Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Who Chose the Gospels? 
the Great Gospel Conspiracy
Who Chose the Gospels? 
the Great Gospel Conspiracy
Canon of The New Testament 
• The word “Canon” refers to the 
collection of New Testament writings in 
our Bibles today. T...
Who Chose the Gospels? 
An Explanation on Dating Terms Used 
Centuries CE/AD 
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 
1st Centur...
The Father of Conspiracy 
•Walter Bauer 
• In 1934 Walter Bauer published, Orthodoxy and 
Heresy in Earliest Christianity....
The Lonely Irenaeus 
• Irenaeus of Lugdunum (ca. 180 CE) 
• Church leader in Lugdunum Gaul (Lyon, 
France). 
• Disciple of...
Lugdunum
The Lonely Irenaeus 
• Irenaeus wrote these oft quoted words in his work Against Heresies; 
• “It is not possible that the...
Matthew Mark 
Luke John
The Lonely Irenaeus 
• Irenaeus wrote about the origins of the four gospels; 
• “Matthew also issued a written Gospel amon...
Irenaeus The Book Burner 
• Elaine Pagels 
• Professor of Religion at Princeton 
University. 
• She has written many best ...
Irenaeus The Book Burner 
• Irenaeus wrote to a colleague, Florinus, who 
had fallen in line with a Gnostic group. 
“These...
Irenaeus The Book Burner 
• Irenaeus wrote to Victor, leader of the Church 
in Rome about some writings that Florinus had ...
Irenaeus The Book Burner 
• Irenaeus actually kept a collection of Gnostic 
writings so that he could study their teaching...
What Can This Tell Us? 
• Irenaeus clearly advocated the four canonical Gospels by the end of 
the second century (ca. 180...
Who Chose the Gospels? 
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Lee Martin McDonald 
• Former Professor of New 
Testament studies and President 
of A...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Clement of Alexandria (190’s CE) 
• An educated Christian Philosopher 
who read and s...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Clement of Alexandria 
• In his various surviving works he quoted; 
• Gospel of the E...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Clement of Alexandria 
• According to a recent counting of all of his 
surviving work...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Clement of Alexandria 
• He does not quote those noncanonical writings 
that modern s...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Clement of Alexandria 
• After quoting from the Gospel of the Egyptians he stated tha...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Serapion of Antioch 
• Church leader at Antioch was asked to 
settle a dispute about ...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Serapion of Antioch 
• On an initial visit to Rhossus, Serapion gave his consent 
to ...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Lee McDonald is representative of 
scholar’s treatment of this incident; 
• 1) Rhossu...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Serapion of Antioch 
• Rhossus was not presenting its sacred text to be acknowledged ...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• What is the Gospel of Peter? 
• It is a popularized re-telling of 
Jesus’ passion wit...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• Serapion wrote a letter entitled Concerning the so-called Gospel according to 
Peter....
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• The Legacy of Theophilus (ca. 175 CE) 
• Leader of Antioch Church two generations bef...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• The “Alogi” and “Ebionites” 
• These groups were “heretical” groups that were 
roughl...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
• The Muratorian Fragment (ca. 170 CE) 
• “. . . at which nevertheless he was present, ...
The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus 
The Muratorian Fragment (ca. 170 CE) 
“But Hermas wrote The Shepherd very 
recently, in...
Lugdunum 
Muratorian 
Fragment 
Irenaeus 
Antioch 
Serapion 
Alexandria 
Clement 
Second to Third Century CE
Who Chose the Gospels? 
Irenaeus and his Co-Conspirators 
Centuries CE 
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 
1st Century 2nd ...
What Can This Tell Us? 
• Irenaeus was not a loner, Clement in Alexandria, Serapion in Antioch and the 
Author of the Mura...
Who Chose the Gospels? 
The Proof is in the Papyri
Who Chose the Gospels? 
The Proof is in the Papyri
Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian 
Garbage Dumps 
• James M. Robinson 
• Professor of Religion at 
Claremont Graduate 
Uni...
Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian 
Garbage Dumps
Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian 
Garbage Dumps 
• Matthew 
• P64, 67 
• P77 
• P103 
• P104 
• 0171 
• Mark 
• Luke 
• P...
Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian 
Garbage Dumps 
• Matthew 
• P1 
• P101 
• P37 
• P45 
• P53 
• P70 
• P102 
• Gospel of...
Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian 
Garbage Dumps 
• 2nd Century Papyri 
• Canonical to Noncanonical 
• 5 to 1 
• 3rd Centu...
“I saw with my own eyes the places of worship 
being thrown down from top to bottom, to the 
very foundations, the inspire...
Packaging the Gospels 
• The Codex 
• Every copy of the Gospels discovered to 
date is in the form of a codex. 
• But usin...
