Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS OF “SMART PHONE USERS”

155 views

Published on

Goffman (1959) as (cited in Schulz 2012), used theatric allegory to define how a consumer behaves in his “impression management theory”, as a consumer is a social scientist who behaves in public, the way an actor performs on stage in front of an audience .
Schulz 2012 also elaborates; another useful measure of a consumer’s behavioral traits is “reflexivity” by which a customer’s response and reaction can be analyzed by his past experience.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS OF “SMART PHONE USERS”

  1. 1. 1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS OF “SMART PHONE USERS” STUDENTS NAME NAME OF THE LECTURER / TUTOR
  2. 2. 2 Table ofContents INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................4 1) What is Consumer research? ............................................................................................4 2) Smart phones and Social Media Keys and their Consumer traits:-.............................5 3) INCREASING BRAND LOYALTY OF SMART PHONE CONSUMERS:- ..................6 b) Customer Involvement, a Missed Opportunity for many Corporate Giants of Smart phones:.......................................................................................................................................7 4) Consumers, Markets and target consumer segmentation and preferencesError! Bookmark not d Identify, Analyze, and Interpret key consumer trends/findings: ......................................10 5) Android Forensics:.................................................................................................................12 PRACTICAL OBSERVATION APPLICATION, EVALUATION AND EVIDENCE OF A M 6) TYPES OF SMART PHONES IN USE OF CONSUMERS .........................................13 Cyber Crimes through Smart Phones: ................................................................................15 7) Smart Phone, A Corporate Gold mine, For Competitors too:-....................................16 8) Consumer Judgment and Decision Making Influences, What makes them Click: ..18 9) How to be on the safer side of the chain:- .....................................................................19
  3. 3. 3 10) EVIDENCE OF IMPACTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS ON MARKETING ACTIVITY:.......................................................................................................20 An Example from our Everyday Life....................................................................................20 NOKIA’s Commitment for Consumer ease and Satisfaction ...........................................20 11) Post-purchase processes and meaning generation: .................................................21 12) IMPACT OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR UPON MARKET ACTIVITIES AND THEIR RESEARCH PATTERN…A FUTURE SCENARIO:.............................................22 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................23 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................26
  4. 4. 4 INTRODUCTION 1) Consumer research 1.1) Consumer as a social scientist: Goffman (1959) as (cited in Schulz 2012), used theatric allegory to define how a consumer behaves in his “impression management theory”, as a consumer is a social scientist who behaves in public, the way an actor performs on stage in front of an audience . 1.2) Use of Reflexivity: a) Schulz 2012 also elaborates; another useful measure of a consumer’s behavioral traits is “reflexivity” by which a customer’s response and reaction can be analyzed by his past experience. b) Reflexology also envisages the impact of “Other relevant people” around the consumer, and their experiences which eventually help shaping their judgment. It all falls under the umbrella of impression management (Schulz 2012). Goffman (p. xi), compared Consumer behavioral analysis with dramaturgical provisions such as stage, actor, performance, character, audience, and team performance, to explain the scenario of a consumer’s characteristic environment.
  5. 5. 5 Impression management theory sheds light on two themes for a consumer, the actor’s exterior (how the actor looks) and mannerism (how the actor behaves). 1.2) CONSUMER TRAITS: According to Goffman states that the outward façade of a consumer, like an actor’s physical attributes consist of: clothing; sex, age, and racial characteristics; size and looks; posture, speech patterns; body language, facial expressions; gestures; etc. These behavioral traits of a consumer can be thoroughly analyzed, by conducting a “formal sociological analysis” by Goffman ( 1959, p. 15 Cited in Schulz 2012). 2) Smart phones and Social Media Keys and their Consumer traits:- The usage of social media and communal networking still continues, to increase around the world (Blackwell, D, 2001). Globally the trend towards using highly technical gadgets such as smart phones is on an all time high, specifically in the United States 8 out of 10 internet users currently making use of social media network, according to a new study by “In-Sites Consulting” (2012), the use of social media is enthused by the mounting use of the number of smart-phones around the world. It is a fact that Consumers with a smart-phone make more rigorous use of social networking sites than those without a mobile Internet connection. People with a smart-phone are also more brand loyal and technology forward (Travel Agent, 2012).
