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“A system to Record and Report Cyber Crimes”
Assignment Studio
Table of Contents
1. Introduction to the Research...........
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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f. Online UK Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies......................
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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1. Introduction to the Research
Internet and computers have ch...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
4
and formulating situational policies, straggles and developmen...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
5
So there are so many example in which hacking can take place t...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
6
according to the standard of morality, these businesses are wo...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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countries and businesses from cybercrimes. This whole diagram ...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
8
The origin of computer crimes is difficult to determine but a ...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
9
formulas and money from online websites. Some people do this c...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
10
Well, it is really important at this point to realize its imp...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
11
and minimize the root causes of cybercrimes. When people will...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
12
really understands and realizes that the knowledge and skills...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
13
There are certain authorizes and agencies who are fighting ag...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
14
United States is the greatest country of the world but cyberc...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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f. Online UK Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies
Child exploitatio...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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importance of a proper proposed legislation concept related t...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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In the UNICRI Survey (2012), answer regarding the nature of c...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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crimes to agencies. These are unnoticed but cost many million...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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 Decoding encryption.
 Proper and proving identity.
 Strug...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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Islam support and control every day activities of human in a ...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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legislation (Levine 2003, p.281-285). Moreover, the rights of...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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proper law can be passed and that law is also a kind of motiv...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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punishments for all the crimes are fixed. It is also importan...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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stated that behavior is determined by the influences, environ...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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computer and internet. Due to less technology, frauds are not...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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A report has been prepared Trend Micro and in this report, it...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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Investment in cybercrime security infrastructure is the deman...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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review is that developer can see how much and what kinds of r...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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 Increase requirements of security system in computers throu...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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There are several types of cybercrimes and it is impossible t...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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References List:
A Perspective on Achieving Information Secur...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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Choo, KKR & Smith, RG 2008, ‘Criminal exploitation of online ...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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Ernst & Young 2004, Global information security survey. Viewe...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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Kamali, M. H 1994, ‘Freedom of Expression in Islam’, First ed...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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Paul, C. Dwyer 2010, CYBER CRIME IN THE MIDDLE EAST, viewed o...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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Schjølberg, S 2003, ‘The Legal Frame Work - Penal Legislation...
Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes
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Willison, R., & Backhouse, J 2006, ‘Opportunities for compute...
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E crime thesis Cyber Crime and its several types

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Internet and computers have changed working, communication, meeting and business requirements and conditions all over globe. Due to this high profile technology, everyone can share any activity that was unexpected and unimaginable few decades back. It was the imagination of people that they will live their lives in this manner and do their business quickly and imagination and dream has come true with the introduction of internet only. Modern society is now associated with internet and related technologies, over a quarter of the world's population is wired into the net and this number is growing every day

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E crime thesis Cyber Crime and its several types

  1. 1. 1 “A system to Record and Report Cyber Crimes” Assignment Studio Table of Contents 1. Introduction to the Research....................................................................................................3 i. Hacking .................................................................................................................................4 ii. Viruses and Other Malicious Programs................................................................................5 iii. Fraud and Theft.....................................................................................................................5 iv. Gambling, Pornography and Other Offenses against Morality ............................................5 v. Child Pornography and Other Offenses against Minors ......................................................6 vi. Cyber terrorism .....................................................................................................................6 2. Prevent Cybercrimes................................................................................................................6 3. Literature Review......................................................................................................................7 i. Cybercrime............................................................................................................................7 ii. Importance of cybercrime control Reporting ........................................................................9 iii. Awareness and Education about Cybercrimes....................................................................9 a) An evaluation of the MakeITsecure campaign...............................................................10 b) An Analysis of Electronic Media to Prepare Children for Safe and Ethical Practices in Digital Environments...............................................................................................................11 c) Implementing an Integrated National Cyber safety Program for the Compulsory School Sector......................................................................................................................................11 d) A Perspective on Achieving Information Security Awareness .......................................11 e) Information Security Awareness: Local Government and Internet Service Providers...12 iv. Online Reporting Mechanisms and Organizations.............................................................13 a. Online Canadian Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies.......................................................13 b. Online U.S Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies ................................................................13 c. Online European Union Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies ............................................14 d. Online India Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies...............................................................14 e. Online Switzerland Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies....................................................14
  2. 2. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 2 f. Online UK Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies..................................................................15 v. Prevention Methods ............................................................................................................15 vi. Reporting Challenges .........................................................................................................18 vii. Cybercrime Legislation .......................................................................................................19 viii. Islam and E-crime Law .......................................................................................................22 ix. Impact and High Cost of Cyber Crimes..............................................................................23 x. Cybercrimes in Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. ..................................................25 4. Methodology ...........................................................................................................................27 i. Literature Review....................................................................................................................27 ii. Collect Data.........................................................................................................................28 iii. Make Study (Design and Analysis) Of Implementing a System ............................................28 5. Findings and Conclusions ......................................................................................................29 References List:.............................................................................................................................31