Packaging the Gospels 
• Four Gospel Synopsis 
• A synopsis of the four gospels was compiled by 
a man named Ammonius from...
Tatian’s Diatessaron 
• After living in Rome for awhile Tatian 
moved back to Syria where he composed 
his Diatessaron. 
•...
Tatian’s Diatessaron 
• The early Christians viewed the four 
gospels not as competing accounts of 
Jesus, but as four dif...
Mark & Luke 
Ephesus 
John Antioch 
Alexandria 
Matthew
What Can This Tell Us? 
• Contrary to popular claims made by some, such as James Robinson, 
papyri of the canonical gospel...
Who Chose the Gospels? 
Justin Martyr and other “Proto- 
Conspirators” of Irenaeus
Justin Martyr (ca. 150 CE) 
• Justin taught many years in Rome, Tatian, 
who composed the Diatessaron, was one 
of his pup...
Justin Martyr (ca. 150 CE) 
“And on the day which is called the 
day of the sun there is an assembly of 
all those who liv...
Memoirs of the Apostles 
• It was common practice only to use writings that the opponent 
accepted as authoritative or tru...
Memoirs of the Apostles 
• When Justin used New Testament writings in his Apology, he did 
without explicitly mentioning t...
Memoirs of the Apostles 
• Justin defined what these “memoirs” were, 
• “For the apostles, in the memoirs which have come ...
Memoirs of the Apostles 
• In his letter to Trypho, Justin wrote; 
• “And when it is said that he changed the name of one ...
Memoirs of the Apostles 
• Justin viewed the apostles and their writings as 
authoritative divine messengers sent by God; ...
The Gospels as Public Documents
The Gospels as Public Documents 
• Trypho a non-Christian Jew from Ephesus 
“I am aware that your precepts in your so-call...
The Gospels as Public Documents 
• Justin wrote his 1st Apology to Emperor Antoninus Pius 
and the Roman Senate as a defen...
The Gospels as Public Documents 
• Crescens was a Philosopher in Rome and critic of 
Christianity. 
• Justin knew that bec...
The Gospels as Public Documents 
• Celsus was a philosopher and critic of Christianity 
who had read and studied the Chris...
The Gospels as Public Documents 
• Though Origen uses the singular “gospel” he is 
clearly referring to more than one writ...
The Gospels as Public Documents 
• Marcion was a teacher in Rome that had left the 
“orthodox” Church to found his own mov...
The Gospels as Public Documents 
• Marcion, in order to buttress his theology created 
his own selection of “true” or “can...
The Gospels as Public Documents 
• Marcion was originally from Sinope 
in Asia Minor, in the province of 
Pontus. 
• His f...
Ephesus 
Rome 
Justin Martyr 
Roman Emperor 
Crescens 
Celsus 
Marcion 
Tyrpho 
Roman Empire 140s-160s CE 
Sinope 
Marcion
Who Chose the Gospels? 
Early Christian Use of the Gospels 
Centuries CE/AD 
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 
1st Century...
What Can This Tell Us? 
• 30-40 years before Irenaeus, Clement, and Serapion, Christians in 
Rome were reading the Gospels...
Who Chose the Gospels? 
The Search for an “Arch-Conspirator”
Who Chose the Gospels? 
The Search for an “Arch-Conspirator”
The Apostolic Fathers 
• The Term “Apostolic Fathers” are a 
collection of the earliest extant 
Christian writings outside...
The Apostolic Fathers 
• Polycarp of Smyrna was a disciple of the 
apostle John and the teacher of Irenaues. 
• He wrote t...
The Apostolic Fathers 
• Ignatius of Antioch, disciple of John, and a 
prisoner for his faith, ca 110 CE. 
• To the Philad...
The Apostolic Fathers 
• Clement of Rome wrote to the Corinthian Church ca.80s or 90s CE. 
• This letter very likely pre-d...
Papias, Hearer of John 
• Leader of the Church in Hierapolis, born 
around 70 CE. 
“Papias, a man of the early period, who...
Papias, Hearer of John 
“And if by chance someone who had been 
a follower of the elders should come my 
way, I enquired a...
Papias, Hearer of John 
“And the Elder used to say this; ‘Mark, having become 
Peter’s interpreter, wrote down accurately ...
Papias, Hearer of John 
“So Matthew composed the oracles (λογια) in the 
Hebrew language (διαλεκτῳ) and each person 
inte...
Papias, Hearer of John 
• Papias does not give us any other statements as 
to the origins of Luke and John. 
• Papias is r...
Eusebius on John 
“And after Mark and Luke had already made the publication of the Gospels 
according to them, John, they ...
Paul and the Gospel of Luke 
• In the last years of Paul’s life, he had left Timothy in the 
city of Ephesus in order to t...
Paul and the Gospel of Luke 
“Whatever house you enter, first say, ‘Peace be to this 
house!’ And if a son of peace is the...
Paul and the Gospel of Luke 
“Do I say these things on human authority? Does 
not the Law say the same? For it is written ...
Who Chose the Gospels? 
Early Christian Use of the Gospels 
Centuries CE/AD 
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 
1st Century...
Who Chose the Gospels? 
• The Gospels Apparently Chose Themselves! 
• The Gospels were penned under the apostle’s authorit...
Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy
Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy
Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy
Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy
Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy
Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

