How to tailor your material for                 customer needs –                 PLA coffee cup case study                ...
Outline Origin of the project Project partners Material development Results from composting study Next steps & Summar...
Market pull - Origin of the project In 2009 Wageningen University defines a      “ Sustainable business policy”       Ob...
What is the most environmentallyfriendly coffee cup ?  PS             PLA        Paper/PLA      Porcelain   Carbon footpr...
Technology push - Origin of the project  In 2008 Purac and   Wageningen UR*   start a project.  PLLA/PDLA   homopolymers...
PLA coffee cup project kickoffTechnology push                  Market pull                                          Indust...
Feasibility study   Several material formulations created   High heat PLA concept of Purac based on PLLA/PDLA   Compoun...
Results feasibility study onthermoformed prototype cupsConclusion:   Even at short cooling rates, PLA homopolymers   can r...
Results feasibility study       Processing speed is OK .. BUT .. cup stiffness,        when filled with hot coffee (93°C)...
How to increase stiffness at 93°C ?Combine PLA homopolymers with fillers:    Fillers increase the stiffness    Fillers c...
DMTA - effect of fillers & crystallinity    PLA 6400           1,E+10           1,E+09           1,E+08E’ (───)    [Pa]   ...
Results reformulations with fillersPromising formulations tested at pilot scale    PLLA and PDLA homopolymers from Synbra...
Results semi-industrial trialsPLLA homopolymerspolymersPLA co               Conclusion:               The best results cou...
Main conclusions on thermoformedPLA hot drink cup Thermoforming of high heat PLA is finding a balance  between formabilit...
Biodegradation of the PLA cup Cups were submitted to Organic Waste Systems (OWS)  to evaluate the compostability. Qualit...
Results from composting testsStart            1 week          3 weeks       12 weeks        Test conditions:           The...
Next steps and actions   Finalize large scale industrial production run   Commercial roll out of PLA cups   Complete bi...
Summary – key learnings Replacing traditional plastics in “high volume”  applications takes time & effort. Working close...
Questions ? For info please contact d.atkinson@purac.com   19
For more information, contact:Derek AtkinsonBusiness Development DirectorPLA AsiaM +65 9093 9896d.atkinson@purac.comNo rep...
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Innobioplast 2013 presentation dwa coffee cup development

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Innobioplast 2013 presentation dwa coffee cup development