  3. 3. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 3 1. Introduction to the Research Internet and computers have changed working, communication, meeting and business requirements and conditions all over globe. Due to this high profile technology, everyone can share any activity that was unexpected and unimaginable few decades back. It was the imagination of people that they will live their lives in this manner and do their business quickly and imagination and dream has come true with the introduction of internet only. Modern society is now associated with internet and related technologies, over a quarter of the world's population is wired into the net and this number is growing every day (Grossman 2000). The importance of business and daily routine life cannot be imagined without internet, it is a source of enjoyment in terms of games, movies, songs, social chatting, and communication, ideas sharing, education and so on. In reality, no one can rebuff importance on internet these days in any part of life (UN Doc 1990 p.162-163). Although, it is a great invention by human but as all know that everything has two sides, one is bright and other one is dark. Internet also has a dark side as well. Through evolution of internet, certain crimes have been developed into new forms of crimes and new ways to commit old forms of crimes. There was no phishing, hacking, and malware attacks before internet in the world, but currently, frauds, theft and terrorism activities have been shaped into cyber crimes these days (UNICRI Survey 2012). It is a big advantage of internet that users can enjoy full time secrecy with little danger of being traced and identified. On other side, internet is a sort of magnet for all types of common cyber criminals. Recently, in a survey conducted by Symantec found that 65% of internet users had victimized phishing attacks, malware attacks, hacking of social- networking profiles etc. Now, Cybercrime has become a wide lucrative criminal industry and it is generating almost US$ 100 million annually. With this figure, it can clearly be imagined that internet crime is increasing with an alarming growth rate (Tadjer 2000). UNICRI is a prominent institute because it is working hard to achieve better understanding and observation regarding cybercrimes for the purpose of suggesting
  4. 4. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 4 and formulating situational policies, straggles and development of security systems and techniques. These steps are supporting and enhancing capabilities of those people who are directly or indirectly involved in the process of preventing cybercrimes (UNICRI Survey 2012). There are several words and terms used interchangeably like computer crime, cybercrime, I.T crime and high-tech crime to refer two sorts of crime. In the first crime, target is computer such as attack on network confidentiality, integrity or availability. The term can be further refined as unauthorized access to data and programs for illicit tempering (UNICRI Survey 2012). There are several questions that come in mind that how middle-east countries can develop laws and systems to record and prevent cyber crimes. This research is basically done to understand references of Islamic laws about computer crimes because when there will be no specific law related to cyber crimes with strong Islamic references then it is non-feasible to develop a system for recording and documenting these crimes in Islamic countries. Islamic countries such as Saudi-Arabia, Iran and Dubai cannot run any campaign and develop a system when they are unable to punish and defend people and society legally on only ethical grounds. The question is raised in the research that what is the importance of a system to record and implement cyber or computer related crimes these days. This research is the answer of all questions related to cyber crimes and related issues in Middle-east and particularly Saudi-Arabia where ratio of these crimes is highest (AJBAILI, 2009). There are several types of cybercrimes such as: i. Hacking Hacking is a very common cybercrime in this contemporary era. It is referred to as gaining of unauthorized access to the personal data, information, and programs. For example, snooper can easily read the personal information of a person from his computer or take over his computer’s data. A saboteur may delete the important files from the computer by getting access through latest hacking software. A professional hacker can hack and get secret information from any company information system.
  5. 5. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 5 So there are so many example in which hacking can take place these days by hackers (Fallows 2011). ii. Viruses and Other Malicious Programs Some viruses are harmful to human body and some viruses are harmful to the body of computer. These viruses can be intentional or unintentionally attack to a wide range of computers. Unintentionally viruses attack to those systems that come under the range of those same viruses (Samosseiko 2009). Some significant viruses are Trojan horse and love Bug, these viruses are harmful in a manner that they hack username, passwords, erase important file, destroy whole hardware and so forth. It is harmful to human body in a way if it erases the medical records of a hospital (Samosseiko 2009). iii. Fraud and Theft Fraud and theft is the largest cybercrime within the list of all the cybercrimes. The major fraud and thefts are made through fake chatting, messages, unsolicited e- mails, and financial gains and create disturbance for fun. Sometimes, you are looking to buy something through eBay; you negotiate and confirm the delivery and prices. You pay the price but you never get the supply of goods because these goods have not been ordered to the trustworthy person. In mast of the cases, you give details of credit cards for any purchasing intentions but these credit cards also are used for other purchases by deceivers (Communications Fraud Control Association 2011). iv. Gambling, Pornography and Other Offenses against Morality Currently, online casinos are operating without any restriction and through internet people enjoy gambling despite the fact that is illegal in some jurisdictions such as middle-east and Islamic countries. The business of drugs, tobacco, and liquor is also going greatly over internet. These types of crimes are not harmful to certain religion but
  6. 6. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 6 according to the standard of morality, these businesses are working these days without any jurisdiction. v. Child Pornography and Other Offenses against Minors Internet is freely utilizable for all types of people including Childs below the mature age or teenage. These Childs are ruining their lives by watching vulgar images and movies. These images and movies are harmful to their growth as a respectful and civilized citizen of the society. They damage their health in terms of masturbating and molesting activities. Sometimes, porn star invites them over red light areas by showing nude webcams in a manner that they blackmail for money and other wrong activities. The other wrong activities may include preparation of Childs for the murder of any personal enemy (Grady 1998). vi. Cyber terrorism Cyber terrorism is one of the major cybercrimes these days. In cyber terrorism, terrorists use internet as tool to make plans against big and important entities of the world. They communicate and share major formulas, information, and might hack into computer systems and destroy banking systems, stock exchanges and international financial transactions in a huge way. Cyber terrorist can manipulate an air traffic control system, break the system that can cause plane crash and collide (Arquilla 1998). 2. Prevent Cybercrimes There is a big network of different steps is required for the purpose of preventing cybercrimes from all over the world. The whole process should be prepared from planning to the implementation and evaluation stages of unique tactics, policies and strategies. This type of strong and authentic process can clearly make sure the healthy protection from threats such as cybercrimes. Several steps of the below diagram have been simplified further and each circle is linked and developed to prevent people,
  7. 7. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 7 countries and businesses from cybercrimes. This whole diagram is based on technical and general inputs to get the desire outcomes in terms of strong systems for fighting against cybercrimes. The process of each circle can be designed in a way which is suitable to the team working against cybercrimes. For example, compliance procedure of any team can be different from other protection team but there should the essential steps on government and international level. So this diagram is a very comprehensive and general in nature but gives a strong idea to fight against any type of cybercrime in a better way. 3. Literature Review i. Cybercrime This report has been prepared to study and research on the different areas of Cybercrimes or internet crimes. The literature review has been conducted on different angles and areas of cybercrimes because cybercrime is not the issue of provisional, national level but it is a global level issue. With the help of getting knowledge related to different types of literature such as important of cybercrimes, impact of cybercrimes, preventive measures of cybercrimes, scope of cybercrimes, and cybercrimes in the middle east countries, any researcher can contribute in the research to help officials of governments every type of help in a great way. Computer and internet has provided diverse nature of platforms for business, relations and integrations among people all over the world. Everything has become so quick and easy after the invention and introduction of internet. Due to the significance growth of computer technology, computers and infrastructure have been regarded as the backbone of modern life of people. There is no contradict that this technology is without issues and problems such as misuses, theft, fraud, money laundering and mischief and these should be prevented and cure through proper system in Advance and middle-east countries (Audit Commission 1998).