of

Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 1 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 2 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 3 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 4 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 5 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 6 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 7 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 8 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 9 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 10 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 11 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 12 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 13 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 14 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 15 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 16 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 17 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 18 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 19 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 20 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 21 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 22 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 23 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 24 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 25 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 26 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 27 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 28 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 29 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 30 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 31 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 32 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 33 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 34 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 35 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 36 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 37 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 38 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 39 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 40 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 41 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 42 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 43 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 44 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 45 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 46 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 47 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 48 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 49 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 50 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 51 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 52 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 53 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 54 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 55 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 56 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 57 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 58 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 59 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 60 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 61 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 62 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 63 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 64 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 65 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 66 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 67 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 68 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 69 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 70 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 71 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 72 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 73 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 74 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 75 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 76 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 77 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 78 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 79 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 80 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 81 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 82 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 83 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 84 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 85 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 86 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 87 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 88 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 89 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 90 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 91 Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy Slide 92
Upcoming SlideShare
Early Christian Manuscripts
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

3 Likes

Share

Download to read offline

Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy

Download to read offline

An introduction to the history of the canon of the Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John in the first and second centuries. By Timothy N Mitchell (thetextualmechanic.blogspot.com)

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Who Chose the Gospels: The Great Gospel Conspiracy

  1. 1. Who Chose the Gospels? the Great Gospel Conspiracy
  2. 2. Who Chose the Gospels? the Great Gospel Conspiracy
  3. 3. Canon of The New Testament • The word “Canon” refers to the collection of New Testament writings in our Bibles today. This word is derived from the Greek word “κανων.” • “A means to determine the quality of something” Gal 6:16 • “Set of directions or formulation for an activity,” 2 Cor 10:13, 15, 16. • In later Christianity the word came to be understood and associated with the “rule of faith.”
  4. 4. Who Chose the Gospels? An Explanation on Dating Terms Used Centuries CE/AD 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1st Century 2nd Century 3rd Century 4th Century
  5. 5. The Father of Conspiracy •Walter Bauer • In 1934 Walter Bauer published, Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity. • In 1971 Bauer’s work was translated into English and it began to find its way into seminaries and University classrooms of the west. • Bauer’s work challenged accepted norms and a new breed of scholars began to adopt the basic outlines of his thesis.
