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# Earth work

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Calculation on the cut/fill areas

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### Earth work

1. 1. 2013 Earth Work Calculation
2. 2. 1 Earth Work Calculation Table of Contents 1. List of Figures 2. List of Tables 3. Chapter 01 a. Introduction to Earth Work b. Cut and Fill c. Cross-sectional Area d. Earth Work Analysis 4. Chapter 02 a. Objective b. Study Area c. Data Source d. Data Format e. Software f. Given Task g. Methodology h. Calculations i. Results 5. References Atiqa Khan 02 02 03 03 03 03 04 05 05 05 05 05 06 06 06 08 09 11 14-Nov-13
3. 3. 2 Earth Work Calculation List of Figures 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Figure 1: Cross-Sectional Area Figure 2: Tank Road Figure 3: Sample_Data Figure 4: Fill_Sample Figure 5: Cut_Sample Figure 6: Sample Drawing Figure 7: Excel Sheet_Sample 04 05 06 07 07 08 08 List of Table 1. Table 1: Result-l 2. Table 2: Result-ll Atiqa Khan 09 10 14-Nov-13
4. 4. 3 Earth Work Calculation Chapter 01 Introduction to Earth Work By definition, earth work is defined as: “Earth work is the excavation, hauling, and placing of soil, rock, gravel, or other material found below the surface of earth.” (Surveyor Reference Manual; By George M. Cole, Andrew L. Harbin) By the word earth work means, all the processes involving in the movement of the different materials, soil, rocks, and all such materials that are involved in construction. This is the main part over the construction side. All the accuracy and cost depends upon the level of earth work.so this has to be done very precisely. Cut Fill Cut is defined as: “Earthwork that is excavated, or to be excavated is known as Cut.” (Surveyor Reference Manual; By George M. Cole, Andrew L. Harbin) Similarly, Fill is defined as: “Excavated that is placed in the embankment (Raise up) is said to be Fill.” (Surveyor Reference Manual; By George M. Cole, Andrew L. Harbin) One thing should be kept in mind that the payment of earth work is either for cut or fill, not for both. It is like paying, for the same earth twice. Normally, the units are „Cubic yards‟. Cross Section Area The main task of the earth work is to calculate the cross sectional area of cut and fill separately. This will help the constructer to estimate the amount of earth that is required to be moved. That in return decides the cost of the project. It can be calculated by hand, dividing the cross section into either in triangle or trapezoids, depending upon the requirement. Or it can be calculated by the aid of software. Atiqa Khan 14-Nov-13
5. 5. 4 Earth Work Calculation Fig 1: Cross Section Area Earth Work Analysis There are few steps that are common to each earth work calculations, either by hand or by software. These steps are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Take cross-sections (typically 25m) Define natural ground level. Define proposed level. Indicate the cut and fill areas. Estimate the area measurements of cut and fill. Estimate the volume per cut and per fill. Atiqa Khan 14-Nov-13
6. 6. 5 Earth Work Calculation Chapter 02 Objective: The objective is minimized the earth work calculation so to exactly estimate the amount of cut and fill in the construction area. Study Area The study area is „Tank Road‟, D.I. Khan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, located at 31°50'53.78" N, 70°52'19.84" E, at the elevation of 585 ft. Located at a distance of 61 km from D.I.Khan Bypass. Fig 2: Tank Road, D.I.Khan Data Sources The source of data is observed cross-sectional points by total level at locations 25m apart. Data Format The format of data is in “.dwg”, related to the “Auto-Cad”. One of the examples is as shown below: Atiqa Khan 14-Nov-13