  8. 8. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 8 The origin of computer crimes is difficult to determine but a case was emerged in 1974 within US in which David Stryker, John Shore and Stanley Wilson infected 1108 computer and obtained classified information from the system through Trojan horse techniques. Now, hackers are making a lot of money through smuggling of drugs and narcotics as per the US facts and figures. The figure of profits has been increased up to $ 1tr a year (Little 2006, p.11-12). E-crime has really cracked business all over the world, due to this level of threat and potential, every country is working hard to prevent this crime by utilizing all the available resources and tools. Law can be a support to reporting and recording crimes and also give punishment to the victims but for the purpose of making any unique law, it is very important to consider the comments, suggestions and guidance of scholars, experts, religious people such as Popes and Imams etc. The view of religion and ethical studies is important because comments are helpful in refining and establishing the basic requirements of law. One of the latest researches conducted in Bahrain about the concept and nature of e-crime in Islam. The purpose of this study was to support the fines and penalties to e-criminals with full and final modern and religious facts and figure. That research has proposed an introductory computer crime law from an Islamic point of view which we believe will initiate further research in this important field (Mansoor 2007). E-crime has been defined as a strong challenge for future law enforcement agencies. There should be proper planning, implementation and compliance against this crime at the earliest by global online anti-crime squads (Backhouse & Dhillon 1995, 645- 651; Dhillon & Moores 2001, p.715-723; Dhillon & Backhouse 2004, p.551-561; Ernst & Young 2004). This crime has all characteristics and types such as drug trafficking, smuggling of people and goods, money laundering, and frauds (DTI/PWC 2004). E-crime is the root cause of big crimes and the alarming situation is that young people are involved in these crimes. When young kids and people will be able to know about the ways to earn money with this short way then there is a possibility that they will become international criminals. Young guys are stealing exam question papers, secrets
  9. 9. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 9 formulas and money from online websites. Some people do this crime for fun but majority of the people commit this crime for money. Computer security is currently known as the great matter of concern within society and organization. Previous studies have worked out on the computer crime risks and punishments (ISO BS17799 2005; Willison 2006, p.170-186; Willison & Backhouse 2006, p.403-414). The previous studies did not study about the relationship between criminal’s behavior while doing cyber crimes and other different types of crimes, it is very much needed to focus on the symptoms of crimes instead of just preventing crimes through different methods such as reporting and documentation and legislations (Al-A'ali 2006, p.19-21). ii. Importance of cybercrime control Reporting As it is stated that cybercrime is as dangerous as other civil crimes because it can harm to your computer, property, documents and assets in a very dangerous and serious manner so there is a need to create the importance of reporting cybercrimes in the society globally. United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI Survey 2012) have drawn our attention towards the importance of reporting cybercrimes by doing great research. With the research of this UNICRI, some significant figures have been obtained (UNICRI Survey 2012). iii. Awareness and Education about Cybercrimes Cybercrime is one of the severe crimes of the world and advance countries rank it as a top ranking crime as compare to many other crimes. Crimes are harmful to the body, tangible and intangible assets of an entity. Several works have been accomplished in the past to critically analyze the nature, types, root causes, cost and impact of this rubbish crime. It is a kind of activity that has no limit of harm to computers and assets recorded in the computers.
  10. 10. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 10 Well, it is really important at this point to realize its importance and take such steps that can reduce its harm. Such steps can include research, designing of certain system, legislations and awareness among users of computers. There are several types of computer users such as child, mature people, different types of companies, and countries at wide level. Every type of user is using this computer because it is a highly popular and useful device of the world. It is easily available in almost all the advance as well as matures countries of the world. In advanced countries, different campaigns were run with different names only to give awareness about all the types of crimes. Different international campaigns targeted different audience and the objective was only and only to create the importance of cybercrimes and it’s reporting to the designated agencies, departments and authorities at government level. Family online: Internet security begins with you It is really an interesting idea to run a different type of campaign to create and develop the importance of understanding cyber related crimes and get knowledge that how to be saved from different types of e-crimes. This campaign was basically done to understand and assess the knowledge of parents related to certain types of cyber attacks on computer through internet. The idea was to involve children and give them certain knowledge to be alert and save from such crimes by parents. 10 films were broadcasted; each film was 45 seconds long. These films were broadcasted on two channels of France. This campaign was very useful for creating awareness regarding cybercrimes. a) An evaluation of the MakeITsecure campaign Another campaign was carried out in Ireland in the year 2005-2006, this campaign was launched by public as well private companies such as Microsoft, The Department of Communication, Marine and Natural Resources together with BT, Dell, Eircom, the Irish Bankers Federation, IAB, Microsoft, Symantec, and National centre for security in Education. The major purpose of this Television campaign was also to extract, identify