  6. 6. 6 2.1) Some Interesting Facts about Smart phones Users: a) According to the latest study Face book holds its status for being the most popular site (7 in 10 are active on Face-book). b) On second slot we have Twitter (25%) and LinkedIn (24%). The study by In-Sites Consulting, also shows that, smart-phones lead to further growth of social media. 44 percent of U.S. internet users have a smart-phone with an internet subscription, 17 percent have a tablet. The increase in the number of smart-phones and tablets causes an increase in the use of social media Comor, E. (2000). 73 percent of people with mobile Internet use social media every day, this is 63 percent for people without a mobile connection. Social media applications are also quite popular; the report says (Iftode et al, 2004, P.88). 3) INCREASING BRAND LOYALTY OF SMART PHONE CONSUMERS:- In popular practice many smart phone manufacturing companies are concerned about the number of buyers and sales but what they miss out on, is a fair opportunity of interacting and collaborating with their target customers Comor, E. (2000). By understanding behaviour of consumer, marketers and practitioners in marketing field can reach the consumer with appropriate strategy. However, consumer behaviour is a complex field to understand it because the behaviour has changed overtime and a consumer affects by several factors such as psychological, social and cultural elements.
  7. 7. 7 Therefore, understanding the motivation of consumer to buy a product is the main function of marketers to stimulate that motivation or in other words how marketers can affect and change consumer behaviour to buy particular brand or product. This is a good chance to increase their brand worth and enhance customer’s brand loyalty. Today’s smart phone customer is smarter than ever, and more demanding also. It is also due to the fact that today’s customer is more internet active and using the best gadgets with faster processing of information by making use of various media (Iftode et al, 2004). a) Customers want more and more in terms of quality Innovation: By utilizing mobile devices and watching campaigns, electronics patrons also generate background consumption information, which is descriptive and generated in back drop of current trends and changes (Dawson, S, 1990). Consumer consulting committees and research communities also offer a distinctive and unique platform to engage and enlighten consumers regarding the brand strategy of a smart phone company. Consumers want more value and at the same time, are able to add to the value and brand worth of their preferred new product, which is a great feature in product development life cycle (Dawson. S, 1990). Consumer interaction and information is a boost to a company’s advertising campaigns and content marketing strategies (Iftode et al, 2004). b) Customer Involvement, a Missed Opportunity for many Corporate Giants of Smart phones:
  8. 8. 8 In these days, highly prestigious smart phone manufacturing and electronic companies, lay emphasis upon their target consumers and make them a permanent feature of their marketing and advertising campaigns as an added attraction to their campaigns, and to add more credibility to their campaigns (Dubois, B.,Duquesne, P, 1993). Unfortunately, most companies do not exploit this opportunity and do not realize the importance of consumer marketing and target consumer analysis (Iftode et al, 2004). c) Various Smart-Phone features in terms of Consumer preference and convenience:- System Architecture:- In this report we propose a system architecture, which allows smart phone users to interact with embedded systems positioned in their proximity using Smart Phones. We have identified four models of interaction between a Smart Phone and the adjoining environment Fisher, J. E. (1987). Due to the overall wide acceptance of the Mix among field marketers it is the result of their profound exposure to this concept during college years, since most introductory marketing manuals embrace it as "the heart of their structure" (Cowell 1984). Methods of Interaction between A Smart Phone and the Surrounding Environment:- 1) Universal remote control.
  9. 9. 9 2) Dual connectivity. 3) Gateway connectivity. 4) Peer-to-Peer network. Hybrid Communication Modes:- Although each of these models has diverse uniqueness, and they differ in execution yet, our systematic architecture provides a unique framework for all of the models Fisher, J. E. (1987). Vital to our architecture are the “hybrid communication capabilities” incorporated in the Smart Phones. These phones have the unique feature of incorporating short-range wireless connectivity (e.g., Bluetooth) and Internet connectivity (e.g., GPRS) in the same personal mobile device Fisher, J. E. (1987). This feature collectively with significant processing power and memory can turn a Smart Phone into the only mobile device that people will require, and essentially will carry wherever they go, as featured in (Iftode et al, 2004, P.88).