  6. 6. The Lonely Irenaeus • Irenaeus of Lugdunum (ca. 180 CE) • Church leader in Lugdunum Gaul (Lyon, France). • Disciple of Polycarp, who was a disciple of John the apostle. • Wrote an extensive work against Gnostic doctrine that was taking root in Gaul and in Rome, Against Heresies. • Allegedly, Irenaeus was the first to promote a four gospel canon (Matthew, Mark, Luke, & John).
  7. 7. Lugdunum
  8. 8. The Lonely Irenaeus • Irenaeus wrote these oft quoted words in his work Against Heresies; • “It is not possible that the Gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. For, since there are four zones of the world in which we live, and four principal winds, while the Church is scattered throughout all the world, and the "pillar and ground" of the Church is the Gospel and the spirit of life; it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side, and vivifying men afresh.” (AH 3.11.8). • “For that according to John . . . But that according to Luke . . . Matthew, again, relates His generation as a man . . . Mark, on the other hand . . .” (AH 3.11.8).
  9. 9. Matthew Mark Luke John
  10. 10. The Lonely Irenaeus • Irenaeus wrote about the origins of the four gospels; • “Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome, and laying the foundations of the Church. After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter. Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him. Afterwards, John, the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon His breast, did himself publish a Gospel during his residence at Ephesus in Asia.” (AH 3.1.1)
  11. 11. Irenaeus The Book Burner • Elaine Pagels • Professor of Religion at Princeton University. • She has written many best selling books: The Gnostic Gospels; Adam, Eve, and the Serpent; The Origin of Satan; Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of Thomas. • Claims that Irenaeus ordered Christians to destroy other gospel books which were not approved by him.
  12. 12. Irenaeus The Book Burner • Irenaeus wrote to a colleague, Florinus, who had fallen in line with a Gnostic group. “These doctrines, Florinus, to speak mildly, are not of sound judgment... “ • He does not command Florinus to “burn” books, but reminds Florinus of Polycarp’s teaching. “For, while I was yet a boy, I saw you in Lower Asia with Polycarp…he would speak of his familiar conversation with John, and with the rest of those who had seen the Lord.”
  13. 13. Irenaeus The Book Burner • Irenaeus wrote to Victor, leader of the Church in Rome about some writings that Florinus had produced. He did not command these books to be burned or destroyed. “The books of these men may possibly have escaped your observation, but have come under our notice, I call your attention to them, that for the sake of your reputation you may expel these writings from among you, as bringing disgrace upon you, since their author boasts himself as being one of your company.” • Florinus was portraying himself as orthodox but was secretly passing off his Gnostic writings as acceptable.
  14. 14. Irenaeus The Book Burner • Irenaeus actually kept a collection of Gnostic writings so that he could study their teachings in detail. “I have also made a collection of their writings..” (AH 1.31.2) • In one place he actually criticized other Apologists because they had not read and or understood Gnostic writings enough to counter their teachings. “This was the reason that my predecessors— much superior men to myself, too—were unable, notwithstanding, to refute the Valentinians satisfactorily, because they were ignorant of these men’s system…” (AH 4.preface.2)
  15. 15. What Can This Tell Us? • Irenaeus clearly advocated the four canonical Gospels by the end of the second century (ca. 180 CE). • Irenaeus believed that these four gospels were authored by the apostles or their disciples and were faithfully handed down. • Contrary to popular scholarship, Irenaeus did not command or order the burning or destroying of rival gospels. • Irenaeus obtained a collection of heretical writings in order to study them and understand Gnostic teaching. • Is Irenaeus the one of his contemporaries to recognize the four canonical gospels?
  16. 16. Who Chose the Gospels? The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus
  17. 17. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Lee Martin McDonald • Former Professor of New Testament studies and President of Acadia Divinity College. • Authority on Biblical Canon. • Has written, The Biblical Canon, and coeditor of The Canon Debate (with James Sanders), and The World of the New Testament (with Joel Green).
  18. 18. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Clement of Alexandria (190’s CE) • An educated Christian Philosopher who read and studied widely. • Clement had contact with Gnosticism that flourished in Egypt in his day. • He was not averse to consulting other sources outside of the canonical gospels. • Looked for points of agreement between Christianity and Egyptian Hellenistic Society. Alexandria
  19. 19. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Clement of Alexandria • In his various surviving works he quoted; • Gospel of the Egyptians ̶ 8 times. • Gospel of the Hebrews ̶ 3 times. • Traditions of Mathias ̶ 3 times. • Clement also quoted and used as sources; • Epistle of Barnabas, 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, Sirach, Tatian’s Against the Greeks, the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter, and the Sibylline Oracles.
  20. 20. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Clement of Alexandria • According to a recent counting of all of his surviving works, Clement quoted; • Matthew ̶ 757 times • Luke̶ 402 times • John ̶ 331 times • Mark̶ 182 times • Total of 1672 references to the canonical Gospels compared to 14 references to the four noncanonical “Gospels.”
  21. 21. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Clement of Alexandria • He does not quote those noncanonical writings that modern scholars promote as ancient contenders for canonical status; • Gospel of Thomas • Gospel of Peter • Egerton Gospel • Gospel of Judas • Gospel of Mary
  22. 22. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Clement of Alexandria • After quoting from the Gospel of the Egyptians he stated that; • “In the first place we have not got this saying in the four gospels that have been handed down to us, but in the Gospel according to the Egyptians” • And in another place he states that; • “four gospels that have been handed down to us” (Strom. 3.13.93). • The Church historian Eusebius, referring to one of Clement’s works that no longer survives, wrote that he had passed down a tradition of the gospels. • That Matthew and Luke were written first, then Mark, recording the preaching of Peter, and John who wrote a “spiritual gospels” (EH. 6.14.5-7).