  11. 11. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 11 and minimize the root causes of cybercrimes. When people will get to know that how an attack such as Phishing; identity theft; spyware and child safety online then they will be able to report the crime. In short, this is the first step of reporting cybercrimes. b) An Analysis of Electronic Media to Prepare Children for Safe and Ethical Practices in Digital Environments A very different nature of campaign was launched for the school level young people. This campaign was designed to provide proper technical, management and decision- making tips to prevent cybercrimes. The central idea was that when people at young age will be able to understand technicalities of computer crimes then they can better be safe as well as report the crime to prescribed agency in a very coherent manner. The campaign gave a lot of confidence and knowledge to young people, a new rubric technique was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of online instructional materials. This modern and digital device was helpful in understanding that high quality cyber safety resources are based on a coherent theoretical framework and so forth (Berson et al. 2008). c) Implementing an Integrated National Cyber safety Program for the Compulsory School Sector Cybercrime is a dangerous crime that can destroy the roots of the nation. It really attracts young school children because of several activities available in it. This campaign was launched for the purpose of giving knowledge about the negative effects of cybercrimes associated with this digital device. This is one of the popular cyber safety initiatives by the ministry of education within New Zealand (Harré, n.d). d) A Perspective on Achieving Information Security Awareness By considering cyber security a severe and harmful crime, Government of U.S has taken certain actions to avoid the attacks related to computer. The government of U.S
  12. 12. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 12 really understands and realizes that the knowledge and skills related to cyber security should be offered and taught to students in the relevant information technology and information systems. They are teaching skills and knowledge that can help students to be safe from such crimes. An authentic step by step process and technical training has been given to the students in courses such as computer information systems, computer engineering. Government considers this issue as a national level issue and this is a reason that they have provided certain lectures in the information systems degree’s units. The mission of the government is now to change the previous teaching methods related to information systems by adding advance ways to prevent cybercrimes in information system studies. This campaign will enhance the knowledge and skills of student for handling cybercrimes more quickly and easily. The central idea is to create a culture of information security from all the angles (Hentea, N.D). e) Information Security Awareness: Local Government and Internet Service Providers. This report is also a link to awareness and knowledge about cyber security within people and users of computer and internet. This campaign was done by local government and internet service. The effort was made to promote and develop a ‘culture of security’ among users within the European Member States. By reviewing all these campaigns regarding awareness and education of cybercrimes, it can be said that governments, people, private firms, providers, professors, student and every type of individual is trying hard to minimize the effects of cybercrimes and prevent this crime on self help basis. Reports and campaigns were started and launched for the purpose of creating awareness but it doesn’t mean that after having knowledge of prevention users can take the burden of being secure on self help basis. There are certain types of attacks that can be avoided by users. In short, some attacks can be prevented by users through proper measures and software and some attacks can only be prevented through special agencies, experts and legislations within a country (ENISA 2007).
  13. 13. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 13 There are certain authorizes and agencies who are fighting against cybercrimes all over the world. International association of internet hotlines is a working in several countries of the world by offering services related to cybercrimes reporting. The operations and centers of this association are in 33 countries of the world including Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, United States, United Kingdom but it is really disappointing that the mechanism support has not been availed or provided in Saudi- Arabia. The services of this association are really required in this country due to high level of damages faced in government, semi-government and private organizations. This association has been established by European Unions (ENISA 2007). iv. Online Reporting Mechanisms and Organizations There are several developed countries that have done as much as they are capable to do in the discipline of Cybercrimes until now. Countries such as Australia, Canada, U.S, U.k and many more have developed special organizations to fight against different types of crimes these days (Vaonline 2012). a. Online Canadian Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies Canadian anti-fraud centre is an integrated partnership between international, local and private organizations to prevent economic crimes reporting. There is a telephone number, fax number, e-mail address to report crimes and for online reporting a form is available for person and organization over the website. Cybertip.ca is another agency where crimes such sexual exploitation of children can be reported. Moreover, RCMP fraud prevention page is also available over internet in which examples and procedures related to prevention of cybercrimes are placed (Vaonline 2012). b. Online U.S Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies
  14. 14. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 14 United States is the greatest country of the world but cybercrime is a global crime that cannot be avoided by even greatest countries of world like U.S. Department of Justice's Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Division, FBI, National Cyber Security Alliance, and Network Abuse Clearinghouse are just following cyber criminals as quickly as possible in U.S. The harm is much severe that without involvement of government and society it cannot be avoided at all. All organizations and governments around globe have to do planning and such developments to avoid this crime (Ciardhuáin 2004). c. Online European Union Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies An association named as INHOPE has several stations all over the world including European Union member countries; the purpose of this association is to protect young people from pornography and other issues of cybercrimes. The members of this association are governments of advance countries who have access to report and prevent people from crimes. SafeNet also termed as Safe Internet Action Plan is promoting safety issues of internet and guiding all European Union countries to be safe from harms and threats of computer and internet (Vaonline 2012). d. Online India Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies CCVC is abbreviated as centre for cyber victims counseling. This is another government level institute and services of this institute are ranging from prevention to action against hackers. Users of India can immediately take preventive steps and in case they are harmed they can report immediately to prevent any sort of damage (Vaonline 2012). e. Online Switzerland Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies Cyber Crime Coordinating Unit is a nationwide agency that can help people from cybercrimes such as pornography, depiction of violence; extremism; racism; unlawful entry into IT systems; spreading of computer viruses; destruction of data; credit card misuse; violation of copyrights; illegal arms trade etc. Citizens can take quick actions online, for instance reporting to this institute right away (Vaonline 2012).
