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How can India breathe cleaner air?

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Air Pollution makes you sick and can kill you. Tackling it will require action on many fronts and will not be easy. Yet, we are hopeful that it can be done.

We show you how.

Published in: News & Politics

How can India breathe cleaner air?

  1. 1. How Can We Breathe CLEANER AIR?
  2. 2. What is a higher disease risk factor than… HIGH BPCHOLESTEROLTOBACCO ALCOHOL What is a higher disease risk factor than:
  3. 3. Dirty air worse than tobacco! Source: Report of the Steering Committee on Air Pollution and Health Related Issues August 2015 https://goo.gl/tcX4nG HIGH BPCHOLESTEROLTOBACCO ALCOHOL AIR POLLUTION. Includes risk from Household and Ambient Air Pollution
  4. 4. Dirty air makes you sick When a steel mill in Utah, US was closed – a stark co-relation in air pollution (measured in terms of PM10 levels) and bronchitis / asthma cases became apparent. PM 10 levels fell by 50% - bronchitis / asthma patients in hospitals reduced by 50%. Source: Health effects of Particulate Matter (WHO) https://goo.gl/tcX4nG
  5. 5. Dirty air kills you Source: Health effects of Particulate Matter (WHO) https://goo.gl/tcX4nG A group of adults across 6 US cities was monitored. Across 25 years, there was again a stark co-relation: For every 2.5 µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5 levels, death rates also decreased by 3.5%.
  6. 6. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE LUNG CANCER CARDIOVASCULAR ANDPULMONARY DISEASE Strongest Causal Association Causal Association Emerging Evidence Source:The Lancet Commission on pollution and health AIR POLLUTION Specific Causal AssociationMYOCARDIAL INFARCTION HYPER TENSION CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE ARRHYTHMIASCARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY DIABETES DECREASED COGNITIVE FUNCTION ATTENTION-DEFICIT OR HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND AUTISM IN CHILDREN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE INCLUDING DEMENTIA IN ADULTS PREMATURE BIRTH AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT Dirty air impacts more than just lungs Every day we learn new ways in which air pollution kills us.
  7. 7. What makes our air dirty? VEHICLES POWER PLANTS HOUSEHOLD FIRES FACTORIES CROP BURNING MUNICIPAL WASTE DUST Note: Some air pollutants are linked to Climate Change also. However, in this InfoCapsule we have focused only on direct health impact of the pollutants. CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2) OZONE (O3) NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AMMONIA (NH3) NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2) VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)
  8. 8. PM 2.5: Simplest indicator of air pollution • Most pollution sources emit particles. Additionally, many gases and chemicals emitted become particles. • Level of PM 2.5 is linked to many diseases. • If PM 2.5 is high, it is likely that the level of other pollutants is also high. Hence, if you want to understand Air pollution quickly, look at the PM 2.5 levels. It is like average for test batsmen. INCREASE IN LEVELS OF OTHER POLLUTANTS AND INCREASE IN DISEASES PM2.5LEVELS
  9. 9. What is PM? Solid and liquid particles suspended in the air is Particulate Matter (PM). PM10 and PM 2.5 are standard measures of air pollution. HUMAN HAIR CROSS SECTION (60 MICROMETERS) Smaller particles are more dangerous for human health than larger particles. PM10: PARTICLES WITH DIAMETER LESS THAN 10 µm PM 2.5:PARTICLES WITH DIAMETER LESS THAN 2.5 µm
  10. 10. Why are smaller particles more dangerous? LARGER PARTICLES ARE STOPPED BY THE BODY’S DEFENSES BUT PM10 AND 2.5 ARE SMALL ENOUGH TO SLIPTHROUGH AND ENTER THE LUNGS Particles may take metals like cadmium, nickel and vanadium and harmful chemicals inside the lungs and even inside the blood stream.
