BEFORE GREEN REVOLUTION In traditional India only organic farmingwas practiced. No chemical fertilizers and pesticides wereused. Only organic techniques where naturalpesticides and natural manures wereobtained from plant and animal productswere used.
BEFORE GREEN REVOLUTIONCONT. During 1950s and 1960s, the everincreasing population of India lead to afood scarcity.• The government was forced to importfood grains from foreign countries. And also forced to increase the foodgrain production of India to increase thefood security .
To increase the food grain productionwas introduced in 1960’sUnder the leadership ofM.S. Swaminathan…
POSITIVE SIDE OFGREEN REVOLUTION Increased the Country’s food production Attained self sufficiency ‘Food deficit’ to ‘food surplus’ Export of food products Higher income
NEGATIVE SIDE OFGREEN REVOLUTION Reduction in Natural fertility of soil Destruction of soil structure Erosion and soil loss Killing of beneficial microbes and insects Ground water pollution and depletion Atmospheric pollution
• With introduction of green revolution, use ofchemical fertilizers although contributed 40% of cropproduction, continuous use of chemicals in agricultureseriously jeopardized the soil health and environment.• The scientists have realized that the ‘GreenRevolution’ with high input use has reached a plateauand is now sustained with diminishing return.• So to maintain the natural balance we have to searchanother alternative method.
What is OrganicFarming?Organic farming is theproduction of crops andlivestock without the useof synthetic chemicalsand inorganic fertilizers.
OBJECTIVES To work with natural systems rather thandominating them. To encourage and enhance the biological cycles. Production of poison-free food for better quality. Maintenance of soil organic matter and soilfertility. Recycling of nutrients. Sustainability and soil health.
BENEFITSSustainable agricultural production,Restoration of soil fertility,Production of quality foods,Avoidance of pollution of soil,Water and air including low cost technology.
Supply of nutrientSNutrients are applied through organic manuresincluding• FYM,• Compost,• Dung of various animals,• Poultry manure,• Green manure and• Crop residues in farm fields.
SUPPLY OF NUTRIENTS THROUGH ORGANICMANURESNITROGEN - N- fixing legumes, animal wastes and byproducts.PHOSPHORUS - Organic manures – release organic acids – actas chelating agent- P fixation reduced..POTASSIUM - Organic manures –cation exchange capacity .MICRO NUTRIENTS - Organic manures- release organic acids - Itact as a chelating agent - increase the availability of micronutrientssuch as Ca , Mg, S, Mn, Cu and Zn.
DiSADVAntAGeS of orGAniCfArMinGLOWER PRODUCTIVITYAn organic farm cannot produce as much yield as a conventional orindustrialized farm.REQUIRES SKILLAn organic farmer requires greater understanding of his crop
ORGANIC FARMING AND CHEMICAL FARMINGBoth having it’s own advantages and disadvantages…Now it becomes a great debatable question whether to use organic orinorganic farming.With the increase in population our compulsion wouldbe not only to stabilize agricultural production but toincrease it further in sustainable manner.
POLICY RECOMENDATIONSThe linking of the sources of production tothe market for the same.A concerted effort by the government in thepolicy level, active participation of theprivate sector and participation of the generalpublic is needed for boosting the demand forthe organic agricultural products.Organic agro products should be included inthe price policy of the govt.
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS CONT. Technology should also be harnessed in a bigway to provide this age-old format ofagricultural production with the desired levelof improvisation and adaptation. Investment in R&D is must and should beinitiated by the govt. Certification procedure should be madesimple and affordable for even small andmarginal farmers .