So, simply put, think of a future where relationships exist between people and people, people and things and things and things.
A thing, in the Internet of Things, can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low -- or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address and provided with the ability to transfer data over a network.
Broadband Internet is become more widely available, the cost of connecting is decreasing, more devices are being created with Wi-Fi capabilities and sensors built into them, technology costs are going down, and smartphone penetration is sky-rocketing. All of these things are creating a "perfect storm" for the IoT.
“Today computers -- and, therefore, the internet -- are almost wholly dependent on human beings for information. Nearly all of the roughly 50 petabytes (a petabyte is 1,024 terabytes) of data available on the internet were first captured and created by human beings by typing, pressing a record button, taking a digital picture or scanning a bar code.
The problem is, people have limited time, attention and accuracy -- all of which means they are not very good at capturing data about things in the real world. If we had computers that knew everything there was to know about things -- using data they gathered without any help from us -- we would be able to track and count everything and greatly reduce waste, loss and cost. We would know when things needed replacing, repairing or recalling and whether they were fresh or past their best.”
It is an internet development which has been proposed to provide everyday objects internet connectivity. These objects are embedded with sensors, electronics, software, actuators and network connectivity that give them the ability to exchange data. The objects are allowed to be sensed and controlled mainly on the networking infrastructure that already exists. IoT hence creates opportunities for more direct alliance of the real world into the electronic and computer based systems that result in economic benefit, starkness and better efficiency. IoT’s augmented sensors and actuators encompass technologies such as smart homes, smart grids, smart transportation and smart cities which are identifiable through their embedded computer systems.
There are many examples for what this might look like or what the potential value might be. Say for example you are on your way to a meeting; your car could have access to your calendar and already know the best route to take. If the traffic is heavy your car might send a text to the other party notifying them that you will be late. What if your alarm clock wakes up you at 6 a.m. and then notifies your coffee maker to start brewing coffee for you? What if your office equipment knew when it was running low on supplies and automatically re-ordered more? What if the wearable device you used in the workplace could tell you when and where you were most active and productive and shared that information with other devices that you used while working?
COMMUNICATION IoT communicates information to people and systems, such as state and health of equipment and send data from sensors that can monitor a person’s vital signs. Mostly, we do not have access to this information from before as it is collected manually and irregularly. Other communication technologies are well known such as WiFi, Bluetooth and 2G/3G/4G cellular. Depending on the application, factors such as range, data requirements, security and power demands and battery life will dictate the choice of one or some form of combination of technologies.
CONTROL AND AUTOMATION In this online world, a business will have visibility into a device’s condition. In many cases, a consumer will also be able to remotely control a device. There are also new emerging networking options such as ‘Thread’ which are used as an alternative for home automation applications, and Whitespace TV technologies which are being implemented in major cities for wider area IoT-based use cases.
COST SAVINGS It can save money by minimising risk of equipment failure and allowing the business to run seamlessly. IoT can help a company save money by minimizing equipment failure and allowing the business to perform planned maintenance.
Hence here is a list of opportunities IoT provides in the App development
Hence here is a list of opportunities IoT provides in the App development
Smart Belly trash use real-time data collection and alerts to let municipal services know when a bin needs to be emptied. This information can drastically reduce the number of pick-ups required, and translates into fuel and financial savings for communities service departments.
With the use of installed sensors, mobile apps, and real-time web applications like those provided in Streetline’s ParkSight service, cities can optimize revenue, parking space availability and enable citizens to reduce their environmental impact by helping them quickly find an open spot for their cars.
Even though IoT applications aim to simplify our lives they have certain shortcomings and challenges.
Gartner, Inc. information technology research and advisory firm, predicts that by 2020 there will be 26 Billion connected devices in the galaxy of the IoT. see image below:
MicroController Functinoal programming via C Add wifi module/chip or Bluetooth Make it adhoc network or self router Define UDP/TCP port
Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for anyone making interactive projects. ARDUINO BOARD Arduino senses the environment by receiving inputs from many sensors, and affects its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other actuators.