  11. 11. What are safe levels for PM 2.5? Source: Health effects of Particulate Matter (WHO)
(https://goo.gl/GZYxhs) Source: National Air Quality Standards (CPCB) (https://goo.gl/MzhnfN) WHO CPCB ACTUAL (YOUR CITY?) ANNUAL AVERAGETO NOT EXCEED: NUMBER OF “BAD DAYS” IN AYEARTO NOT EXCEED: 3 DAYS 3 DAYS “BAD DAY” IS WHEN 24 HR MEAN EXCEEDS: 25 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 10 µg/m3 40 µg/m3
  12. 12. India tops the world in dirty air 13 of the top 20 cities in the world with the highest average annual levels of PM2.5 in India. Individual stations routinely report very high PM 2.5 measurements. Some times as high as nearly 1,000 µg/m3.The 24 hour mean standards are exceeded many times a years. Source: Report of the Steering Committee on Air Pollution and Health Related Issues,August 2015 DELHI PATNA GWALIOR RAIPUR AHMEDABAD LUCKNOW FIROZABAD KANPUR AMRITSAR LUDHIANA ALLAHABAD AGRA KHANNA
  13. 13. How bad is the air in your locality? • The most authoritative source of data is Central Pollution Control Board. • CPCB gives only real time data. This is useful for citizens in taking actions like staying indoors but not useful for policy decisions as standards are based on 24 hour averages. • Also, CPCB website reports data for very few stations. For example, data is reported for only one station in Mumbai (Bandra) and for only 7 stations in all of Uttar Pradesh! In summary, there are very few stations and the data from them is not easily accessible. For more, see http://cpcb.nic.in/RealTimeAirQualityData.php Note:AskHow India has worked on a spreadsheet that allows you to quickly calculate the daily average pollution for any measuring station that has data at Open AQ.org. Find it at https://goo.gl/gzo1av
  14. 14. Where is the data? Recommendations: SHARPLY INCREASE THE NUMBER OF STATIONSTHAT MEASURE AIR POLLUTION DISTRIBUTE DATA FROM ALL STATIONS ON-LINE IN A MANNERTHAT IS EASYTO ANALYZE CALCULATE AND PUBLISH DATA ON STATION AVERAGES IN ATRANSPARENT MANNER.
  15. 15. What makes our air dirty? There is no one answer for the entire country. Some of the common sources are: VEHICLES POWER PLANTS HOUSEHOLD FIRES FACTORIES CROP BURNING AND RESIDUES MUNICIPAL WASTE DUST Many sources dirty our air and many factors impact it.Which of these is most important in your area can be determined by Attribution Studies.
  16. 16. What can we do about it? A summary of suggested solutions are: VEHICLES AVOID: USE LESS VEHICLES SHIFT: SWITCHTO CLEANER VEHICLES IMPROVE: FUEL EFFICIENCY OF EXISTING VEHICLES POWER PLANTS INVEST IN SULPHUR HANDLING EQUIPMENT ON ALL COAL PLANTS HOUSEHOLD FIRES PROVIDE CLEAN FUEL KEEP IT AFFORDABLE AND AVAILABLE FACTORIES IMPLEMENT POLLUTION LAWS PROVIDE RELIABLE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DUTY STRUCTURE THAT ENCOURAGES CLEAN FUEL AND TECHNOLOGIES CROP BURNING AND RESIDUES PROVIDE SUBSIDY FOR PROVEN SOLUTIONS MUNICIPAL WASTE COLLECT / SEGREGATE TRANSPORT TREAT / PROCESS / DISPOSE DUST AFFORESTATION ENFORCE BEST PRACTICES ON CONSTRUCTION SITES PLANT TREES AND SHRUBS SWEEPING OF ROADS CREATE GREEN BANKS
  17. 17. How do I handle so much complexity!!! You have two options – • Do not live in the more polluted cities. If that is not possible, then: • You can stay indoors on days that are more polluted. • Stay away from traffic. • Install air purifiers indoors FLIGHT And the first step in the fight is to understand the issue in more detail ... FIGHTor