  23. 23. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Serapion of Antioch • Church leader at Antioch was asked to settle a dispute about reading the Gospel of Peter in the Church at Rhossus, a nearby town. • This incident recorded by Eusebius gives a glimpse into the ancient Church’s use of Gospels and noncanonical writings. Antioch
  24. 24. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Serapion of Antioch • On an initial visit to Rhossus, Serapion gave his consent to reading the Gospel of Peter, but upon returning to Antioch and actually reading the work himself he condemned it as a work that had “Docetist” views. • Lee McDonald uses this incident to argue that Serapion did not deny the orthodoxy of the Gospel of Peter based on the acceptance of a four gospel canon but on, • “a canon of truth that was circulating in the Churches.”
  25. 25. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Lee McDonald is representative of scholar’s treatment of this incident; • 1) Rhossus was requesting to use or already had been using Gpeter in the Church as the “sacred text.” • 2) The initial permission meant Serapion approved of Gpeter as scripture and an authentic document by Peter. • 3) Serapion banned its use for doctrinal and not canonical reasons.
  26. 26. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Serapion of Antioch • Rhossus was not presenting its sacred text to be acknowledged alongside, or in place of the four Gospels. Serapion wrote; • For I myself, when I came among you, imagined that all of you clung to the true faith; and, without going through the Gospel put forward by them in the name of Peter, I said; If this is the only thing that seems to cause dissension, let it be read.” (EH 6.12.4) • This was a new writing being put forward by a separate group in the church that was causing division.
  27. 27. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • What is the Gospel of Peter? • It is a popularized re-telling of Jesus’ passion with fictional elements added. • These types of writings were very popular. • Think of the Left Behind series. • A similar circumstance was happening in Rhossus.
  28. 28. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • Serapion wrote a letter entitled Concerning the so-called Gospel according to Peter. In the beginning of the letter, Serapion wrote; • “For we ourselves, brothers, receive both Peter and the other apostles as Christ, but the pseudepigraphal writings (written) in their name we reject, as having experience in such things, knowing that we did not receive such writings by tradition.” (EH. 6.12.3-6) • He did not consider the Gospel of Peter as an “authentic gospel.” • He knew of writings circulating that were falsely written in the apostles names. • He did have a collection of writings that were authentically penned by the apostles and handed down by tradition. • He recognized these writings as having apostolic authority.
  29. 29. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • The Legacy of Theophilus (ca. 175 CE) • Leader of Antioch Church two generations before Serapion. • Wrote an apologetic work To Autolycus. In it he wrote; • “Concerning the justice of which the Law spoke, the teaching of the prophets and the gospels is consistent with it because all the inspired men made utterances by means of the one Spirit of God.” (Autol. 3.12) • Theophilus also complied a harmony of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. • He recognized these gospels as inspired by the Holy Spirit. • It is likely that Serapion saw these same gospels as “writings received by tradition.”
  30. 30. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • The “Alogi” and “Ebionites” • These groups were “heretical” groups that were roughly contemporary with Irenaeus. • The “Alogi” rejected teachings on the Holy Spirit and thus rejected John’s Gospel. • The Ebionites were Jewish followers of Jesus who did recognize his divinity and thus rejected John’s gospel and the writings of Paul. • These groups used some of the gospels, such as Matthew and Luke and edited others to their liking.
  31. 31. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus • The Muratorian Fragment (ca. 170 CE) • “. . . at which nevertheless he was present, and so he placed [them in his narrative]. The third book of the Gospel is that according to Luke. Luke, the well-known physician, after the ascension of Christ, when Paul had taken with him as one zealous for the law, composed it in his own name, according to [the general] belief. Yet he himself had not seen the Lord in the flesh; and therefore, as he was able to ascertain events, so indeed he begins to tell the story from the birth of John. The fourth of the Gospels is that of John, [one] of the disciples. . .”
  32. 32. The “Co-Conspirators” of Irenaeus The Muratorian Fragment (ca. 170 CE) “But Hermas wrote The Shepherd very recently, in our times, in the city of Rome, while bishop Pius, his brother, was occupying the [Episcopal] chair of the church in the city of Rome.” • The Muratorian Fragment should be dated to the last part of the 2nd century.
  33. 33. Lugdunum Muratorian Fragment Irenaeus Antioch Serapion Alexandria Clement Second to Third Century CE
  34. 34. Who Chose the Gospels? Irenaeus and his Co-Conspirators Centuries CE 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1st Century 2nd Century 3rd Century 4th Century
  35. 35. What Can This Tell Us? • Irenaeus was not a loner, Clement in Alexandria, Serapion in Antioch and the Author of the Muratorian Fragment in Rome all recognize the four gospels. • Each of these early Church figures speak of these four gospels as being “handed down” or being “received by tradition” from their forbearers. • Each of these writers acknowledge that there were other writings in circulation at the time, none of-which made any serious claims at being authentic apostolic writings. • Clement and Serapion reveal that the early Church read fictionalized writings that dramatized the gospel narratives. Most of these writings were harmless. • There is no evidence of a conspiracy!
  36. 36. Who Chose the Gospels? The Proof is in the Papyri
  37. 37. Who Chose the Gospels? The Proof is in the Papyri
  38. 38. Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian Garbage Dumps • James M. Robinson • Professor of Religion at Claremont Graduate University in California. • Was a member of the Jesus Seminar • A leading Nag Hammadi scholar.
  39. 39. Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian Garbage Dumps