Python programming language Image Processing
In 2013, Apple launched iBeacon, a low-power bluetooth sensor that can be embedded in objects and picked up by nearby iOS or Android devices running apps that have been programmed with the Core Location APIs. Another popular BLE beacon is AltBeacon, a free option with a bit more data capacity than iBeacon. While both iBeacon and AltBeacon rely on databases for their functionality, Google’s URIBeacon project delivers URLs (similar to a QR code) rather than packets of information from a database, so it’s easier to update, reconfigure, and has the entire web as its database.
IoT programming languages used to be unique to embedded systems, but now this software uses more common languages that web developers already know and use. So how do you choose which language to use for your IoT project? First, embedded systems have a certain set of limitations to consider—low processing power, and smaller amounts of RAM and storage. The most commonly used operating systems for these embedded computers are Linux or UNIX-like OSs like Ubuntu Core or Android. While you may have to decide based on your chosen hardware platform, you also can opt for a language your developer is already familiar with, or decide based on factors like its compatibility with your IoT ecosystem, the size and memory of the code, efficiency requirements, or speed of development.
IoT Development - Opportunities and Challenges
Internet of Things (IoT)
Prepared By: Asim Rais Siddiqui
• Imagine waking up in the morning at the sound of your alarm clock
and your coffee maker automatically prepares your coffee!
• Or how about your refrigerator sending you a shopping list of item
that you need to replenish, such as "Only 2 eggs remaining" or. "you
are low on milk".
• Well, who would have predicted that mobile phones would have
replaced our beloved landline since the release of DynaTAC
September 21, 1983, (Motorolla's first ever cellphone).
• The same is true about GPS. Maps have taken the passenger seat as
GPS takes the driver's seat.
Emergence of new Internet?
Its about connecting things…
Internet of Things
• Commonly known as IoT is a system
of interconnected digital and
mechanical devices, objects or
people that are given several unique
identifiers. It had the ability to share
data over a network without needing
the help of human-to-computer or
“T” (Things) in the IoT
• Things are objects of the physical world or of the information world
• Things are capable of being identified and integrated into
• Physical things: surrounding environment, sensors, electrical
• Virtual things are capable of being stored, processed and accessed:
multimedia content, FB, twitter accounts, etc.
A bit of history
• The term "Internet of Things" is coined by Kevin Ashton 1999.
• Early example, 1982, Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University was
connected to internet: report its inventory and temperature
• Today computers -- and,
therefore, the internet -- are
almost wholly dependent on
human beings for information
• People have limited time,
attention and accuracy
• Computers that knew everything
there was to know about things
The Smart World of IoT
• Enable everyday objects internet connectivity.
• These objects are embedded with sensors, electronics, software,
actuators and network connectivity that give them the ability to
How Does This Impact You?
• The new rule for the future is going to be, "Anything that can be
connected, will be connected."
• But why on earth would you want so many connected devices talking
to each other?
• Control and Automation
• Cost Savings
• Smart home: A home where the
devices are enabled to
communicate with each other
making its owner capable of
customizing home environment,
managing security and energy is
known as a smart home. Various
IoT technologies are responsible
for monitoring smart homes.
Devices like smart thermostats,
smart home lighting etc are such
examples of smart home devices
monitored by IoT.
• Applications in Wearables:
Wearables are the most famous
trends in IoT. IoT technologies
have an array of wearable
devices. They are highly efficient,
runs on low power and are small
sized as per the convenience of
the customer. Devices such as
Smart watches, fitbits are
examples of IoT tech wearables.
• Smart Cities: IoT for smart cities not only provide smarter surveillance but also
energy management devices hence providing a solution to environmental
pollution, population expansion energy shortage and the like.