  18. 18. Geography and weather affects air pollution WIND MAY BLOW PARTICLES FROM FAR AWAY – FOR EXAMPLE, POLLUTION FROM POWER PLANTS HAS BEEN MEASURED UPTO 400 KILOMETERS AWAY. LOCATIONS NEAR SEA MAY HAVE SLIGHTLY LESS AIR POLLUTION AS PARTICLES BLOWN INTO WATER ARE NOT BLOWN UP IN THE AIR AGAIN. RAINS MAY WASH SOME POLLUTION FROMTHE AIR (BUT WOULD POLLUTE LAND AND WATER) IN DRY AREAS WITHOUT GRASS ANDTREES, SOIL AND DUST IS BLOWN MORE EASILY INTO AIR. WHEN AIR NEAR THE SURFACE BECOMES COLDERTHAN AIR IMMEDIATELY OVER IT (INSTEAD OFVICE VERSA) PREVENTING CIRCULATION, IT IS CALLED TEMPERATURE INVERSION AND CANTRAP POLLUTANTS NEARTHE SURFACE. WEATHER CONDITIONS LIKE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY MAY HELP CONVERSION OF GASES INTO PARTICLES. COLD AIR COLD AIR WARM AIR (INVERSION LAYER) TEMPERATURE HUMIDITY
  19. 19. Air Pollution Contributors 1: Vehicles Vehicles burn petrol or diesel. Their exhaust contains Particles, Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and Sulfur dioxide. SLOW MOVINGVEHICLES POLLUTE MORE OLDER AND DEFECTIVEVEHICLES TYPICALLY POLLUTE MORE VEHICLES
  20. 20. Number of vehicles in India is exploding! Source: MotorVehicles - StatisticalYear Book India 2016, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt of India 1981 2001 2012 2015 5 MILLION VEHICLES 54 MILLION VEHICLES 159 MILLION VEHICLES 210 MILLION VEHICLES VEHICLES
  21. 21. Combating Air Pollution Contributor: VEHICLES AVOID USE LESS VEHICLES SHIFT SWITCHTO CLEANER VEHICLES IMPROVE IMPROVE FUEL EFFICIENCY OF EXISTING VEHICLES HOW: VEHICLES
  22. 22. CombatingVehicles Air Pollution: AVOID | SHIFT | IMPROVE “A developed country is not one where the poor have cars. It’s where the rich use public transportation” – paraphrased from Enrique Penalosa, former Mayor of Bogota, Colombia How can we use less vehicles? PLAN MIXED RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL SPACESTO MINIMIZE COMMUTING PROVIDE SAFE PATHWAYS FOR PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLING FOR SHORTER DISTANCES PROVIDE PUBLICTRANSPORT LIKE METROS FOR LONGER DISTANCES VEHICLES
  23. 23. TRAIN TICKET TRAIN TICKET BUS TICKET How can we encourage PublicTransport usage? Public transport use depends on Cost,Time and Convenience. BUILD IT BUILD IT FAST BUS TICKET TRAIN TICKET METROTICKET MAKE IT CONVENIENT FOR PEOPLETO USE SAME GST FOR BOTH! ENSURETAX AND OTHER POLICY INSTRUMENTS NEVER DISCRIMINATE AGAINST PUBLICTRANSPORT MAKE PRIVATETRANSPORT COSTLIERTO USE BY INCREASING PARKING CHARGES OR RESTRICTING MOVEMENT OFVEHICLES CombatingVehicles Air Pollution: AVOID | SHIFT | IMPROVE VEHICLES
  24. 24. DIESEL PETROL HYBRID ELECTRIC How can we shift to cleaner energy vehicles? Cleaner options are costlier and need infrastructure to support them. For example, battery recharging stations. Government should help reduce cost of cleaner options and help create the supporting infrastructure. For example, reduce tax on electric vehicles and create battery charging stations near Metro stations. CombatingVehicles Air Pollution: AVOID | SHIFT | IMPROVE VEHICLES
  25. 25. • PROHIBIT • IMPLEMENT • BE STRINGENT *Source – https://goo.gl/zbzjAe CombatingVehicles Air Pollution: AVOID | SHIFT | IMPROVE How can we improve existing vehicles? • Good road conditions with more flyovers and underpasses etc. • Keep up with rest of the world on emission norms. • Implement laws stringently. For example, o Delhi’s Graded Action Response Plan requires “strict vigilance and no tolerance for visible emissions” when PM crosses 60 µg/m3…We think laws should be strictly applicable at all times o Twenty percent of pollutions tests in Delhi showed zero values, suggesting that there is corruption in checking* • Even in a corruption rich country like India, enforcement can be made better. For example, in Mumbai drunken driving has reduced significantly because of police regularly catching, testing and heavily fining people who drink and drive.Why can’t this be done for such a big killer as air pollution? VEHICLES