  10. 10. 10 Identify, Analyze, and Interpret key consumer trends/findings: TARGET CONSUMER SEGMENTATION AND ANALYSING CONSUMER PREFERENCES Identifying the 4Ps as the controllable parameters likely to influence the consumer buying process and decisions (Kotler 2003; Brassington and Pettitt 2003). a) SMART PHONE USERS CONSUMER ANALYSIS: Elaborating the Key Concepts of: a. Perception b. Learning and Memory c. Self- concept, personality and & identity construction of Smart phone Customers: Our target consumers for this report are “Smart phone Customers” Hawkins, D. I, (1992). In order to identify, analyze and interpret our key customers for the smart phone market, we need to develop a Holistic approach, with constant focus on objective and precise data Maclnnis D. J. (2001). Today’s trends towards innovation, product development and marketing techniques we need to have a precise analysis of, mobile user behavior and experiences, which form perception and eventually, result in judgment Maclnnis D. J. (2001). This report is based upon a framework for mobile audience dimensions, for collecting data at the point of convergence - devices.
  11. 11. 11 Significant cultural, social, demographic, political along with other economic influences that it might have during the last decades of the 20th century, that is combined with various technological advances, such advancement have drastically changes the overall consumer's needs, nature and behaviour. b) Critically evaluate, understand, and integrate theoretical and managerial ideas: Current Trends and influences on consumer behavior, Attitudes and Factors Responsible for Developing and Changing consumer attitudes: The report assesses the existing framework to alternative options and methods of smart phone user research, and identifies the exclusive advantages of on-device dimensions alongside the key weaknesses Haug, A. F. (1971). Apart from elaborating on data collection, the report addresses the related analytics, present adoption modeling and stickiness analysis that harmonize the data collection process and deliver handy insights Kanuk L. L. (2004). The insights can be provided to device vendors, application developers and carriers, who can use the insights in product portfolio management, product development, and marketing (Jung. K).
  12. 12. 12 SMART PHONE MARKET INFLUENCES: 5) Android Forensics: PRACTICAL OBSERVATION APPLICATION, EVALUATION AND EVIDENCE OF A MARKETING ACTIVITY: a) Experience of Smart Phones In the field of forensics: Solving and Harboring Crimes: According to Hawkins. D, state that the modern consumers are different in terms of their demands, individualistic profiles, involved, independent, better informed and more critical. Behavioral learning theory is the paradigm generally referred to when a layperson speaks of “behavior modification”. Smart phones are creating a huge difference in our everyday life by evolving the IT and Communication landscape enormously. A Smartphone is capable of performing almost all the functions that a computer can Kanuk L. L. (2004). Today majority of the commercial staff members access and administer their official emails through the e-mail client installed on their Smartphone. b) THE WAYS A SMART PHONE CAN BE USEFUL AND BENEFICIAL TO THE CORPORATE LANDSCAPE:- 1) Booking movie tickets. 2) Online fund transfer.
  13. 13. 13 3) E-commerce and online banking transactions. 4) Useful for Researchers, Librarians and Publishers for browsing and Publications. C) PERSONAL OBSERVATION OF CONSUMERS INFLUENCES THEIR JUDGEMENT AND OVER ALL MARKET BEHAVIOUR: Smartphone can come handy in so many domestic and corporate functions, with high powered memory and speed of 3G, and more recent 3D Smart phones are getting more accepted and well-liked especially among working class professionals and students identically, and this current trend is sure to soar in future as well Williams, C. C. (2001). d) Some Negative Features of Using Smart Phones: As Smartphone market is growing, its market share is increasing, along with its growing expansion and popularity; it is also catching some bad intentions. With the good, comes the bad, same is for bad guys or hackers, it is easy to target mobile and smart phone users as they are less sentient and unaware and care less about the risks associated with the mobile and smart phone devices and mobile applications, alongside other electronic media (Chasta, 2012). 6) TYPES OF SMART PHONES IN USE OF CONSUMERS:- There are various Mobile Operating Systems present in the market which fall into the category of Smart Phones. Among this Mobile Android, OS, iOS and RIM are more prominent. Android is the most extensively used Mobile OS present in the market.