• Health care applications:
• In the sphere of health care, the
advent of IoT is of major
importance. With various smart
devices monitored by IoT such
as medication dispensing
services, it is easier to carry out
work faster in the field of
• Transportation: IoT plays a very
significant role in the automotive
industry. The infamous self-
driving cars are one of the major
transportation devices monitored
by IoT tech.
A Futuristic Application:
• When entering the doors, scanners will
identify the tags on her clothing.
• When shopping in the market, the
goods will introduce themselves.
• When paying for the goods, the
microchip of the credit card will
communicate with checkout reader.
• When moving the goods, the reader
will tell the staff to put a new one.
• IoT is complex: The internet of things is considered to be pretty
complex. However, as a system primarily related to making life easier,
it should be user-friendly and not just easy for the developers and the
• Connectivity is crucial: Various wired and wireless forms of
connectivity is required to enable proper functioning of applications
monitored by IoT.
• Highly power consuming: Without power, there is no IoT. For the
proper functioning of IoT tech and connectivity, power consumption
Is it safe? Can the internet of things be
• Everything new and shiny has downsides,
and security and privacy are the biggest
challenges for IoT.
• All these devices and systems collect a lot of
personal data about people – that smart
meter knows when you’re home and what
electronics you use when you’re there – and
it’s shared with other devices and held in
databases by companies.
The IoT Market
• Gartner, Inc: by 2020 there will be 26 Billion connected devices in the galaxy of the IoT.
Internet of Things: The Tools, Platforms and
Programs You Need to Know
You’ll need to:
• Choose your hardware platform (i.e., your processing board)
• Develop the application software, including any back-end and
• Create the integrated UI
• Develop the APIs, beacons, web sockets, and procedure calls that
enable the high-level communications that occur between devices
• Establish security, data storage, and analytics measures
IOT DEVELOPMENT PLATFORMS
• One incredibly popular
hardware/software platform for
creating interactive IoT objects
and devices is the Arduino
platform, which includes a
physical board processor, shields
with individual libraries of C code,
and an integrated development
environment (IDE) for writing,
compiling, and uploading code.
- Functinoal programming using C
- Add wifi module/chip or Bluetooth
- Make it adhoc network or self router
- Define UDP/TCP
IOT HARDWARE & OPERATING SYSTEMS
• Another well-known IoT platform
is Raspberry Pi 2, a ”tiny affordable
computer” that can house a web
server that fits in the palm of your
• it has enough processing power and
memory to run Windows 10 IoT
• RasPi is great for more heavy-duty
processing, especially when using
the Python programming language.
EMBEDDED EYES AND EARS: SENSOR AND
• Bluetooth beacons embedded within devices allow IoT objects to
broadcast information to nearby mobile devices.
• Apple iBeacon : These low-power sensors with technology like Bluetooth
Low Energy (BLE)—the one-way communication from objects to nearby
devices—let our mobile phones listen for signals when we’re close to an
• BLE is different from traditional Bluetooth technology in that it’s cheaper,
requires less power (one beacon can go three years without a charge), and
is ideal for simple applications and quick pops of data, like sending a
coupon to a nearby mobile phone.
• WiFi direct : Wi-Fi direct is also called as Wi-Fi P2P, which connects devices
with each other without help of a wireless access point.
IOT SOFTWARE & PROGRAMMING
• C & C++
• REST Architecture
• Languages designed for I/O programming
• Go from Google, Rust from Mozilla, Forth, and Parasail—a language designed
specifically for embedded programming.
IOT DATA AND SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
• While the IoT opens up amazing new possibilities, it also opens up
new security concerns. Anytime we’re advancing the way we monitor,
detect, and track ourselves and the things around us, what we do
with the data—and how it’s sent across networks—can get sensitive
• This means it’s important to take certain programming steps (and
avoid certain security shortcuts) like proxies and encryption, to keep
hackers from using devices to access a user’s personal network.
Industry-leading Tech Stack
that Pillars IoT Solutions
• The world of IoT has true potential for development as it makes life
easier through the various innovations which are developing and will
develop in the future and their functioning is impossible without IoT