Space-based ADS-B - a small step for technology a giant leap for ATM?


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Presentation at ESAV'11, in Capri (Italy), September 2011
Presenter: Adam Parkinson of Helios
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Space-based ADS-B - a small step for technology a giant leap for ATM?

  1. 1. Space Telecoms Air Traffic Management Airports Rail Maritime Adam Parkinson, Helios Space-based ADS-B
  2. 2. A small step for technology a giant leap for ATM?
  3. 3. The challenges facing ATM • Ageing infrastructure technologies • Congested airspace • Poor interoperability • Fragmented airspace • Low level of automation • Poor predictability
  4. 4. The role of ADS-B • Potential benefits: • Faster update rates compared to radar • Lower cost infrastructure • Potentially higher position accuracy (not range dependent) • Wider range of data items available • Enable new applications (eg ADS-B-NRA) • Issues • Co-operative dependent system • High level of equipage required
  5. 5. The oceanic problem
  6. 6. Current solutions
  7. 7. Future solutions using ADS-B (-in) under assessment in SESAR • Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness – In Trail Procedure • Lower limits for procedural climb – improve fuel efficiency • Airborne Separation – In Trail Procedure • Requires new separation standards not yet defined • Enable new passing manoeuvres in procedural oceanic airspace
  8. 8. Why do satellite ADS-B? • Investigate cost-effective radar-like surveillance service in regions without surveillance infrastructure • Natural extension of focus of SESAR for: • Use of ADS-B • Use of satellite systems for communication and navigation • Global interoperable ATM system • Potential to enable new procedures and maximise efficiency of airspace
  9. 9. Key questions: • Is it technically feasible? • Can we decode ADS-B transmissions on a satellite in the presence of interference from other transmissions on the channel? • Is it cost-effective?
  10. 10. Assessment of satellite ADS-B potential performance
  11. 11. Key results and observations
  12. 12. Calculating expected position update rates – oceanic region • 160 aircraft supported in spot beam with 5 second update rate (95%) • Assumes: • 2Hz transmission rate for position data • Interference signals will be largely ADS-B transmission we want to decode all with similar signal levels • Overlap of transmissions will lead to garbling of message • Probability of detection driven by probability of overlap
  13. 13. Other considerations 1090Mhz ES Bent-pipe Regenerative Channel bandwidth 2.6Mhz (-3dB point) Typcially 10’s of MHz for Ka/Ku band Typcially 10’s of MHz for Ka/Ku band Data rate 22/111 Kpbs required for decode of Extended Squitters from 32/160 aircraft Typically 1000’s Kbps per sub-channel Typically 1000’s Kbps per sub- channel Latency ~0.5 seconds Up to 2 seconds Pros Shorter latencies Offers ability ro post process signal on ground for better decode performance More efficient use of downlink bandwidth Time of applicability of ADS-B report can be adjusted for latency of satellite link Cons Time of applicability of ADS- B report ignores latency of satellite link Less efficient use of downlink bandwidth Longer latencies
  14. 14. Satellite ADS-B initiatives • SESAR OPTIMI – support search and rescue in remote regions • ESA initiative for ADS-B satellite in orbit demonstration • Globalstar signed agreement with ADS-B technologies to develop satellite ADS-B system • Iridium plan to install ADS-B receivers on next generation of 66 communication satellites
  15. 15. The maritime case study • AIS=ADS-B • ExactEarth offering commercial satellite AIS service using 2 micro satellites with plans for more • However, the requirements are different • Ships slower than aircraft • Aimed at search and rescue, environmental monitoring and national security • Current experience shows variable detection performance
  16. 16. Conclusions • Feasible to provide radar like position update rates in oceanic airspace out of radar range in scenarios beyond 2015 • Unlikely that it will ever be used on its own to provide radar-like separation • No redundant cover • Impact of longer latencies • Could enable new more efficient oceanic procedures not feasible with ADS-C • Reduced separations => increased capacity
  17. 17. Final observations • Maritime domain has demonstrated feasibility of commercial service • Initial ADS-B satellite service may be available by 2015 European ADS-B mandate • However, ADS-B performance must be verified • Also need to address voice comms • Impact on current SESAR activities • Business case required • What is the market for the service?
  18. 18. Space Telecoms Air Traffic Management Airports Rail Maritime Thank you for your attention Adam Parkinson