  15. 15. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 15 f. Online UK Cybercrimes Reporting Agencies Child exploitation and online protection centre (CEOP) is also saving the citizens of its country from different types of computer and internet threats. This agency is basically formed to save child from acts such as pornography, illegal exploitation and so forth. The strategy of this organization is to save children by taking confidence of parents and caregivers. This is a type of virtual police station for reporting internet crimes related to child crimes (Vaonline 2012). There is need to identify the root causes to resolve issues related to cybercrimes as well as reporting in middle-east countries. With research, systems and implementation the same can be placed to Saudi Arabia as well. v. Prevention Methods Companies and societies are finding and analyzing numerous methods to tackle and remove cyber crimes. Some techniques are helpful such as risk management techniques (Peltier 2004, p.44-56), global standards like ISO BS17799 (2005) and baseline security approach (Parker 1998;Willison 2006). In this approach, controls and powers are used on the basis of best practice principles. The question is still there that by applying computer crime laws and standards, can we reduce computer crimes? It is only possible if you we link human behavior with the individual forces of control. Without the implementation of self-imposed approach and reporting, we cannot control computer and internet related crimes. It is very difficult to prevent cybercrimes with the help of developing policies and procedures, standard laws and punishments. Laws cannot be changed as quickly because diverse nature of cybercrimes is varying vigilantly these days. In short, government is itself only responsible to stop cybercrimes but it is intrinsic responsibility of society to prevent this illegal act on self help basis. The initiative about computer crime law was introduced by Senator Ribikoff by presenting a federal bill in the US congress (Schjolberg 2003). Although, this bill was not adopted but the intensity and
  16. 16. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 16 importance of a proper proposed legislation concept related to computer crimes was created through this bill. Well, it is important to develop a law for any sort of crime, existence of laws ensure a fear for criminal and criminal may stop illegal acts straight away. Punishment ensure the prevention of crimes and also gives lessons to others in a huge manner The problem is the identification and documentation of crimes, there is no reporting and documentation procedure in Saudi-Arabia, law is the base of actions such as reporting and recording of crimes. Laws are guidelines that define steps and actions to save people from crimes. The legislature of Texas passed the law in 1985 and this law has been amended several times with very short intervals. This is a clear practical example of strategy to defend against crimes certain crimes. CSI/FBI (2003) survey explored that the outcome of deploying technologies and laws is not fulfilling the requirements to defend against cybercrimes and attacks; crimes are still increasing and growing from every passing year. The risk of computer crimes is significantly high in the existence of laws and regulations as well and there is big financial loss to the society and country. The argument is supported by Australian survey as well in which it is clearly stated that the losses of year 2003 are doubled as compare to the losses in the year 2002 (Australian Survey 2006). It has been stated in the research that cybercrime is becoming an epidemic. Recently, a high level survey was conducted by Norton on the behalf of Symantec Corporation that 65% of the surveyed victims have been affected from cybercrime from viruses like malware attacks, scams, phishing, hacking, credit cards fraud etc at high, medium and low level. The survey also indicated that only half of the 44% victims reported about the crime to the law enforcement agency at that time. The survey also clarified that it is right time to take necessary actions properly against this crime on high level because it is very difficult to bear the cost and risk related to cybercrimes. From all the internet users, only 28% actually expect to be defrauded or scammed online (UNICRI Survey 2012).
  17. 17. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 17 In the UNICRI Survey (2012), answer regarding the nature of cybercrimes was also taken and people said that cybercrime is kind of theft in which no one can face the fear of cybercrimes in almost any situations because these crimes are hidden to victims due to weak protection systems within the system. 79% internet users don’t expect and intend to bring hackers towards justice of law because they consider cybercrimes in the category of burglary and often feel violated, powerless and disappointed and sometimes blame themselves to be a victim of cybercrimes on initial stages. In this survey, it was also observed that people don’t consider cybercrimes as big crimes; they take these crimes as non-reported crimes (UNICRI Survey 2012). They feel that there is no benefit of reporting this type of crime because it is not that level of crime for which someone should be accountable in the court of justice. Some people feel that the benefit of reporting is far outweighed by the hassle. There are many businesses that were involved in the survey, they stated that they don’t report about cybercrimes due to the matter of confidentiality of information and secondly their reputation can also be harmed. There is another category of people who don’t know about cybercrimes, they cannot report cybercrimes because they don’t know about the signs of malware attacks (UNICRI Survey 2012). This type of high level non-reporting attitude makes cybercrime increasingly invisible and allows criminals to operate on larger levels. The argument that cybercrimes are unavoidable and faceless is not true because as per the Symantec survey, it is reported that 90% cybercrimes are committed by large criminal networks. So the crux of the report is that if people want to be safe from these types of crimes then they need to realize the importance of reporting cybercrimes to the law enforcement agencies and also take necessary knowledge regarding the procedure of reporting. When people will report about cybercrimes then the proper strategies can be replaced with weak strategies and systems due to identification of weak systems with low level of outcomes (UNICRI Survey 2012). Another researcher also argues in favor of the importance of reporting internet crimes to the law enforcement agencies. It has clearly stated that one of the biggest drawbacks of internet fraud and potential crimes is the attitude of people towards reporting of internet
  18. 18. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 18 crimes to agencies. These are unnoticed but cost many millions to business, he also notified that sometimes internet frauds are not reported because they don’t affect the daily routine and sometimes they are too small to notice and sometimes people notice such frauds but neglect to complain. But it is the reality that if these crimes will not restricted at the lower level then there will be big loss due to non-reporting of these types of small incidents to agencies (Federal Bureau of Investigation 2010). vi. Reporting Challenges Etter (2001) has defined and listed certain challenges that have been faced by investigators while documenting and reporting crimes and these challenges are as follows:  Loss of secrecy and nature of online crime.  Higher level of risks and threats and defensive hurdles such as issues of legislation.  The speed and vigilance of crimes committed through advanced software by hackers.  There is possibility for planned misuse of power issues and cross-jurisdictional differences by cyber criminals.  The unpredictability or transient nature of evidence like weak forensic evidence including eyewitnesses, DNA test either, and huge amount of costs of reporting and documentation. The management of e-crime has also defined certain challenges to the implementation, reporting and a recording system and these challenges include (Australian Police Commissioners' Conference Electronic Crime Working Party 2000, p. 25-28; Rees 2000, p.16-19):  Reducing gaps and bridging multijurisdictional associations.  Maintaining and preserving supportive evidences.  Having adequate control.
