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Planning the 12-17 year old (endurance) athlete

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ANI/UKA Coaching Conference on Saturday 11th December at the University of Ulster, Jordanstown.

Presentation by Andi Drake (Carnegie Director of Race Walking)

Published in: Sports
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Planning the 12-17 year old (endurance) athlete

  1. 1. Planning: the 12-17 year old (endurance) athlete<br />Dr Andi Drake<br />Director UKA National Centre for Race Walking, Leeds Metropolitan University<br />a.drake@leedsmet.ac.uk<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Strategy & objectives at Carnegie<br />PASSION<br />DEVELOPING TALENT<br />CHAMPIONSHIP COMPETITOR<br />BEST IN THE WORLD?<br />FULFIL POTENTIAL<br />CURRENCY<br />ATHLETES IN TEAMS<br />Collins, J. (2004) Good to Great. Harper Business, New York.<br />
  4. 4. Planning: the 12-17 year old (endurance) athlete<br /><ul><li>Experiences
  5. 5. Current product
  6. 6. Athlete development
  7. 7. Successful programmes</li></li></ul><li>Shared experience?<br />Think back(!)<br />Activities at primary school?<br />Activities at start (11) of secondary school?<br />Activities at finish (16/18) of secondary school?<br />
  8. 8. Shared experience?<br />Think now... ...about athletes you coach<br />Activities at primary school?<br />Activities at start (11) of secondary school?<br />Activities at finish (16/18) of secondary school?<br />
  9. 9. Activity<br />
  10. 10. Coach<br />
  11. 11. Activity<br />
  12. 12. The deliberate practice framework<br />Elite athletes:<br />specialise in main sport at younger age than sub-elite<br />start deliberate practice at younger age than sub-elite<br />accumulate more deliberate practice hours than sub-elite throughout career<br />Côté, J., Fraser-Thomas, J. Play, practice, and athlete development. In Farrow, D., Baker, J., MacMahon, C. (2008) Developing Sport Expertise. Routledge.<br />
  13. 13. A development model of sport participation<br />Elite athletes:<br />sample various sports during childhood instead of specialising in one<br />involved in greater amounts of deliberateplay than practice during childhood<br />involved in more deliberate practice and less deliberate play during teenage and adult years<br />Côté, J., Fraser-Thomas, J. Play, practice, and athlete development. In Farrow, D., Baker, J., MacMahon, C. (2008) Developing Sport Expertise. Routledge.<br />
  14. 14. Coaching factors within the development model of sport participation<br /><ul><li>Framework of elite performance AND healthy development</li></ul>Côté, J., Fraser-Thomas, J. Play, practice, and athlete development. In Farrow, D., Baker, J., MacMahon, C. (2008) Developing Sport Expertise. Routledge.<br />
  15. 15. Deliberate practice v development model?<br />Planning for the 12 year old athlete?<br />Different product?<br />Different skillset?<br />Physically literate?<br />Early specialisation?<br />Challenging coaching environment<br />Robertson, S., Hamilton, A. (2008) Long-Term Athlete Development – Canadian Sport for Life. Canadian Sport Centres, Vancouver.<br />
  16. 16. Athlete development<br />Sampling Specialising Investment Maintenance<br /><ul><li>Plan appropriate activities for:
  17. 17. career stage
  18. 18. year stage (macrocycle)
  19. 19. each day (microcycle)</li></ul>High performance career termination<br />Introduction to sport<br />PEAK PERFORMANCE<br />Baker, J. Cobley, S. Does practice make perfect? In Farrow, D., Baker, J., MacMahon, C. (2008) Developing Sport Expertise. Routledge.<br />
  20. 20. The 10-year rule<br />Experts accumulated hours<br />Non-experts accumulated hours<br />Experts hours per week<br />Non-experts hours per week<br />Accumulated hours<br />Hours per week<br />Year of involvement<br />Baker, J., Horton, S., Robertson-Wilson, J., Wall, M. (2003) Nurturing sport expertise: factors influencing the development of elite athlete. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2, 1-9.<br />