  26. 26. Source: Report of the Steering Committee on Air Pollution and Health Related Issues,August 2015 HOUSES BURNING DIRTY FIRES In 2011, 70% of Households in India burnt dirty fuels (wood, crop residue, cow dung, coal and kerosene). Household Air Pollution is a major killer. Women are particularly impacted.This pollution gets worse in winters when people burn stuff for heat. Air Pollution Contributors 2: Household Energy Consumption HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  27. 27. Household air pollution feeds into general air pollution - Nearly 30% of ambient PM2.5 concentrations in India are estimated to be attributable to household combustion of solid fuels. This pollution does not just affect villages. In 2011, 34% of urban households were also using bio mass or fossil fuels in the kitchen. Also, wind may blow pollution from villages into cities and vice versa. Source: Report of the Steering Committee on Air Pollution and Health Related Issues,August 2015 Air Pollution Contributors 2: Household Energy Consumption HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  28. 28. HOW: New LPG Connections The government has targeted creation of 5 Crore new LPG connections and reports suggest that 3 Crore of that target has been achieved. HOUSES BURNING DIRTY FIRES 2018?2011 However, it is not clear how many of the households that have taken the new connections use gas regularly. Combating Air Pollution Contributor: Household Energy Consumption HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  29. 29. How can we reduce Air Pollution from household energy consumption? Provide clean fuel for every household in the country. Even after the 5 Crore new connections, nearly 50% of households would be burning dirty fuels. Make sure that cleaner fuels are affordable and available for everyone. CLEAN FUEL CLEAN HEATING Combating Air Pollution Contributor: Household Energy Consumption HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  30. 30. India is generating more and more waste. WASTE GENERATED IN METRICTONNES/DAY IN 2000 - 52,125 MT/DAY IN 2012 - 133,760 MT/DAY IN 2031 - 450,132 MT/DAY Source: Report of theTask Force onWaste to Energy (Vol 1) (In the context of Integrated MSW Management), Planning Commission, 2014 Air Pollution Contributors 3:Waste Fires
  31. 31. People burn uncollected waste. Untreated waste catches fire. Source: downtoearth.org Air Pollution Contributor:Waste Fires WHY: Poor Waste Handling ONLY 68% OF WASTE IS COLLECTED ONLY 19% OF WASTE ISTREATED
  32. 32. How can we reduce Air Pollution from Municipal solid waste fires? Collect / Segregate –Transport –Treat/Process/ Dispose Local authorities across the country need to be strengthened to do this. There are rules for collecting and treating waste in place since 2000, but they are not obeyed. COLLECT/SEGREGATE TRANSPORT TREAT/PROCESS/DISPOSE AskHow analysis on treatment of solid waste coming soon! Combating Air Pollution Contributor:Waste Fires
  33. 33. DUST SOURCES DANGERS POSED BY DUST DUSTTHAT FALLS ON ROADS AND FOOTPATH CHURNED UP BY VEHICLES AND PEOPLE PARTICLES SENT UP INTO AIR FROM CONSTRUCTION/ DEMOLITION ACTIVITIES SOIL PARTICLES BLOWN UP FROM LAND WITH LESS GRASS AND TREES CONTRIBUTES TO PM 2.5 POLLUTION. ALSO MAY CONTAINTOXIC ELEMENTS LIKE COPPER, BARIUM, ZINC AND LEAD Air Pollution Contributors 4: Dust DUST
  34. 34. • Prevent it from floating up in the first place • Reduce re-float AFFORESTATION ENFORCING BEST PRACTICES IN CONSTRUCTION / DEMOLITION SITES PLANTINGTREES AND SHRUBS ON MEDIANS AND PAVING SIDEWALKS REGULAR SWEEPING / VACUUMING OF MAJOR ROADS CREATING GREEN BANKS – POCKETS OF TREES, SHRUBS AND GRASS - SOTHAT DUSTTHAT FALLS ON THEM HAS LOWER CHANCE OF FLOATING UP AGAIN Combating Air Pollution Contributor: Dust DUST How can we reduce Air Pollution from Dust?