  40. 40. Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian Garbage Dumps • Matthew • P64, 67 • P77 • P103 • P104 • 0171 • Mark • Luke • P4 • P75* (Lk & Jn) • 0171 Non-Canonical Gospels • Egerton Gospel • P. Egerton 2 + P. Köln 255 • Gospel of Peter • P. Oxy. 4009 • P. Oxy. 2949 • Gospel of Thomas • P. Oxy. 1 • P. Oxy. 655 • John • P5 • P52 • P66* • P75* (Lk & Jn) • P90 • P108 • P109 • Gospel Harmony • 0212
  41. 41. Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian Garbage Dumps • Matthew • P1 • P101 • P37 • P45 • P53 • P70 • P102 • Gospel of Thomas • P. Oxy. 1 • P. Oxy. 654 • P. Oxy. 655 • Gospel of James • P. Bodmer 5 • Gospel of Mary • P. Ryl. 463 • P. Oxy. 3525 • Fayum Gospel • P. Vind. G2325 • John • P22 • P28 • P39 • P45 • P80 • P106 • P107 • P119 • P121 • 0161 • Mark • P45 • Luke • P45 • P69 • P97 • P111
  42. 42. Gospel Best Sellers From Egyptian Garbage Dumps • 2nd Century Papyri • Canonical to Noncanonical • 5 to 1 • 3rd Century Papyri • Canonical to Noncanonical • 3 to 1 • There is not much change between the 2nd and 3rd centuries as some scholars claim.
  43. 43. “I saw with my own eyes the places of worship being thrown down from top to bottom, to the very foundations, the inspired holy scriptures committed to the flames in the middle of the public squares, and the pastors of the Churches hiding disgracefully in one place or another, while others suffered the indignity of being held up to public ridicule by their enemies. . . “ (EH 8.2)
  44. 44. Packaging the Gospels • The Codex • Every copy of the Gospels discovered to date is in the form of a codex. • But using the form of a codex was against the cultural norm of the bookroll. • There are several multiple-Gospel Codices and one four gospel Codex from the 2nd-3rd centuries. • There have been no codices found with a canonical gospel and a noncanonical gospel bound together.
  45. 45. Packaging the Gospels • Four Gospel Synopsis • A synopsis of the four gospels was compiled by a man named Ammonius from Alexandria in the early 3rd century. • Eusebius wrote that Ammonius; • “placed similar pericopes of the rest of the Evangelists alongside Matthew” (Eus. Carp.) • Eusebius used his work and made a system of cross references that were used in successive copies of the gospels for centuries.
  46. 46. Tatian’s Diatessaron • After living in Rome for awhile Tatian moved back to Syria where he composed his Diatessaron. • Diatessaron means “through the four” and was a gospel harmony, a single flowing narrative that combined the stories from all four canonical gospels into a single narrative. • Theophilus of Antioch also compiled a four gospel harmony a few years earlier in the city of Antioch.
  47. 47. Tatian’s Diatessaron • The early Christians viewed the four gospels not as competing accounts of Jesus, but as four different perspectives on Jesus’ life and teaching that complemented each other. • This tells us that the four gospels were widely read and distributed by the early Church. • There were no harmonies of any noncanonical gospels.
  48. 48. Mark & Luke Ephesus John Antioch Alexandria Matthew
  49. 49. What Can This Tell Us? • Contrary to popular claims made by some, such as James Robinson, papyri of the canonical gospels outnumber noncanonical. And there is no discernable change in the ratio between canonical and noncanonical gospels between the 2nd and 3rd centuries. • Christians were not in a position to control which books people committed to the garbage dumps—there was no conspiracy. • The way in which early Christians “packaged” the gospels in codices, synopses and harmonies show an early acceptance and use of the four gospels. • The geographical distribution of manuscript fragments point to an early and fairly rapid circulation of the four gospels.
  50. 50. Who Chose the Gospels? Justin Martyr and other “Proto- Conspirators” of Irenaeus
  51. 51. Justin Martyr (ca. 150 CE) • Justin taught many years in Rome, Tatian, who composed the Diatessaron, was one of his pupils. • There are three works by Justin existing today; • 2 Apologies to the Imperial Authorities. • And 1 letter to a Jewish friend, Trypho, he was attempting to win over to the Christian faith.
  52. 52. Justin Martyr (ca. 150 CE) “And on the day which is called the day of the sun there is an assembly of all those who live in the towns or in the country, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read for as long as time permits. Then the reader ceases, and the president speaks, admonishing and exhorting us to imitate these excellent examples.” (I Apol 67)
  53. 53. Memoirs of the Apostles • It was common practice only to use writings that the opponent accepted as authoritative or true. • In his letter his Jewish friend Trypho, Justin wrote; • “I have not attempted to establish proof about Christ from the passage of scripture which are not confessed by you . . . but from those which are even now confessed by you. . . “ (Dial 120.5) • In his First Apology Justin wrote; • “We presume that you who aim at a [reputation for] piety, justice, or philosophy will do nothing unreasonable” (I Apol 12)
  54. 54. Memoirs of the Apostles • When Justin used New Testament writings in his Apology, he did without explicitly mentioning them or by referring to them as historical documents. • Justin did not refer to the gospels by their more common Christian name, but by a name that Graeco-Romans would understand, “Memoirs of the Apostles.” Romans might then think of Xenophon’s faithful reminiscences of his master, recorded in his “Memoirs of Socrates.” • Justin used the same word as Xenophon to refer to the apostles reminiscences of Jesus, “απομνημονευματα.”
  55. 55. Memoirs of the Apostles • Justin defined what these “memoirs” were, • “For the apostles, in the memoirs which have come by their agency, which are called gospels, have thus delivered to us what was enjoined upon them.” (I Apol 63) • In his letter to Trypho Justin wrote; • “the memoirs which I say were drawn up by his apostles and those who followed them.” (Dial 103) • Matthew and John were written by Jesus’ apostles, Luke and Mark by those who followed the apostles.
  56. 56. Memoirs of the Apostles • In his letter to Trypho, Justin wrote; • “And when it is said that he changed the name of one of the apostles to Peter; and when it is written in the memoirs of him that this happened, as well as that he changed the names of two other brothers, the sons of Zebedee, to Boanerges, which means sons of thunder. . . “ (Dial 106) • Justin is referring to the tradition, first mentioned by Papias, that Mark copied down the preaching of Peter. • Justin also invited the Emperor to read these writings himself • “And that these things did happen, you can learn from the registers (the acta) of what happened un Pontius Pilot” (I Apol 35.9)