  21. 21. The 10-year rule<br />(Damilano, S.(1993) Avviamentoalla Marcia: proposte per l’attivitàgiovaniledellefascecompresetra 12 e 17 anni. Atleticastudi. 24:6. 345-349. Drake, A. (2005) The training methods of IvanoBrugnetti and Italian race walkers. The Coach. 27. 55-61)<br />
  22. 22. The 10-year rule<br />2006 2008 2010 2012 2014<br />(Damilano, S.(1993) Avviamentoalla Marcia: proposte per l’attivitàgiovaniledellefascecompresetra 12 e 17 anni. Atleticastudi. 24:6. 345-349. Drake, A. (2005) The training methods of IvanoBrugnetti and Italian race walkers. The Coach. 27. 55-61)<br />
  23. 23. Training development<br />
  24. 24. The 10-year rule<br />Non-experts activities<br />Experts activities<br />Non-experts hours per week<br />Experts hours per week<br /># activities<br />Hours per week<br />Age<br />Baker, J., Horton, S., Robertson-Wilson, J., Wall, M. (2003) Nurturing sport expertise: factors influencing the development of elite athlete. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2, 1-9.<br />
  25. 25. Costs…<br /><ul><li>Physiotherapy costs, September ’09 – March ’10</li></ul>1 h 40 min = £64 9 h 5 min = £362<br />
  26. 26. Functional Movement Screen<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />Clinical implications for deep squat <br /><ul><li>…requires closed-kinetic chain dorsi-flexion of ankles (1)…
  27. 27. …flexion of knees (2) and hips (3)….
  28. 28. …extension of thoracic spine (4)…
  29. 29. …flexion and abduction of shoulders (5)</li></ul>Cook, G. (2001) Baseline Sports-Fitness Testing. In: B. Foran, ed.” High Performance Sports Conditioning”. Human Kinetics, Champaign.<br />
  30. 30. External U20 athlete supportThe UKA National Race Walking Centre<br />Run equivalent<br />3 km<br />6 x 400 m<br />
  31. 31. External U20 athlete supportThe UKA National Race Walking Centre<br />
  32. 32. Common Characteristics of Successful Endurance Programmes<br /><ul><li>High quality coaching
  33. 33. Primary factor during developmental ages 16-24
  34. 34. Common principles
  35. 35. Training structured using sport science knowledge
  36. 36. Daily communication between athlete and coach re. health/fitness/weakness
  37. 37. Daily analysis of training and performance prevents overtraining
  38. 38. i.e. it’s well planned!</li></ul>Gibbons, T. (2004) Common Characteristics of Successful Endurance Programmes, Track Coach.169 5393-5408<br />
  39. 39. Training structured using sport science knowledge<br />
  40. 40. Training structured using sport science knowledge<br />Physiology laboratory race walk test<br />2 km RW time trial<br />n = 21 (M = 13, F = 8)<br />v-2 kmNSp > 0.05; *p < 0.05<br />LactateTurnPoint<br />Introduction<br />Drake, A., Woolley, R., James, R., Cox, V., Godfrey, R., Brooks, S. (2007) “Prediction of velocity at maximum oxygen uptake in race walkers.” Proceedings of the 12th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Jyväskylä, Finland.<br />
  41. 41. Coaching efficacy?<br />Performance prediction<br />Training zones<br />Introduction<br />Drake, A., Woolley, R., James, R., Cox, V., Godfrey, R., Brooks, S. (2007) “Prediction of velocity at maximum oxygen uptake in race walkers.” Proceedings of the 12th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Jyväskylä, Finland.<br />
  42. 42. Mercier, D., Leger, L., & Desjardins, M. (1986) "Nomogram to predict performance equivalence in distance runners.” Track Technique, 94 3004-3009. Daniels, J. (2005) Daniels' Running Formula (2nd ed.) Human Kinetics.<br />
  43. 43. Long Term Athlete Development Model<br />
  44. 44. LTAD Model<br />Damilano, S. (1993) Avviamentoalla Marcia: proposte per l’attivitàgiovaniledellefascecompresetra 12 e 17 anni. Atleticastudi. 24: 6. 345-349. Gordon, R. A. (2003) Shorter Guide to Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD). Amateur Swimming Association. Robertson, S., Hamilton, A. (2008) Long-Term Athlete Development – Canadian Sport for Life. Canadian Sport Centres, Vancouver.<br />
  45. 45. LTAD Model<br />