  35. 35. What makes our air dirty? CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2) ASH NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AMMONIA (NH3) NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2) VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) • 75 % of India’s electricity comes from coal-based power plants. • Power plants emit Particulate Matter as well as gases such as SO2, NOx and CO. • SO2 and NOx form particles. • Power plants also emit ash, which may get airborne. Air Pollution Contributors 5: Coal Power Plants COAL POWER PLANTS
  36. 36. Big source of air pollution SO2 and NOx • Power plants required to become compliant with recent norms by 2022. • This will require investments that many power companies cannot afford. • We believe Govt should treat this investment similar to renewable energy to make it affordable. Recommendation : Government of India should pay for the installation of Sulphur handling equipment on all coal plants. This is equivalent to investing in renewable energy. • NO SO2, NOX NORMS TILL 2015 • INVESTMENT IS NECESSARYTO CURB SO2 POLLUTION Air Pollution Contributor: Coal Power Plants COAL POWER PLANTS
  37. 37. Other industries / sources that burn Coal and Diesel Power plants are finite in number. Other users of Coal and Diesel are much higher in number and do not adhere to regulations. Many use polluting fuel because clean fuel (electricity, gas, LPG) is not available or expensive (higher duties), MANY, MANY, MANY RESTAURANT SIGRIS MANY, MANY BRICK KILNS AND CEMENT KILNS MANY HOUSING SOCIETIES USING DG SETS INDUSTRIES USING DG SETS Air Pollution Contributor: Coal Power Plants COAL POWER PLANTS
  38. 38. How can we reduce air pollution from industrial units? • Strict implementation of pollution laws. • Reliable electricity supply so that people do not use back up power. • A duty structure that encourages use of clean fuels and technologies. Combating Air Pollution Contributor 6: Factories FACTORIES
  39. 39. In many North Indian states like Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Haryana, paddy sown in Monsoon is harvested in early October so that the second crop (normally wheat) can be sown. The Combine harvester leaves 10-12 inch of ‘stubble’. Most farmers burn this ‘stubble’ to clear the farm quickly and cheaply. Similar situation arises for other crops during harvesting too. It makes economic sense for one farmer to do this but when farmers do this on 25 Lakh Hectare of land burning 160 lakh tonnes of bio mass, it causes lot of pollution for everyone including in far off places such as Delhi. Source: https://goo.gl/y61guD Air Pollution Contributors 7: Crop Residue CROP RESIDUE
  40. 40. Many solutions have been proposed. For example, the stubble can be used as mulch that helps the soil retain moisture. However, such solutions would cost money. Mulching require change in harvesters and different kind of seed laying machines. Making rules is not enough as it is very difficult to impose these rules on thousands of farmers. Recommendation: Provide subsidy for proven solutions. For details on an interesting solution, see https://goo.gl/u67Hn5 MULCH MODERNIZED MACHINERY Combating Air Pollution Contributor: Crop Residue CROP RESIDUE FARMERS WILL NOT FIND IT WORTHWHILETO SPEND MORE.TAX PAYERS WILL NEEDTO INVEST IN MOST EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS, THROUGH SUBSIDIES
  41. 41. Recap – How can we breathe cleaner air? A summary of suggested solutions are: VEHICLES AVOID: USE LESS VEHICLES SHIFT: SWITCHTO CLEANER VEHICLES IMPROVE: FUEL EFFICIENCY OF EXISTING VEHICLES POWER PLANTS INVEST IN SULPHUR HANDLING EQUIPMENT ON ALL COAL PLANTS HOUSEHOLD FIRES PROVIDE CLEAN FUEL KEEP IT AFFORDABLE AND AVAILABLE FACTORIES IMPLEMENT POLLUTION LAWS PROVIDE RELIABLE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DUTY STRUCTURE THAT ENCOURAGES CLEAN FUEL AND TECHNOLOGIES CROP BURNING AND RESIDUES PROVIDE SUBSIDY FOR PROVEN SOLUTIONS MUNICIPAL WASTE COLLECT / SEGREGATE TRANSPORT TREAT / PROCESS / DISPOSE DUST AFFORESTATION ENFORCE BEST PRACTICES ON CONSTRUCTION SITES PLANT TREES AND SHRUBS SWEEPING OF ROADS CREATE GREEN BANKS
  42. 42. Which pollution source should we tackle first? -1 Periodically, this question is asked in the media. For example, IN OCTOBER – NOVEMBER WE ASK IS CROP BURNING ISTHE REAL PROBLEM? DURING DIWALI WE ASK IF WE SHOULD BAN FIRECRACKERS? Inevitably, at that time opposing voices also spring up saying for example, that tackle pollution from power plants first. Or tackle pollution from vehicles. This is a futile discussion.