  14. 14. 14 According to Gartner report, Android had more than 36% share of the market by end of the first quarter of 2011 (Chasta, 2012). a. Situational Context: Android, a Hackers Heaven:- It is quite obvious that the most popular platform is likely to be targeted more, as in the case of Microsoft Windows Operating System. A hacker wants to target mass and a common man and for that purpose, he has to target the most frequently used and a universal platform (Jung. K,). Android is one such commonly used platform, as Android is targeting and satisfying consumers and capturing market share, it is becoming preferred target platform of hackers (Chasta, 2012). Smart phones in the world of Computer Forensics:- Computer Forensics: Is the Collection, Prevention, Analysis and Court presentation of Computer based evidence (Shah, 2012). It is always a challenging task for forensic investigators to discover the evidences from the Android devices. Android has a unique and newer file system, directory structure, kernel, libraries and runtime environment, which makes Android quite complex for the forensics. Android smart phones can carry sensitive evidence and critical information, which can actually help catching criminals with ease Sojka, J.Z. and P.S. Tansuhaj (1995).
  15. 15. 15 : b. Problem Recognition: Cyber Crimes through Smart Phones: There are a series of Cyber Crimes committed by using Smart Phones some of them are listed below (Chasta, 2012). a) Terrorist Activities: Terrorists and anti-social elements also use Smart phones to trade and accumulate the information they require to follow their heinous regime. They use Smart phones to correspond and maintain communication with their fellow members of the radical organization Sojka, J.Z. and P.S. Tansuhaj (1995). They are also known to be using GPS to uncover locations. They can stock up a variety of data in the Smartphone like maps or photos of locations on their target, encrypted and secretive files, commands and directives etc. They can use the phone to snap and store photos of target locations and people at risk (Chasta, 2012). b) Software Theft: Software theft is now a widespread universal attack. It works as if you own a company and, codebase with all your encrypted key data of your software is stolen and sold to
  16. 16. 16 your enemy or rival; he can make an enormous loss to your company Comor, E. (2000). Your competitors are ready to invest huge money to get hold of the source code of your key software (Chasta, 2012). 7) Smart Phone, A Corporate Gold mine, For Competitors too:- a) Information Search: Risk for Business men and corporations: A Smartphone can carry large volume of insightful and sensitive data. Business men cannot live a life in isolation they have to be social and in public eye all the time. They can use Smart phones in carrying codebase of any key software of their corporation which are at risk of corporate thefts Comor, E. (2000). There are security guards and other safety mechanisms in place to check the employees and guard their visitors, if they are carrying any business significant information in any form. But still they barely check for Mobile phones, which are generally considered harmless (Chasta, 2012). A Corporate Theft Example from Everyday Life: When a Tool to help you becomes your foremost enemy: In one typical case of Software theft, a discontented employ of a corporation used to carry all source code of the key software of the company in her smart phone. She first copied the code in her phone’s external storage, and then deleted the same critical data from the phone immediately Comor, E. (2000). When her phone was examined at security
  17. 17. 17 check, nothing was found in her phone. When she reached home, she used a device to recover the deleted data. This way she took all the data out from her company and currently she sold the source code, at a huge price to the adversary of her employer (Chasta, 2012). Murder Cases: In course of an attempted murder or other criminal cases, a Smartphone can carry or supply evidence valuable and handy in solving the case Williams, C. C. (2001). Precisely from call records and text messages to twitter or face book records or GPS data can be easily recovered from the phone. It is a remarkable landmark for forensic investigators and criminologists (Chasta, 2012). Attention-grabbing locations for Forensics to be used while their Investigations A Smart Phone Market Break Through: a) Phone Browser Memory. b) SMS/ Text Messages. c) Application storage. d) SQ-Lite database files. e) External Card. f) Call records.
  18. 18. 18 g) GPS data. h) Contact list. i) Messenger (Yahoo, MSN) records. j) Social networking application (Face book, Twitter, LinkedIn, Orkut) records. h) Email client data. i) System storage. j) Data stored in external card (Chasta, 2012) 8) Consumer Judgment and Decision Making Influences, What makes them Click: Difference between Android and Other Smart phones, to Forensic Investigators and some Suggested improvements to the marketing activity: Investigation of an Android Smart phone device is different than other Smart phones due to, its highly sophisticated design and technological advancement. It becomes more useful to the forensic investigators because of its latest features. Evidences can really be recovered from Android phones Williams, C. C. (2001). These concrete evidences are more practical and reliable and shed light upon the crime scene; such as: Computer graphics and animations, video down loads, touch sensitive and increased text storage etc.