  57. 57. Memoirs of the Apostles • Justin viewed the apostles and their writings as authoritative divine messengers sent by God; • “For in Jerusalem there went out into the world men, twelve in number, and these illiterate, of no ability in speaking: but by the power of God they proclaimed to every race of men that they were sent by Christ to teach to all the word of God” (I Apol 39.3) • It is clear that what the apostles taught was the very word of God.
  58. 58. The Gospels as Public Documents
  59. 59. The Gospels as Public Documents • Trypho a non-Christian Jew from Ephesus “I am aware that your precepts in your so-called Gospel are so wonderful and so great, that I suspect no one can keep them; for I have carefully read them” (Dial 10) • Justin assumed Trypho read the gospels; “Since you have read, O Trypho, as you yourself admitted, the doctrines taught by our Saviour, I do not think that I have done foolishly in adding some short utterances of his to the prophetic statements” (Dial 18.1)
  60. 60. The Gospels as Public Documents • Justin wrote his 1st Apology to Emperor Antoninus Pius and the Roman Senate as a defense of the Christian faith and invited them to learn about Christianity . . . “by looking into our writings” (I Apol 28.1). • And as we mentioned already, Justin refers to these writings as “memoirs of the Apostles” and identifies them as “gospels” (I Apol 66.3). • It is obvious that the Gospels Justin was using were easily identifiable by those outside the Christian faith because they were recognized by most Christians in Rome and were readily available for anyone to read.
  61. 61. The Gospels as Public Documents • Crescens was a Philosopher in Rome and critic of Christianity. • Justin knew that because of Crescens he would most likely be arrested and executed (2 Apol 3). “without having read the teachings of Christ” or, “if he has read them . . . [he] does not understand the majesty that is in them.” (2 Apol 3.3) • Justin assumed Crescens knew which Gospels were Christian and that they were easily recognizable and readily available for reading.
  62. 62. The Gospels as Public Documents • Celsus was a philosopher and critic of Christianity who had read and studied the Christian writings and wrote an attack against Christianity called The True Word. (160-180CE) • Origen wrote a response in the 240s CE. “And again, passing by in silence the proofs of the divinity of Jesus, Celsus endeavors to cast reproach upon Him from the narratives in the Gospel, referring to those who mocked Jesus, and put on Him the purple robe, and the crown of thorns, and placed the reed in His hand. From what source now, Celsus, did you derive these statements, save from the Gospel narratives?” (Cels. 2.34)
  63. 63. The Gospels as Public Documents • Though Origen uses the singular “gospel” he is clearly referring to more than one written account. • Origen declared that Celsus, “makes numerous quotations from the Gospel according to Matthew” (Cels 2.34). • Celsus quoted material from all four Gospels. • Celsus easily procured these writings and recognized the four Gospels because the “the Great Church” (Cels 5.59) and “the great multitude” (Cels 5.61) used them as scripture.
  64. 64. The Gospels as Public Documents • Marcion was a teacher in Rome that had left the “orthodox” Church to found his own movement in the 140s CE. • The God of the Old Testament was a lower deity and his scriptures (OT) were only for Jews and not for “Christians.” • Jesus had appeared to teach about a higher, but previously unknown God. Salvation was of the soul alone and not the body. • Marcion wrote his theology in a book called Antithesis.
  65. 65. The Gospels as Public Documents • Marcion, in order to buttress his theology created his own selection of “true” or “canonical” writings. • Irenaeus wrote that; “Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened.” (AH 3.12.12)
  66. 66. The Gospels as Public Documents • Marcion was originally from Sinope in Asia Minor, in the province of Pontus. • His father was the leader of the Church of Sinope and Marcion eventually became the leader as an adult. • If Christians in Sinope in Asia Minor were reading Gospels other than Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, Marcion never mentions them. Sinope
  67. 67. Ephesus Rome Justin Martyr Roman Emperor Crescens Celsus Marcion Tyrpho Roman Empire 140s-160s CE Sinope Marcion
  68. 68. Who Chose the Gospels? Early Christian Use of the Gospels Centuries CE/AD 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1st Century 2nd Century 3rd Century 4th Century
  69. 69. What Can This Tell Us? • 30-40 years before Irenaeus, Clement, and Serapion, Christians in Rome were reading the Gospels (memoirs of the Apostles) alongside the Old Testament during Sunday worship gatherings. • Justin wrote his apology to the Roman Emperor fully expecting him to recognize what were the Christian scriptures and to easily obtain copies of them and criticized Crescens for not reading them. • Celsus had access to the Gospels in Rome and recognized them as Christian (the Great Church) authoritative writings and refuted Christian teaching from them. • Trypho read the four Gospels in Ephesus recognizing them as Christian authoritative writings.
  70. 70. Who Chose the Gospels? The Search for an “Arch-Conspirator”
  71. 71. Who Chose the Gospels? The Search for an “Arch-Conspirator”
  72. 72. The Apostolic Fathers • The Term “Apostolic Fathers” are a collection of the earliest extant Christian writings outside of the New Testament • Written by disciples of one or more of the twelve Apostles. • Some of these writings can be dated to a time when some of the New Testament was still being written (between 70s-90s CE).
  73. 73. The Apostolic Fathers • Polycarp of Smyrna was a disciple of the apostle John and the teacher of Irenaues. • He wrote to the Philppians about 110-115 CE. “So then, let us serve him with fear and all reverence, just as he himself has commanded, as did the apostles, who preached the gospel to us, and the prophets who announced I advance the coming of the Lord.” (Pol. Phil. 6.3) Smryna
  74. 74. The Apostolic Fathers • Ignatius of Antioch, disciple of John, and a prisoner for his faith, ca 110 CE. • To the Philadelphians he wrote. “But the gospel possesses something distinctive, namely, the coming of the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, his suffering, and the resurrection. For the beloved prophets preached in anticipation of him, but the gospel is the imperishable finished work.” (Ign Phil 9.2) Antioch