  46. 46. LTAD Model<br />Damilano, S. (1993) Avviamentoalla Marcia: proposte per l’attivitàgiovaniledellefascecompresetra 12 e 17 anni. Atleticastudi. 24: 6. 345-349. Gordon, R. A. (2003) Shorter Guide to Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD). Amateur Swimming Association. Robertson, S., Hamilton, A. (2008) Long-Term Athlete Development – Canadian Sport for Life. Canadian Sport Centres, Vancouver.<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Periodisation of training stress<br />Morton, R. H.(2001) 'Modelling training and overtraining', Journal of Sports Sciences, 15: 3, 335 — 340<br />
  49. 49. Talent development environments<br />16 UK coaches, 13 sports:<br />five main generic characteristics of effective TDEs <br />Long-term aims and methods<br />Wide-ranging coherent messages and support<br />Emphasis on appropriate development, not early success<br />Individualized and ongoing development<br />Integrated, holistic and systematic development<br />Martindale, R.J.J., Collins, D., Abraham, A. (2007) 'Effective Talent Development: The Elite Coach Perspective in UK Sport', Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19:2, 187 — 206<br />
  50. 50. Athlete transition <br />Consider the 17 year old athlete<br />What transitional events/issues may impact on athlete/athletic development?<br />
  51. 51. Athlete transition <br />Primary<br />education<br />Secondary<br />education<br />Higher <br />education<br />Professional occupation<br />Perfection<br />Initiation<br />Development<br />Discontinuation<br />Childhood<br />Puberty<br />Adolescence<br />(Young)<br />adulthood<br />Parents<br />Siblings<br />Peers<br />Peers<br />Coaches<br />Parents<br />Partner<br />coach<br />Family (Coach)<br />Peers<br />Age 10 15 20 25 30 35 40<br />Academic/ occupational development<br />Athletic development<br />Individual development<br />Psycho-social development<br /> 10 15 20 25 30 35 40<br />Elms, S. (2004) The junior to senior athlete transition. Faster Higher Stronger. 25, 13-14.<br />
  52. 52. Athlete transition <br />Consider the 17 year old athlete<br />What transitional events/issues may impact on athlete/athletic development?<br />Highly likely:<br />Higher education<br />Development to high performance sport<br />Maturing as individual<br />Establishing partner relationship<br />Not all negative…<br />Manage through preparation/support (LTAD model)<br />
  53. 53. Nurturing sport expertise<br />Biological/psychological/sociological constraints<br />Training & environmental factors<br />crucial predictors of attainment<br />+ parental support; adequate coaching essential<br />Social factors<br />cultural influences<br />relative age effect<br />Baker, J., Horton, S., Robertson-Wilson, J., Wall, M. (2003) Nurturing sport expertise: factors influencing the development of elite athletes, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2, 1-9<br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Progression (culture/sociology)<br />Russia<br /><ul><li>StanislavYemelyanov
  57. 57. Age 19
  58. 58. 20 km 1:19.43</li></ul>Italy<br /><ul><li>IvanoBrugnetti
  59. 59. Age 28
  60. 60. 20 km 1:19.39</li></li></ul><li>Progression (culture/sociology)<br />Who exemplifies good practice in managing the athlete transition according to Po10?<br />
  61. 61. World Class Athlete Experience<br />51 % WCP athletes full-time NGB coach<br />Average contact time <br />14 h per week<br />Podium >2 h per week Development <br />91 % rate coaching good/v good<br />Main characteristics quality coaching: <br />good coaching technique<br />knowledge of the sport<br />good working relationship coach - athlete<br />being encouraging<br />excellent communicator<br />Athlete Insights, UK Sport Survey of World Class Athletes 2009, Executive Summary<br />
  62. 62. Conclusions: monitoring training (planning) in our own coaching<br />Questions...<br />overall purpose of week’s training?<br />sessions fit together through week?<br />monitor training effort?<br />link between this/last/next week?<br />fit into plan for athlete’s development?<br />how could weeks training be improved?<br />Baker, J. Cobley, S. Does practice make perfect? In Farrow, D., Baker, J., MacMahon, C. (2008) Developing Sport Expertise. Routledge.<br />
  63. 63. THANKYOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION<br />

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