  19. 19. 19 Reported evidences are required be apparent; they must be ambiguous and give direct or indirect indication to the probable scenarios of crime (Chasta, 2012). Reliability and Assurance of Smart phones solidify evidences and Safety is assured by Cyber Laws: In a criminal investigation, where people’s lives are at stake, reliability and assurance does matter a lot. The evidences are needed to be presented in the court of law; it is also required to map and record the findings with respective laws in order to attain a fair and justified conclusion Duquesne, P. (1993). In addition to evidence, it is also obligatory to present Chain of custody and supervision. Again reporting depends upon the law of the land and differs from various jurisdictions and countries; also the Cyber Laws varies with geography (Chasta, 2012). 9) How to be on the safer side of the chain:- In order to achieve Cyber safety and get away from the threats, there are a whole lot of options to re-consider such as: a) Choosing a company for mobile imaging becomes something that needs to be done with a good reliable service provider.
  20. 20. 20 b) A lot of care and discretion is required while using social networking websites, it is essential to go about their assigned set of safety and privacy protecting procedures. c) Mobile and Smart devices and web-applications must be carefully monitored in the areas of: 1. Core Banking, 2. Internet Banking 3. Finance, 4. Healthcare, 5. CRM, telecom and 6. E-Commerce. We must have a regular Security check, to ensure safety from hacking Duquesne, P. (1993). 10) EVIDENCE OF IMPACTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS ON MARKETING ACTIVITY: An Example from our Everyday Life NOKIA’s Commitment for Consumer ease and Satisfaction: Customarily, producers and innovators face a dual option when creating and channeling novel technologies into consumers' daily lives. They pushed new science-based technology or adapted to often insipid and bland market pull triggered by fierce and competitive external environment. The previous remote and secluded design from
  21. 21. 21 consumers, the latter from technology, skill and expertise and the contrast of the two make a winning combination (Ainamo et al, 2000). NOKIA’s Winning Streak, Formed by Customers: Another Example of Growing trend of Corporate Ethics and Consumer Care: The budding information society aggravates the long-established transaction swapping into an impasse. Many clients fail to satisfactorily comprehend new information technologies to significantly experience them, or practically utilize them or to demand anything extra from them. Nokia, the world's principal producer of mobile phones, channels new technologies into the everyday lives of customers. Communication, interface and interaction with consumers are key concepts and design drivers at Nokia. Nokia experiments, mixes and matches varied and diverse new technologies with consumer groups according to each group's competence and capability to understand and experience these new technologies (Ainamo et al, 2000). 11) Post-purchase processes and meaning generation: As a desired proposition, I recommend that Nokia's heuristic rules about organization of communication with consumers may take a broad and generalized vision beyond Nokia. So that the Smart phone users may simplify their findings and
  22. 22. 22 generate results according to their own preferences which may also compliment the fast and multidimensional frame work of the new age Smart phones. (Ainamo et al, 2000) 11) IMPACT OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR UPON MARKET ACTIVITIES AND THEIR RESEARCH PATTERN…A FUTURE SCENARIO: The focus of: Researchers, research students and practitioners, in the fields of behavior studies, including: computer science, behavioral science, and social science communities, is growing and more emphasis is laid worldwide upon behavior analysis methods of: Modeling, Analysis, Mining and Decision making. The aim of many successful corporations in the field of Smart phones, is and has always been, researching and examining various complex behavioral patterns of customers, and satisfying their diverse and often complex needs and demands.
  23. 23. 23 CONCLUSION To sum up, we may conclude that Smart phone consumers have shown incredible growth in various dimensions. Not only, in terms of the growing popularity and market share of Smart phone users, specifically androids, there is a positive attitude attached with a tinge of negativity around us. Generalizing and analyzing Android phones for forensic purposes employ totally different techniques and tools than the traditional forensics. It involves sophisticated intelligence and interference media. There are tools accessible in the market for Android Forensics, but still there is more to come and gaps to be filled and a long way to go in this direction. ‘Consumer Behavior' is progressively becoming more significant and imperative concept in the: scientific, societal, economic, cultural, political, military, living and virtual walks of life. Whether it is the world of “Behavior computing”, or “Behavior informatics”, the research patterns consist of: methodologies, data gathering tools and techniques and practical devices for investigating and interpreting behaviors in these diverse worlds.