  19. 19. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 19  Decoding encryption.  Proper and proving identity.  Struggling to know where to look for facts.  Fighting against tools of crime and establishing new tools to counter crime.  Replanting the potential costs and priorities of documentation and reporting.  Tackling with crime in real time.  Establish proper training programs at organizational levels. For instance, lower, middle and top management.  Developing deliberate agreements and alliances.  Development of online reporting systems related to e-crime.  Improving the infrastructure and communication system for the purpose of quick exchange of information and intelligence.  Acquiring the services of anti-crime experts.  Avoiding 'tech-lag' (or ensuring access to cutting edge technology). vii. Cybercrime Legislation In a published US Electronic Frontier, it was admitted that there is a great need of balancing the need for accountability with the support of secrecy and this may also be the major future challenge. Moreover, UK have also instructed about the need of Regulatory and Investigatory Power act to resolve the issues such as secrecy and a range of other several issues. In his respect, new FBI carnivore system is the evidence of such reporting system and this system is much criticized and debated (PWGUCI 2000). The principles are almost same in all the religion and this argument has been proved in the recent research on the comparison of Islamic and western basic principles of ethics (Editorial 2006). As Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said that “I was sent to complete the epitomes of Ethics” (Abdel-Baky 1951, p.564). It is true that Islam covers all the aspects of life and the issues related to it. For every issue and problem, there is a certain solution with the help of laws to handle such issues in Islam. Western countries believe that Islam doesn’t support to secularism but in the real fact and according to Shar’iah,
  20. 20. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 20 Islam support and control every day activities of human in a big manner. The verses of Holy cover all the aspects and issues of human life (Editorial 2006). Computer crime is a crime that can be observed practically as well as theoretically from the perspective of computer ethics. It is clearly described and argued that when we study and write about computer and other subject’s ethics then we come to know about many theoretical inequalities. These inequalities are rising due to several reasons such as the use of information and communication technologies and the associated forms of technological determinism and liberalism (Alison 2001, p.235-261). There are numerous types of computer crimes such as stalking to child pornography (Newman & Clarke 2003). Cyber stalking is a severe crime that can be committed by using some aspect of information and communication technologies. Due to increase in the use of computer, there is very big need to quickly develop systems to record and document cybercrimes and take actions against these criminals legally (Reno 1999). Although, this issue has been raised on several levels such as print media and internet but there is no systematic analysis has been accounted for yet. There should be a proper theoretical framework with a combination of emotional experience of stalking and an understanding of online crime framework (Alison 2001, p.235-261). Some people may argue that our rights of privacy are "socially constructed," meaning that they change over time under the influence of many human forces and institutions, including technology, culture, and law (Levine 2003, p.281-285). Another factor that affects our rights is the strength of the arguments that we use to think about them. Some people may argue that our rights of privacy are "socially constructed," meaning that they change over time under the influence of many human forces and institutions, including technology, culture, and law (Levine 2003, p.281-285). Another factor that affects our rights is the strength of the arguments that we use to think about them. A research was conducted on user rights of privacy, it was argued that rights of privacy are socially constructed and these rights are altered with the passage of time by authorities such as human forces and institutions, information technology, culture, and
  21. 21. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 21 legislation (Levine 2003, p.281-285). Moreover, the rights of privacy are totally dependent on the level and strength of our minds, whatever our mind depict as privacy right, that can be declared as a limit of privacy. There are certain factors by Levine (2003, p.281-285) for the purpose of supporting the Islamic implementation, reporting and recording system, these factors are helpful to determine the argument for presenting a discussion about computer crime from an Islamic laws point of view (Yousif 2002), these factors are listed below: 1. Freedom: he stated that if we hide our behavior and acts from others so that we can be protected from punishment, discrimination at work, social isolation, and horrible criticism. 2. Property rights: Property rights are included body such as human body information and computer information belongs to me, it is same as anyone's body is his or her property. 3. Informed consent: there should be a proper consent taken to use any other person information and knowledge, and formula. 4. Personality development: to develop strong and competent recording and documenting procedures and systems, we need to develop complex personalities. 5. Avoidance of discrimination: sometimes, people use powers improperly and act on the foundation of ethically irrelevant information. 6. Happiness: enjoyment and fun is the ethical right of people, but in case of cybercrimes it is not a rightful act by hackers or electronic criminals. There are other moral values such as justice, fairness, liberty and compassion to support this law. The thinking of making people happy at any cost is not all logical and legal particularly in cybercrimes incidents. All these above factors are really supportive and helpful in making laws related to computer crimes in middle-east and Islamic countries. These factors are really giving a proper direction and base and on the basis of the support of all these factors, a more
  22. 22. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 22 proper law can be passed and that law is also a kind of motivation towards reporting and documenting cybercrimes globally. In a published UN report, it is properly classified about the illegal acts from one country to another country computers and assets without knowing nature of data and consequences of the act of online crime at all. In addition, benefit of such illegal act goes to a third country, it means one country is harming or misusing second country legal data and information to support third country. This whole example identifies that how several countries may involve and claim to jurisdictional competency (UN 1999, p.48). viii. Islam and E-crime Law Islam is an absolute religion and exhibit immense proof relevant to diverse crimes and its punishments. It is also a myth in Shar’iah that if there is no specific proof then that is considered low level crime in Islam. There is a fix punishment for all types of crimes in Islam. These judges are also not bound by precedents, laws, or prior decisions as in English law. Hadd crimes are considered to be the most serious crimes in Islam, for instance murder, making war upon Allah and his Prophets, arrogant, robbery, theft, money laundering, deceiving someone, use of intoxicants and so on. These are the crimes against God Almighty. There are Tazir crimes, these crimes are against society and committed in case of disobeying orders and words of Allah Almighty. The point is that there are several laws with proof and for the violation of every crime, there is a fix punishment for that person. For crimes such as malware, viruses, pornography, and child exploitation etc are termed as Tazir crimes. Reference from the past incidents can be useful to define punishments of this legal violation. There are laws related to computer crimes in Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia but there is no reporting of such crimes due to unwilling attitude towards reporting and non-awareness about the punishments (Yousif 2002). Every law is developed to compensate victim of crime so there is no law without this characteristic of revenge. US justice has established a retribution model in which