  75. 75. The Apostolic Fathers • Clement of Rome wrote to the Corinthian Church ca.80s or 90s CE. • This letter very likely pre-dates the Gospel of John. “The apostles received the gospel for us from the Lord Jesus Christ; Jesus the Christ was sent forth from God. So then Christ is from God, and the apostles are from Christ . . . Having therefore received their orders and being fully assured by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ and full of faith in the word of God, they went forth with the firm assurance that the Holy Spirit gives, preaching the good news that the kingdom of God was about to come.” (1 Clem 42.1-3)
  76. 76. Papias, Hearer of John • Leader of the Church in Hierapolis, born around 70 CE. “Papias, a man of the early period, who was a hearer of John and a companion of Polycarp, bears witness to these things . . . ” (EH 3.38.1) • Traveled around collecting stories and sayings of the apostels and disciples of Jesus and wrote them down in a work called The Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord, which he wrote in the early 2nd century, which is now lost. Hierapolis
  77. 77. Papias, Hearer of John “And if by chance someone who had been a follower of the elders should come my way, I enquired about the words of the elders—what Andrew or Peter said, or Philip, or Thomas or James, or John or Matthew or any other of the Lord’s disciples, and whatever Aristion and the elder John, the Lord’s disciples were saying. For I did not think that information from books would profit me as much as information from a living and abiding voice.” (EH 3.39.3)
  78. 78. Papias, Hearer of John “And the Elder used to say this; ‘Mark, having become Peter’s interpreter, wrote down accurately everything he remembered, though not in order, of the things either said or done by Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor followed him, but afterward, as I said, followed Peter, who adapted his teachings as needed but had no intention of giving an ordered account of the Lord’s sayings. Consequently Mark did nothing wrong in writing down some things as he remembered them, for he made it his one concern not to omit anything which he heard or to make any false statement in them.” (EH 3.39.15)
  79. 79. Papias, Hearer of John “So Matthew composed the oracles (λογια) in the Hebrew language (διαλεκτῳ) and each person interpreted them as best he could” (EH 3.39.16) • Papias mentioned Mark and Matthew by name when the Apostolic Fathers were writing, and thus, they most likely knew these gospels which were circulating at that time. • Mark simply recorded Peter’s preaching without chronological order. • Matthew did not necessarily write gospel in Hebrew but in a Jewish style.
  80. 80. Papias, Hearer of John • Papias does not give us any other statements as to the origins of Luke and John. • Papias is recorded as knowing and quoting from the gospels of Luke and John. So he did know them. • Papias is the earliest figure that definitively makes references to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John and traces, at least Mark and Matthew, all the way back to the Apostles of Jesus.
  81. 81. Eusebius on John “And after Mark and Luke had already made the publication of the Gospels according to them, John, they say, used all the time, a proclamation that was not written down, and at last came to writing for the following cause. After the three Gospels which had been previously written had already been distributed to all, and even to himself, they say that he welcomed them and testified to their truth, but that there was therefore only lacking to the Scripture the account concerning things which had been done by Christ at first and at the beginning of the proclamation. . . . Now they say that on account of these things, the apostle John was exhorted to hand down in the Gospel according to himself the time passed over in silence by the first evangelists and the things which had been done by the Savior at this time.” (EH 3.24.7-11)
  82. 82. Paul and the Gospel of Luke • In the last years of Paul’s life, he had left Timothy in the city of Ephesus in order to teach. • He wrote 1 & 2 Timothy sometime 65-68 CE. • Paul wrote in 1 Tim 5:18; “For Scripture says, ‘You Shall Not Muzzle the Ox While He is Threshing,’ and ‘The laborer is worthy of his wages’.” • He introduces a quotation from the Old Testament with the phrase “For Scripture says.” This was the standard way to introduce quotations from the Old Testament, which would have been viewed by Paul as Divine revelation. • He continues from the Old Testament quote immediately into a quotation from Luke 10:7.
  83. 83. Paul and the Gospel of Luke “Whatever house you enter, first say, ‘Peace be to this house!’ And if a son of peace is there, your peace will rest upon him. But if not, it will return to you. And remain in the same house, eating and drinking what they provide, for the laborer deserves his wages. Do not go from house to house. Whenever you enter a town and they receive you, eat what is set before you. Heal the sick in it and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God has come near to you.’” (Luke 10:5-9)
  84. 84. Paul and the Gospel of Luke “Do I say these things on human authority? Does not the Law say the same? For it is written in the Law of Moses, “You shall not muzzle an ox when it treads out the grain.” . . . . In the same way, the Lord commanded that those who proclaim the gospel should get their living by the gospel.” (1 Corinthians 9:9, 14) • Paul is placing what Jesus commanded on the same level as the Mosaic Law. • Jesus’ words, are God’s commands to be followed and obeyed.
  85. 85. Who Chose the Gospels? Early Christian Use of the Gospels Centuries CE/AD 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1st Century 2nd Century 3rd Century 4th Century
  86. 86. Who Chose the Gospels? • The Gospels Apparently Chose Themselves! • The Gospels were penned under the apostle’s authority. • The apostles were recognized as Jesus’ divinely inspired messengers. • The Christian community recognized the divinely inspired nature of these documents the moment they left the hand of their authors. • These gospels were widely distributed, circulated, and passed down from generation to generation. • Official declarations, lists, and collections of these books did not happen until a few centuries later.
  • MinaBassily3

    Nov. 7, 2019
  • Drguoshun

    Dec. 2, 2018
  • BoscoCruzdeLoyola

    Mar. 2, 2016

An introduction to the history of the canon of the Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John in the first and second centuries. By Timothy N Mitchell (thetextualmechanic.blogspot.com)

Views

Total views

2,739

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

1,113

Actions

Downloads

51

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

3

×