  1. 1. How to tailor your material for customer needs – PLA coffee cup case study Derek Atkinson - Purac François de Bie – Purac Sicco de Vos - Purac Karin Molenveld – WUR Gerald Schennink - WURPresenting to:
  2. 2. Outline Origin of the project Project partners Material development Results from composting study Next steps & Summary 2
  3. 3. Market pull - Origin of the project In 2009 Wageningen University defines a “ Sustainable business policy”  Objective is to reduce the ecological footprint of the university and encourage sustainable business practises Formation of working group: “Bioplastics in catering”  Wageningen UR  Facility service & Food and Biobased Research (FBR)  Province of Gelderland  Douwe Egberts  Albron (catering)  Other stakeholders The working group evaluates the possibilities & benefits of introducing biobased materials in catering applications – focus on coffee cups Wageningen university uses 2.5Million PS cups/year 3
  4. 4. What is the most environmentallyfriendly coffee cup ? PS PLA Paper/PLA Porcelain  Carbon footprint: cradle to gate vs cradle to grave -> Impact of end of life options ?  Technical requirements  Consumer experience -> Multiuse vs single use ? -> Separate collection system ? 4
  5. 5. Technology push - Origin of the project  In 2008 Purac and Wageningen UR* start a project.  PLLA/PDLA homopolymers  Objectives: Develop high heat injection moulding compounds in PLA *) Wageningen University & Research centre, Food & Biobased Research 5
  6. 6. PLA coffee cup project kickoffTechnology push Market pull Industrial Partner Develop a PLA coffee cup that: - Can withstand hot coffee / 93oC - Can be produced on existing PS coffee cup production lines - Can reach the same thermoforming speed as PS today 6
  7. 7. Feasibility study Several material formulations created High heat PLA concept of Purac based on PLLA/PDLA Compounding and sheet extrusion at Wageningen UR Thermoforming using industrial equipment and moulds Conclusions  Processing conditions are of major importance (hot mould)  Crystallisation speed of PLA homopolymers is sufficient  Short cycle times (1-2 seconds) are possible  See Table on next slide 7
  8. 8. Results feasibility study onthermoformed prototype cupsConclusion: Even at short cooling rates, PLA homopolymers can reach a high level of crystallinity 8
  9. 9. Results feasibility study  Processing speed is OK .. BUT .. cup stiffness, when filled with hot coffee (93°C), is NOT sufficient. Amorphous PLA Semi-crystalline PLAE- modulus MPa Target stiffness 50 93 100 150 Temperature oC 9
  10. 10. How to increase stiffness at 93°C ?Combine PLA homopolymers with fillers:  Fillers increase the stiffness  Fillers can introduce brittleness  Fillers can impact crystallization behaviourCalcium Carbonate (chalk) Talc  Cheap  More expensive  Limited effect on stiffness  High effect on stiffness  No influence on crystallisation  Strong influence on crystallization speed speed Conclusion: PLA homopolymers, in combination with a filler, have an acceptable stiffness over the required temperature range. ( see chart on next page )
  11. 11. DMTA - effect of fillers & crystallinity PLA 6400 1,E+10 1,E+09 1,E+08E’ (───) [Pa] 1,E+07 1,E+06 0x Unfilled PLA - amporhous Filled PLLA homopolymers 7x at 115C 1,E+05 – high crystallinity 1,E+04 0 50 100 150 200 Temperature [°C] Conclusion: PLA homopolymers, in combination with a filler, have an acceptable stiffness over the required temperature range. 11
  12. 12. Results reformulations with fillersPromising formulations tested at pilot scale  PLLA and PDLA homopolymers from Synbra/Purac  Compounding done by Wageningen FBR  Sheet production and thermoforming at industrial partnerVarious formulations with following ingredients: 1) PLLA Homopolymer 2) PDLA Homopolymer 3) PLA 4) Filler 5) Nucleating agent 12
  13. 13. Results semi-industrial trialsPLLA homopolymerspolymersPLA co Conclusion: The best results could be obtained with combination of PLLA and PDLA homopolymers 13
  14. 14. Main conclusions on thermoformedPLA hot drink cup Thermoforming of high heat PLA is finding a balance between formability and crystallization speed The best results could be obtained with combination of PLLA and PDLA Fillers are necessary to provide sufficient stiffness above the Tg of PLA Replacement of amorphous PS cups is possible 14
  15. 15. Biodegradation of the PLA cup Cups were submitted to Organic Waste Systems (OWS) to evaluate the compostability. Qualitative disintegration is part of EN13432 and is considered to be the most significant hurdle for obtaining the compostability according EN13432. Only the qualitative disintegration test was performed. 15
  16. 16. Results from composting testsStart 1 week 3 weeks 12 weeks Test conditions: The samples were added to a bin with compostable waste @ OWS. Conclusion: Does not meet EN13432 standard. Significant degradation, fungal growth, size of left over’s 1 x 3 cm. 16
  17. 17. Next steps and actions Finalize large scale industrial production run Commercial roll out of PLA cups Complete bio-based certification Evaluate options for end of life recycling 17
  18. 18. Summary – key learnings Replacing traditional plastics in “high volume” applications takes time & effort. Working closely with expert partners that have knowhow in different areas of the process increases the rate of success. PLA homopolymers can replace PS in hot coffee cups.Many thanks to all partners that contributed to this project: Industrial Partner 18
  19. 19. Questions ? For info please contact d.atkinson@purac.com 19
  20. 20. For more information, contact:Derek AtkinsonBusiness Development DirectorPLA AsiaM +65 9093 9896d.atkinson@purac.comNo representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to their suitability for anypurpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. Purac disclaims any liability,damages, losses or other consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition,nothing contained herein shall be taken as an inducement or recommendation to manufacture or use any of the described materials or processes in violationof existing or future patent of Purac or any party. 20 20

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