covered by CMS, has heightened awarenessand driven the implementation of standard protocols Continued evidence based practice guidelines, as well as alternatives such ascondom catheters and intermittent catheterization, should help to reduce CAUTIrates
  10. 10. INFECTION CONTROL AGENCIES The Care QualityCommission National HealthService Estates The JointCommission
  11. 11. DECONTAMINATING Low risk for infection areas High risk for infection areas
  12. 12. WRITTEN POLICIES FOR INFECTION CONTROL  Waste disposal  Color coding bags, bins and containers  Spillage cleanup instructions  Sharp containers
  13. 13. TRAINING FOR I N F E C T I O N C O N T RO L E-learning tools Regular infection control meetings Educational classes
  14. 14. PREVENTING NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS They are the most challenging to prevent. Preventing exposure to pathogens is the aim of preventinginfections. Proper immunization, education, and training are importantfactors. Compliance to evidence based guidelines is crucial.
  15. 15. IMMUNIZATION Nurses and other health care personnel are at high risk for exposure and transmission of certain diseases, such as Hepatitis B and influenza. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices illustrates that preventing occupationally acquired infections is a responsibility shared by nursing staff and their employers. Nurses and other health care personnel must stay current with their immunizations against hepatitis B and influenza, unless it is medically contraindicated. The World Health Organization website refers to vaccination as the “mainstay” in preventing hepatitis B and the “most effective health measure” in preventing influenza.
  16. 16. EDUCATION Study done by Fitzpatrick et al tested awareness of health care personnel as itrelates to nosocomial infections. Knowledge is not up to par with guidelines set forth by the Center for DiseaseControl. The worldwide increase in rates of nosocomial infections suggests a dire needfor improvement in education and training. Poor knowledge and lack of compliance to evidence-based guidelines makesnosocomial infections a big challenge in health care. Staff training and cognizance regarding guidelines for infection prevention is animportant part of ensuring adherence to evidence-based guidelines.
  17. 17. COMPLIANCE To help protect patients and fellow workers against hepatitis B, influenza, and othercommunicable infections: Personnel that acquire these infections should take proper measures to protectthemselves and others Actions, such as double-gloving when carrying out invasive procedures, is helpful. Ensure staff competency and compliance: Conduct multiple choice tests or surveys amongst staff Provide training and educational sessions as often as needed.
  19. 19.  The most common modes of transmission are: contact, droplet andairborne (Collins, 2008). The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and following EBPguidelines are key to reducing HAI.
  20. 20. CONTACT TRANSMISSION Direct or indirect Some of the most common infections transmitted through contact exposure are Clostridiumdifficile infections, Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections from woundsand Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) infections (Collins, 2008).
  21. 21. CONTACT PRECAUTIONS Glove and isolation gown Gowns are always worn first(Siegel, Rhinehart, Jackson, Chiarello, 2007). CDC guidelines requirehealthcare settings to follow contactprecautions for C. diff infectionsduring the length of diarrhea and upto 48 hours after (Collins, 2008).
  23. 23. DROPLET PRECAUTIONS  A mask, a gown and a glove must be worn for droplet precautions (Collins, 2008).  The high risk distance from the person infected is within 3 feet (Siegel et al, 2007).
  24. 24. AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION Examples of these infectious agents are Mycobacterium tuberculosis andAspergillus spp (Siegel et al, 2007).
  25. 25. CONCLUSION Aziz, A.M., (2008). Pandemic influenza: implications for infection control in hospital.British Journal of Nursing, 17 (16), 1020-1026. Retrieved September 23, 2012 from CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost. Centers for Disease Control. (n.d.) Top CDC Recommendations to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections. Retrieved September28, 2012, from hai.html Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. (2011). Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends, & Management