Infection control in icu

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Infection control in icu

  1. 1. Infection Control in ICU<br />Atefkamel<br />MD<br />
  2. 2. Infection is a common cause of admission to intensive care units (ICUs). In addition, around 30% of patients in ICUs will acquire infection (nosocomial infection) during their admission. The resulting increase in mortality is between 20-80%<br />
  3. 3. Causes for admission associated with infection: (predisposing factors)<br />• trauma,<br />• burns, <br />• following emergency surgery (particularly intra-abdominal).<br />
  4. 4. ICU interventions: <br />• tracheal intubation and ventilation,<br />• intravascular catheters,<br />• urinary catheters,<br />• drugs (sedatives, muscle relaxants, corticosteroids, antibiotics),<br />• blood transfusion.<br />
  5. 5. Patients factors: <br />• elderly,<br />• malnourished,<br />• high alcohol intake,<br />• heavy smoking,<br />• diabetes,<br />• neutropenia.<br />
  6. 6. Causative organisms<br />• Enterobacter 34%.<br />• Staphylococcus aureus 30%, (60% MRSA) – probably now higher, with a greater<br />proportion of MRSA.<br />• Pseudomonas 29%.<br />• Staphylococcus epidemidis 19%.<br />• Candida 17%.<br />
  7. 7. Site of infection:<br />lower respiratory tract 65%.<br />• Urinary tract 17%.<br />• Blood 12%.<br />others<br />
  8. 8. Pyrexia and leucocytosis are unreliable indicators of infection. <br />C reactive protein trends are not specific.<br />Procalcitoninis a more specific and sensitive indicator of developing infection <br />
  9. 9. Classification:<br />In the first 3 days of hospital admission<br /> community acquired.<br />After 5 days, infections hospital acquired. <br />Between 3 and 5 days, both<br /> should be considered.<br />
  10. 10. Control of infection <br />• prevention of spread of infection between patients,<br />• management of patients to reduce the incidence of infection.<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Cont.<br />

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