  24. 24. 24 Appendix http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjUcq_E4I-s A youtube video link, indicating how the use of smart phones are shaping consumer behaviors…. The below picture is of Samsung Galaxy S2, when it was launched Samsung marketed its product on the basis of its fast processor, targeting consumers of phones who prefer to have speed on their phones. Where as with the new Samsung Galaxy S3, the company targeted the consumers in a general way, rather than being specific to any particular
  25. 25. 25 market. If we compare the marketing done by Nokia, the company was not able to convince consumers towards their products, mainly because of the reason that what consumers were expecting or looking for was not highlighted by Nokia.
  26. 26. 26 REFERENCES 1. Ainamo., Antti.; Pantzar., Mika.,2000. ‘Design for the Information Society: What can We Learn from the Nokia Experience?., The Design Journal, Volume 3, Number 2, Berg Publishers, pp. 15-26(12).
  27. 27. 27 2. Iftode, L., Borcea, C. ; Ravi, N. ; Kang, P. ; Peng, Z. ,2004. ‘Distributed Computing Systems 10th IEEE International Workshop on Future Trends of Smart Phones’. Department of Computer Science. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ, USA Conference. Publicationons, p.88 – 94.Accessed 4 October 2012. 3. Schulz, H.M., 2012., ‘Exploring Dramaturgy in Consumer Research,’ University of Nebraska at Kearney, Journal of Research for Consumers. Issue: 21, Agrios GN, Plant pathology, 5th edn, Elsevier, Burlington, MA. Accessed 4 October 2012.<http://jrconsumers.com/Consumer_Articles/issue_21/Heather%20M%20 Schulz%20-%20Consumer%20Article.pdf.> 4. Blackwell, D. R. Miniard, P. W. Engel, J. F. (2001): Consumer Behavior, Forth Worth, Philadelphia: Harcourt College Publishers 5. Comor, E. (2000): Household consumption on the Internet: Income, time and institutional contradictions, Journal of Economic Issues, 34; pp. 105-111. 6. Dawson, S., Stern, B., Gillpatrick, T. (1990): An Empirical Update and Extension of Patronage Behaviors Across the Social Class Hierarchy, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 17; pp. 833-838. 7. Dubois, B., Duquesne, P. (1993): The Market of Luxury Goods: Income versus Culture, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 27, No. 1; pp. 35-44. 8. Fisher, J. E. (1987): Social Class and Consumer Behavior: The Relevance of Class and Status, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 14; pp. 492-496. 9. Hawkins, D. I., Best R. J., Kenneth A. C. (1992): Consumer Behavior: Implications for Marketing Strategy, Homewood, Boston: Irwin 10.Hoyer, W. D., Maclnnis D. J. (2001): Consumer Behavior, Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company
  28. 28. 28 11.Myers, J. H. Stanton, R. R. and Haug, A. F. (1971): Correlates of Buying Behavior: Social Class vs. Income, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 35, No 4; pp. 8–16. 12.Schiffman, L. G., Kanuk L. L. (2004): Consumer Behavior, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall 13.Williams, C. C. (2001): Acquiring goods and services in lower income populations: an evaluation of consumer behaviour and preferences, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 29, No 1; pp. 16 – 24. 14.Jung. K, Culture’s Influence on Consumer Behaviors: Differences Among Ethnic Groups in a Multiracial Asian Country vol. 9 pp 77 - 92 15.Sojka, J.Z. and P.S. Tansuhaj (1995), “Cross-cultural Consumer', Advances in Consumer Vol. 22, pp 461-474 16.Travel Agent. Smartphones and Social Media Keys to Reaching Consumers 2012, News WireTravel Agent, accessed October 2, 2012. Available at< http://www.travelagentcentral.com/technology/smartphones-and-social-media- keys-reaching-consumers-37346> 17.Chasta, M. Android Forensics 2012, accessed October 2, 2012. Available at: 18.<http://articles.forensicfocus.com/2012/09/12/android-forensics/> 19.Shah.V., Computer Forensics vital for combating cyber crimes 2012, accessed October 2, 2012. Available at<http://www.slideshare.net/shahvicky/computer- forensics-vitalforcombatingcybercrimes>
  29. 29. 29

×