• Introduction to hyper loop
• The concept
• Why we need the hyperloop
• Energy efficiency
What is Hyperloop ?
It is the new form of transportation between long distances
Hyper loop consists of a low pressure tube with capsules that are
transported at both low and high speeds throughout the length of the
It is an high speed train transporting at a speed of 800mph which is
twice the speed of a commercial plane.
Due to high traffic US government proposed a high speed train
project between San Francisco to Los Angeles
In past Robert Goddard proposed using vacuum as medium of
transport there by attain speed without high friction losses but there’s
lot of possibility of leaks . And when there is a leak it will damage the
Elon Musk thought of overcoming it with maintaining low pressure
rather than vacuum and using electromagnetic suspension.
The Hyperloop concept is proposed to operate by sending specially designed "capsules" or "pods"
through a continuous steel tube maintained at a partial vacuum. Each capsule floats on a 0.5-to-1.3-
millimetre (0.02 to 0.05 in) layer of air provided under pressure to air-caster "skis", similar to how
pucks are suspended in an air hockey table, thus avoiding the use of maglev while still allowing for
speeds that wheels cannot sustain. Linear induction motors located along the tube would accelerate
and decelerate the capsule to the appropriate speed for each section of the tube route. With rolling
resistance eliminated and air resistance greatly reduced, the capsules are theorized to be able
to glide for the bulk of the journey. In the Hyperloop concept, an electrically driven inlet fan and air
compressor would be placed at the nose of the capsule in order to "actively transfer high pressure
air from the front to the rear of the vessel," resolving the problem of high speed transport in a tube
that is not a hard vacuum, wherein pressure builds up in front of the vehicle, slowing it down. A
fraction of the air is shunted to the skis for additional air pressure, augmenting that gain passively
from lift due to their shape.
In the alpha-level concept, passenger-only pods are to be 2.23 metres (7 ft 4 in) in diameter and
projected to reach a top speed of 760 mph (1,220 km/h) so as to maintain aerodynamic
efficiency; the design proposes passengers experience a maximum inertial acceleration
of 0.5 g, about 2 or 3 times that of a commercial airliner on takeoff and landing. At those speeds
there would not be a sonic boom; with low-pressure warm air inside the tubes, Musk hypothesizes
the pods could travel at high speeds without exceeding Mach 1.
COMPONENTS OF HYPERLOOP
The maximum width is 4.43 ft (1.35 m) and maximum height is 6.11
ft (1.10 m). With rounded corners, this is equivalent to a 15 ft2 (1.4
m2) frontal area, not including any propulsion or suspension
• One important feature of the capsule is the onboard compressor,
which serves two purposes . This system allows the capsule to
traverse the relatively narrow tube without choking flow that travels
between the capsule and the tube walls
• by compressing air that is bypassed through the capsule. It also
supplies air to air bearings that support the weight of the capsule
throughout the journey.
The tube is made of steel.
Solar arrays will cover the top of the tubes in order to provide power to the
The tube cross-sectional area is 42.2 ft2 (3.91 m2) giving a capsule/tube area
ratio of 36% or a diameter ratio of 60%.
• The tube will be supported by pillars
• Average spacing is 30m between each pillar
• There will be roughly 25000 pillars for a distance of 680 kilometers
• Built using reinforced concrete
• Tunneling mountains to kept the route straight.
Linear accelerators are constructed along the length of the
tube at various locations to accelerate the capsules.
Stators are located on the capsules to transfer momentum to
the capsules via the linear accelerators.
Capsules are accelerated by linear magnetic induction and
decelerated by regenerative braking similar to magnetic
The Hyperloop uses a linear induction motor to accelerate
and decelerate the capsule. This provides several important
benefits over a permanent magnet motor
Best guess at how the
Hyperloop could work based
on all of the clues.
Cars would share the tube with the air
column only during high speed run
between stations. Before deceleration,
the air column is shunted to the return
tube. The car is slowed by linear
regenerative breaking, accelerated by
linear magnetic induction(rail gun)-
Suspending the capsule.
An alternative to these conventional options is an air bearing suspension.
non-linear reaction resulting in large restoring pressures
The increased pressure pushes the ski away from the wall, allowing it to
return to its nominal ride height
0 110 220 330 440 550 660 770 880 990 1100
ENERGY COST PERPASSENGERFOR A JOURNEY BETWEEN LOS ANGELES AND SAN
FRANCISCO FOR VARIOUS MODES OF TRANSPORT
(50mpg, 1 passenger)
Train (2001 Transport
Passenger + Vehicle
Hyperloop (70% occupancy)
Capsule Stranded in Tube
Lower costs and this kind of speed
Immune to weather
Sustainably self powering
Resistant to earth quakes
Decrease the traffic
Decreases the frictional losses that occur at subsonic speed
Using solar power.
When we use less pressure instead of vacuum then we need to
increase the diameter of tube or go slow or really , really fast.
But increasing speed that high will become very much expensive.
A battery can’t store enough energy to power fan over whole journey
so a linear electric motor, a round induction motor rolled flat is
Due to high
• A high speed transportation system known as Hyperloop introduced
• Its basically magnetic levitation train in vacuum tubes helping in
achieving high speeds.
• It has various advantages over traditional transport system.
• Using conventional magnetic levitation systems.