  23. 23. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 23 punishments for all the crimes are fixed. It is also important to note that American Federal code contains minimum essential sentences for drug and other intoxicants dealing. There are many states in which the model of fixed punishment is developed these days if crime is proved with proper evidences. Qesas is an example in which one knows what will be the punishment, so awareness about punishment and reporting of crimes is very important to avoid online crimes (Yousif 2002). It is a fact that the ratio of Muslim population is ¼ on the planet of earth, it may be better to develop and establish laws after taking Islamic point of view as well. There should be the opinion of Islamic countries in the development of global laws to handle computer related crimes. It is important to take the views of Islamic countries as well because Saudi-Arabia, Jordan and Iran have also placed computer crimes at the centre of their legal codes (Crystal 2001; Kamali 1994). Islamic laws also talks and argues about perfect justice and punishment therefore these Islamic laws and references will be suitable for the purpose of minimizing computer crimes (Afifi 2003). Computer crimes such as money laundering, data stealing, and hacking are not the new ones, if we want to reduce computer crimes we have to use the Islamic theory related to computer crimes (Afifi 2003). After a deep literature review, it is concluded that we did not find much work published about reporting and recording computer crimes in Middle-east countries with the exception of (Norazlina et al. 2003, p.280-293;Mancuso, 2007). These two research paper focus on e-commerce crimes reporting and documenting and Islam. ix. Impact and High Cost of Cyber Crimes Cybercrime may be related to a property, firm, business and country and it may harm to the business, individual, and a country via irritating e-mails, spams, malware attacks, viruses, hacking, credit card fraud, passwords theft and unauthorized access. The impact, cost and nature of cybercrimes is defined in different ways like British police defines cybercrimes as a crime that involve computer technology because cyber criminals are very quick in utilizing the opportunities. One of the popular researchers
  24. 24. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 24 stated that behavior is determined by the influences, environment in which a person grows and the actions of those personnel are explained their personality (Shariff 2008). Sheriff also clarified that the definition of cyber bullying should be explained the tools and forms that it has involved to differentiate it from the regular cyber bullying. It is also observed this researcher that these tolls and forms used to commit a cybercrime and through these forms and tools people will get to know the severity and mode of crime as well (Shariff et al. 2008). An article was studied on the nature of cybercrimes by Vladimir from Russia, in this articles it was stated that 10-12 cases were filled in the category of cybercrimes during 1990 which were of rowdies and 2/3 of all the cases were related to stolen and unauthorized access. In this article, it is also clarified that at that time, modern technology was available to hackers; area was also approachable to them. This information can help future investigators to deeply investigate the strength of hackers and their large networks (Shariff et al. 2008). There are so many reasons of cybercrimes and one of them is the use of electronic machines like ATM, online money transfers. Although, these are advanced facilities but these facilities have negative effects as well in terms of financial loss and frustration. Internet is borderless due to the availability and invention of wireless networks in the world. Internet is a useful medium of information, money and ideas but it is still having breakable codes and weak control over the websites. Another big reason of less control over the hackers is that there is no central body and frame working for the purpose of defending computers, property and money against these hackers globally. There is security network on the global level so there is a need of proper global network (Krause and Tipton 1999). It is the responsibility of law enforcement agencies to protect the property, people and country from cybercrimes but the efforts and systems should be advanced and adequate to meet and protect people and business from cybercrimes. The agencies are working with weak technological tools, gadgets. On the other hand, hackers carry high profile technological tools to destroy the networks of people and business through
  25. 25. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 25 computer and internet. Due to less technology, frauds are not decreasing in a big way (O'Neil 2001, pp.28-31). Griffith (2001), identified that technology has become very advance and with the help of this advancement, perfect duplication, publishing of multimedia combinations, print, design are sound are easily possible. These are the types of techniques and software which can be helpful in destroying the efforts and creativity into unsustainable conditions. There was an incident of such type of crimes when “The World is not enough” was available on the internet for free download before the actual release. Moreover, CSI director Patrice Rapalus said in a BBC news article that there are many methods of breaching information security and developing cybercrimes (Richardson 2010). x. Cybercrimes in Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Cybercrimes are not only the issue of advanced and richest countries of the world but it is one of the most serious issues of middle-east countries. There are so many companies that are the victims of cyber attacks, phishing, viruses in middle-east. These attacks are committed and motivated by race, religion and nationalities. Recently, many websites of UAE have been through the time of defacements and due to phishing attacks, a large amount of loss has been occurred in those businesses. Due to increase in Cybercrimes and related activates, UAE has developed Computer Emergency Response Team to deal with cyber crime incidents and cases on immediate basis. The most significant victims of cyber frauds are Finance Centre and hacking attempt on the Dubai E-Government. These types of high profile crimes have urged UAE to develop certain cybercrime control units within organizations. “Cyber crime cases have doubled this year” a senior police officer has said at the forensic department of Dubai Police and added that “Technology revolution, population boost and diversity of educated people all led to an increase in Cyber crime” (Dwyer 2010).
  26. 26. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 26 A report has been prepared Trend Micro and in this report, it has been clearly stated that Saudi Arabia was ranked 1st and United Arab Emirates was ranked second in terms of cyber crime victims in the Gulf countries (Dwyer 2010). Some major incidents have been reported in Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates which are as follows:  Within 9 months period, 7, 96,000 victims in Saudi Arabia and 2,48,000 victims in UAE due to hackers and total of UAE accounts for 20% of the total GCC. The most prominent crime was hacking and stealing of credit card numbers and other vulnerable data from websites, computer systems of the companies (Richardson 2010).  The famous website Al-Arabia was also hacked recently and it was down for a long time accusing Dubai-based news channel of supporting Sunni over Shiite Muslims. A recent hacking was committed by the former clerk who was sacked from his job from Saudi based Al Watan newspaper. There were suspected supporters of religious clerk also involved. This clerk was sacked from the kingdom council of senior’s clerk board. Some phishing was also noticed on Al- Jazeera and UAE’s e-government.  Due to increase in cyber activities, Saudi government has developed a new law in which fine up to ($3m) for electronic crimes in order to fight against cyber crime. It is also observed in the report that it is almost impossible to trial hackers by local regulatory authorities and securities agencies due to the fact that most attacks come from countries outside the region (Dwyer 2010). Cyber crime and related issue are the global level issues and no country is protected from these crimes completely. There has been an exorbitant growth in cyber crime in the Middle East over the past few years. The reason of increase in cybercrimes is due to population boost, lack of security awareness, lack of training for law enforcement agencies, lack of regulation, diversity of educated people, and availability of technology to perform sophisticated attacks (Richardson 2010).
