Lucas Pertussis

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Communicable Disease : Community Nursing

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  • Lucas Pertussis

    1. 1. Pertussis(aka Whooping Cough) Autumn Lucas, RN
    2. 2. Incidence• Contagious Respiratory Illness• Cases reported weekly by states to CDC• Average annual incidence: 3.3 cases/100,000 population• Approximately 14,000 reported cases in US in 2008
    3. 3. Prevalence• Of 14,000 reported cases, 54% were females, 23% were in children <1 year of age, whites twice as likely to be infected as African-Americans, and Hispanic ethnicity accounted for nearly half of confirmed cases• States with highest reported cases: Massachusetts and California
    4. 4. Pertussis: Rates of Infection
    5. 5. Causes• Bacteria: Bordetella Pertussis• Highly contagious respiratory illness• Bacteria attaches in upper respiratory system and causes inflammation by releasing toxins and damaging cilia
    6. 6. Transmission• Found only in humans• Spread by coughing and sneezing• Infants often exposed by parents or older siblings
    7. 7. Early Signs/Symptoms• Cold-like s/s• Mild cough• Low Grade Fever• Usually develop within 7-10 days of exposure, sometimes up to 6 weeks after exposure
    8. 8. Advanced Signs/ Symptoms• Persistant cough lasting for weeks (10+)• Severe, violent coughing fits (paroxysms)• Apnea (especially in infants)• Vomiting• Exhaustion
    9. 9. http://www.pkids.org/diseases/pertussis.html
    10. 10. Complications• 50% of infants have to be hospitalized• Risks of pneumonia, convulsions, apnea, weight loss, syncope, rib fractures from severe coughing, encephalopathy, and death
    11. 11. Diagnosis• History of s/s• Physical Exam• Lab test of secretions from swab to back of throat (through the nose)• Blood Test
    12. 12. Bordetella Pertussis
    13. 13. Treatment/Prognosis• Antibiotics - must be given early to prevent spreading of disease and to limit severity of coughing• S/S outlast bacteria, so antibiotics will not be given after early stage has passed• Ex: Erythromycin, Azithromycin (Zithromax)
    14. 14. Treatment Continued• Keep home free of irritants such as dust, smoke, and chemicals• Use cool mist vaporizor• Handwashing• Small, frequent meals• Increased PO fluid intake
    15. 15. Prevention• Vaccination is the best way to prevent pertussis in all ages• DTaP combination vaccine - series of 5 shots given at ages 2 mo, 4 mo, 6 mo, 15-18 mos, and between ages 4-6.• Tdap immunization for teens and adults• Limit contact with infected individuals
    16. 16. References• http://www.cdc.gov/• http://rankingamerica.wordpress.com/ 2010/11/11/the-u-s-ranks-4th-in-pertussis/

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