  43. 43. Imagine, if you were a very unfit person who did not exercise, ate burgers and samosas the whole day long with carbonated drinks and smoked and drank heavily. Would you spend time debating if you should start exercising before quitting smoking? Which pollution source should we tackle first? -2 TACKLE POLLUTION FROM VEHICLES PERSONAL CONSUMPTION INDUSTRY DUST CROP BURNING EXERCISE EAT WELL STOP SMOKING DRINK IN MODERATION REDUCE SUGAR INTAKE
  44. 44. How do I handle so much complexity? You have two options – • Do not live in the more polluted cities. If that is not possible, then: • You can stay indoors on days that are more polluted. • Stay away from traffic. • Install air purifiers indoors • Or even leave the more polluted cities. FLIGHT • Contribute your bit by measures like using public transport • Contribute to your neighborhood by creating green banks, preventing garbage burning, ensuring construction regulations FIGHTor These two measures will have very limited impact and you need to ask your representative in the government to act.
  45. 45. How does my representative handle so much complexity? The problem of Air Pollution can be summed up as: • No one source (is the sole contributor) • No one man (or agency) is solely responsible Hence, you need to ask your elected representative: HOW WILLYOU ENFORCETHE RULES? HOW WILLYOU ENCOURAGE USTO FOLLOWTHE RULES?
  46. 46. How will you enforce the rules? Existing rules are not enforced because of: CENTRAL ENERGY TRANSPORT AGRICULTURE STATE INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTLOCAL FOREST CORRUPTION AND INEFFICIENCY OF AUTHORITIES, SO THAT SOME GET AWAY WITH FLOUTINGTHE RULES MULTIPLE AGENCIES, NOT IMPLEMENTING A COORDINATED ACTION PLANTO ADDRESS ALL SOURCES ?? ?? ?
  47. 47. How will you encourage us to follow the rules? Existing rules are not followed because of: MULCH MODERNIZED MACHINERY ECONOMICS: SOLUTIONS SHOULD BE ECONOMICALLY VIABLE ORTHEY’LL BE IGNORED ATTITUDE: PUBLIC NEEDSTO BE SENSITIZEDTO BE PROACTIVE ABOUT THE PROBLEM INSTEAD OF REACTING ONLY WHEN SITUATION REACHES EXTREME LEVELS CONSTANT EDUCATION THROUGHMEDIA
  48. 48. What should I ask which representative? Use this handy chart to help you quickly see which authority to address your question to. MP = Member of Parliament, selected during Lok Sabha elections (next in 2019) MLA = Member of Legislative Assembly, selected during State elections – recently held in Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh MC = Municipal Corporator, selected during Municipal elections. MP MLA MC QUESTION ADDRESSEDTO PLEASE GET AN AIR POLLUTION MEASURING STATION NEAR ME. HOW CAN WE CREATE PUBLIC TRANSPORT FASTER? PLEASE ENCOURAGE POLICETO CATCH POLLUTINGVEHICLES! HOW CAN WE DESIGN CITIESTO REDUCE COMMUTE? HOW CAN WE ENCOURAGE ELECTRICVEHICLES? HOW CAN WE REMOVETAX DISTORTIONS ON PUBLICVEHICLES AND CLEANER FUELS. HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVETO USE FIREWOOD FOR COOKING IN OUR AREA? CANYOU ENSURE PICK UP AND PROCESSING OF ALL GARBAGE IN OUR AREA? CANYOU ENSURETHAT ALL CENTRAL GOVERNMENT POWER STATIONS INSTALL FGD? CANYOU ENSURETHAT ALL STATE GOVERNMENT POWER STATIONS INSTALL FGD? PLEASE ASK CPCB AND SPCBTO ENSURE COMPLIANCE OF POLLUTION NORMS BY INDUSTRIES PLEASE PREPARE GREEN BANKS IN AND AROUND US! HOW CAN WE ENCOURAGE FARMERS NOTTO BURN CROP STUBBLE
  49. 49. Air pollution cheat sheet for administrators UNDERSTAND EXTENT OF PROBLEM INYOUR AREA (MEASURE) UNDERSTAND WHERETHE POLLUTION IS COMING FROM IN YOUR AREA (ATTRIBUTION STUDIES) WHICH OFTHE SOURCES IS INYOUR JURISDICTION? WHICH OFTHESE SOURCES CAN BE PRIORITIZED QUICKLY AND / OR CHEAPLY? HOW WILLYOUTACKLE OTHERS? (ACTION PLAN) HOW CANYOU INFLUENCE SOURCES OUTSIDE YOUR JURISDICTION?
  50. 50. Thank you! For many more topical InfoCapsules and Shorts, do visit us at http://www.askhowindia.org/. See you there!

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