  27. 27. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 27 Investment in cybercrime security infrastructure is the demand of the situation and increase in cybercrimes incidents. If certain steps will not be taken in the design, operation and maintenance of systems it will left everything vulnerable. A recent survey about the damage of cybercrimes by Saudi chamber of commerce stated that banks have lost over $1billion due to organized cybercrimes. It is a very alarming figure for the think tanks of Saudi Arabia; banks should clearly realize that cybercrimes can occur from any place of the world. Due to weak security and management systems, many customers and stakeholders are in danger due to phishing attacks. Heavy investment is required in the security sector because without proper planning against cybercrimes, more loss will be occurred. A security culture needs to be established in middle-east countries (Dwyer 2010). 4. Methodology i. Literature Review There are many ways in which a system can be developed in the middle-countries like Saudi-Arabia, Egypt, UAE and Iran. Many authors may have defined several systems for the security and laws all over the world related to cyber crimes. For the purpose of developing a system for recording and reporting Cybercrimes incidents, it is initially important to review literature on the reporting and recording cybercrime incidents. The literature can be found in books, journal, online libraries as well as articles over renowned websites. The material will be useful to get an idea about the degree of reporting and recording. The developer can get to know that which area needs concentration a lot. Data related to criminals attack is also important to consider because with this type of data, developer can strengthen the system and make a system ready to control every type of crime. In 2008, Al-Arabia website and recently a newspaper named as Al-Watan was hacked (AJBAILI, 2009). For example, the emphasis should be on motivation of team, technicalities or budget. Through literature, a base of the project will be strong and in any difficult situation, developer can get guidance from the literature review. Another basic benefit of literature
  28. 28. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 28 review is that developer can see how much and what kinds of resources are required to develop a cybercrime related agency in Saudi-Arabia. They can understand legislations related to cybercrime. Further improvements and suggestions can also be realized in the literature given by information technology professionals. Analyses of Reporting and Recording Systems of U.S, Australia and Canada. Yes, advanced countries like U.S, Australia and Canada are fighting hard against cyber criminals because they are aware of the importance of cyber security. Before developer proceed for towards the development of cybercrimes control system it is better to review the systems working in the advanced countries (Fowler, A 2009). You can see steps of resolving a specific cybercrime in U.S, these types of adequate, detailed and modern and advanced systems are required in each country of the world. Developers of countries like Saudi-Arabia should also definitely understand the practical and applied systems implemented in advanced countries (Studies, 2012). ii. Collect Data Next step in the development of cyber security control system is to collect data required for this sort of project. There is several types of database required for the purpose of development of security system and that database can such as protocols, secure socket layer certificate (SSLC) and firewall or IP’s (Goodwin 2008, p.2). iii. Make Study (Design and Analysis) Of Implementing a System The final step in the methodology is to think that how to implement the system in the country. There are many simple plans for implementing the system. The best idea is to involve government in the campaign for increasing awareness towards cybercrimes. This system can be developed in the following way:  Involve government in the campaigns related to cyber security in middle-east countries.  Strict laws and penalties for local pirated software and CDs.
  29. 29. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 29  Increase requirements of security system in computers through legislation by the higher authority of government like Parliament.  Align IT, Internal Audit and the Board in the fight against economic crime. Leadership by a Cyber-Savvy CEO, who instills a cyber risk-aware culture.  Implement a cyber crisis response plan.  Create awareness about current and emerging cyber environment. Make a cyber incident response team like crime reporter that can act and adapt quickly so that agency record, document and deal with a cybercrime incident as soon as possible. In short, it is important to finally develop a system by following all the steps stated in the methodology (Choo, KKR, Smith, & RG 2008). 5. Findings and Conclusions Cybercrime is one of most significant crimes of the current contemporary environment. No organization, individual and country is completely safe from cybercrimes. Organizations, people and countries are not completely safe because the network of cyber criminals is very strong and latest. Governments and safety agencies make policies and systems to reduce cyber crime but criminals find the solution of those systems with the help of advance software and technologies and break and collide the codes of those systems. For the purpose of avoiding such types of crimes, international level measures should be established. Advanced countries have made and developed advanced and latest software and technologies to tackle these sorts of crimes. Moreover, they have developed quick response units and teams to detect and secure the systems of all the entities of the countries. On the other hand, middle-east countries are far behind in the field of taking measures against these crimes. These crimes are increasing day by day in countries like Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Recently, some developments have been made by these countries to tackle these crimes.
  30. 30. Research Thesis A System to Record and Report Cybercrimes 30 There are several types of cybercrimes and it is impossible to be safe from crimes such as phishing attacks, moral offences, gambling, child pornography, cyber terrorism, hacking, and viruses. There are many areas in which proper research required to design new authentic systems for stopping cybercrimes. There is areas like importance, scope, cost, impact, measures that can be identified and support to the current researchers who are involved in the improvement of the systems working against cybercrimes. By researching in any area like focusing on the importance of reporting, people can think about it more seriously and also get the understanding and knowledge about these sorts of crimes. If any researcher starts researching on the impact and cost of cybercrimes then he/she can also help and protect people directly or indirectly from cybercrimes in a huge manner. The crux of the literature review is to provide awareness to people about the cost, impact, importance of reporting, measures and environment of cybercrimes so that they can also help themselves from cybercrimes greatly. There are numerous systems established to fight against cybercrimes by international information security organizations, individual countries but these measures and systems need further improvements and enhancements. The agencies need to understand the networks of cyber criminals and a make a super plan to tackle and prevent cybercrimes. Before we start to propose a new Islamic reporting and recording system pertinent to computer crime, we need to describe about the systems in advance countries that how they are handling cyber crimes. We shall then be able to compare new Islamic computer crime reporting and recording system such as FBI recording and reporting system. We will survey the Quran verses and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) sayings to find and analyze the Islamic evidences that can be related to computer crimes reporting and recording systems such as Canadian, Uk and American reporting and recording systems.
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