7. 7. 6 Earth Work Calculation Fig 3: Sample Data Where, Red Line shows: Original Road White Line shows: Designed Road Software The software used here is:   Auto Cad Microsoft Excel 2010 Given Task My task is to calculate the areas of cut and fill. The area assigned to me was: ‘X-Section at km 13+025 ~ 14+000’. This make a total of 1km, divided into 40 parts each at 25m apart. Methodology The method was just simple. Followed by some steps, defined as below: 1. Open the Auto-cad. 2. Open the file. (e.g. 13+025) 3. Type ‘pl’ in the Command line. Atiqa Khan 14-Nov-13
8. 8. 7 Earth Work Calculation 4. Identify the Cut and Fill portions as follows: a. If the Red line (original road) is below the White line (designed road), then this portion has to be filled. So known as ‘Fill’. Fig 4: Fill_Sample b. If the Red line (original road) is above the White line (designed road), then this portion has to be cut. So known as ‘Cut’. Fig 5: Cut_sample 5. Complete a polygon, by placing points on the ‘Nodes’ at the given cut/fill. Atiqa Khan 14-Nov-13
9. 9. 8 Earth Work Calculation 6. Click on the ‘Properties’. And find out the area of the observed polygon. Fig 6: Sample_Calculation Calculations 1. Note the area in the excel sheet, for cut/fill separately. 2. Calculate the volume for each of the cut/fill by multiplying each cut/fill area by 25. 3. Then calculate the difference of both values (cut/fill). Fig 7: Excel Sheet_sample Atiqa Khan 14-Nov-13
10. 10. 9 Earth Work Calculation Results The final result in the form of Excel sheet is give as follows: X Section at km 13+050 ~ 14+000 Serial No. RD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 13+025 13+050 13+075 13+100 13+125 13+150 13+175 13+200 13+225 13+250 13+275 13+300 13+325 13+350 13+375 13+400 13+425 13+450 13+475 13+500 13+525 13+550 13+575 13+600 13+625 13+650 13+675 13+700 13+725 13+750 13+775 13+800 13+825 13+850 13+875 13+900 13+925 13+950 13+975 14+000 Cut Area(m) Fill Area(m) 10.906 10.717 10.167 9.561 9.551 9.478 9.675 9.324 9.035 8.997 8.715 8.408 8.089 8.934 9.057 9.074 9.153 9.407 9.468 9.799 9.521 8.902 9.325 8.905 9.447 9.35 9.241 8.885 8.433 8.426 8.501 8.843 7.987 8.779 8.115 7.486 6.939 6.427 6.068 5.334 Cut Volume(m3) Fill Volume(m3) Difference 272.65 267.925 254.175 239.025 238.775 236.95 241.875 233.1 225.875 224.925 217.875 210.2 202.225 223.35 226.425 226.85 228.825 235.175 236.7 244.975 238.025 222.55 233.125 222.625 236.175 233.75 231.025 222.125 210.825 210.65 212.525 221.075 199.675 219.475 202.875 187.15 173.475 160.675 151.7 133.35 Table 1: Result-l Atiqa Khan 14-Nov-13
11. 11. 10 Earth Work Calculation Serial No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Total Cumulative Avg. (Fill) 10.8115 21.2535 31.1175 40.6735 50.188 59.7645 69.264 78.4435 87.4595 96.3155 104.877 113.1255 121.637 130.6325 139.698 148.8115 158.0915 167.529 177.1625 186.8225 196.034 205.1475 214.2625 223.4385 232.837 242.1325 251.1955 259.8545 268.284 276.7475 285.4195 293.8345 302.2175 310.6645 318.465 325.6775 332.3605 338.608 344.309 523.1905 7727.5465 Cumulative Avg. (Fill_vol) 270.2875 531.3375 777.9375 1016.8375 1254.7 1494.1125 1731.6 1961.0875 2186.4875 2407.8875 2621.925 2828.1375 3040.925 3265.8125 3492.45 3720.2875 3952.2875 4188.225 4429.0625 4670.5625 4900.85 5128.6875 5356.5625 5585.9625 5820.925 6053.3125 6279.8875 6496.3625 6707.1 6918.6875 7135.4875 7345.8625 7555.4375 7766.6125 7961.625 8141.9375 8309.0125 8465.2 8607.725 13079.7625 193188.6625 Table 2: Result-ll Atiqa Khan 14-Nov-13
12. 12. 11 Earth Work Calculation References 1. Surveyor Reference Manual, By George M. Cole, Andrew L. Harbin 2. CIVL 361, Earthwork, Dr. Mehmet M. Kunt, Fall 2009, EMU Atiqa Khan 14-Nov-13