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Kothari Commission 1964-66 (education)

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KOTHARI
COMMISSION
1964 - 66
By Asimananda Mahato
INTRODUCTION
 The appointment of the education commission of
1964- 1966 popularly known as ‘KOTHARI
COMMISION’ was a significant event in the history of
education in free India.
 In 1964, Dr. D.S Kothari was requested to give advise
to the government on the action to be taken for the
development of education at all the levels and he
submitted a report in 1966.
Continue…..
 Chairman : Dr D.S.Kothari, the then Chairman of
University Grants Commission.
The third commission in post-independent India.
Government Resolution setting up the Education
Commission on July 14, 1964.
began its task on October 2,1964 and submitted
its report to the Government on June 29,1966.
Report entitled- Education and National
Development.
17members in which 5 foreign experts from
countries such as USA, U.K, USSR, France and
Japan.
FEATURES
1. It tried to cover every field and aspect of the
entire educational system.
2. Its firm belief that education is the most powerful
instrument of national development.
The opening sentence of the
commission, the destiny of India is being shaped in
her classrooms, denotes the value of education that
determine the level of prosperity, welfare and future
of the country.
AIMS OF EDUCATIONS
The commissions clearly specified the five important aims
of educations in India.
1. EDUCATION AND PRODUCTIVITY
 Science education as an integral part of school
course.
 Work experience as an important aspect of general
educations.
 Vocational education especially at the secondary
school stage to meet the needs of industry,
agriculture and commerce.
 Improvement of scientific and technical education
and research at the university stage.
2. SOCIALAND NATIONAL INTEGRATION
According to the commission common
school system, social service, NSS,NCC teaching
languages, Literatures, philosophy and history of
India would go a long way in promoting national
integration.
3. EDUCATION AND MODERNISATION
Another important aim of education is
modernization. Education should awaken
curiosity, Interests, Attitudes and sense of values
and skills in the pupils.
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Kothari commission 1964 - 66

  • 2. INTRODUCTION  The appointment of the education commission of 1964- 1966 popularly known as ‘KOTHARI COMMISION’ was a significant event in the history of education in free India.  In 1964, Dr. D.S Kothari was requested to give advise to the government on the action to be taken for the development of education at all the levels and he submitted a report in 1966.
  • 3. Continue…..  Chairman : Dr D.S.Kothari, the then Chairman of University Grants Commission. The third commission in post-independent India. Government Resolution setting up the Education Commission on July 14, 1964. began its task on October 2,1964 and submitted its report to the Government on June 29,1966. Report entitled- Education and National Development. 17members in which 5 foreign experts from countries such as USA, U.K, USSR, France and Japan.
  • 4. FEATURES 1. It tried to cover every field and aspect of the entire educational system. 2. Its firm belief that education is the most powerful instrument of national development. The opening sentence of the commission, the destiny of India is being shaped in her classrooms, denotes the value of education that determine the level of prosperity, welfare and future of the country.
  • 5. AIMS OF EDUCATIONS The commissions clearly specified the five important aims of educations in India. 1. EDUCATION AND PRODUCTIVITY  Science education as an integral part of school course.  Work experience as an important aspect of general educations.  Vocational education especially at the secondary school stage to meet the needs of industry, agriculture and commerce.  Improvement of scientific and technical education and research at the university stage.
  • 6. 2. SOCIALAND NATIONAL INTEGRATION According to the commission common school system, social service, NSS,NCC teaching languages, Literatures, philosophy and history of India would go a long way in promoting national integration. 3. EDUCATION AND MODERNISATION Another important aim of education is modernization. Education should awaken curiosity, Interests, Attitudes and sense of values and skills in the pupils.
  • 7. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOCRASY India is the largest democracy in the world. The success of democracy depends upon the education of the masses. 5. SOCIALAND SPIRITUAL VALUES Education system should emphasize the development of fundamental, Social, Moral and Spiritual values.
  • 8. EDUCATIONAL STUCTURE ► General education should last for a period of 10 years.( 4 years lower primary, 3 years of higher primary and 3 years of lower secondary education). ► Prior to general education, pre-primary education should also be given. ► The theme of higher secondary education should be fixed for 2 years. ► After degree course there should be a post graduate course of three years. The graduate course should be extended from two to three years. ► The number of instructional days in a year should be increased to about 234(39weeks) for schools and 216 (36 weeks)for colleges and pre-primary schools. ► Holidays should be minimized. No need to close an educational institution on a religious holiday.
  • 9. STATUS OF TEACHERS  It is necessary to improve the economic, social and professional status of the teachers.  The scale of pay of teachers of Government and non- Government schools should be the same. A State Board of Teachers’ Education should be established in each state. The period of training of teachers with secondary course should be two years. The course of M.Ed. should be 1-1/2 years. The Teachers of the training colleges should have two degrees namely, the Master’s Degree and Degree in Education The students of the training institutions should be given free education.
  • 10. CURRICULUM Lower Primary- One language: Mother tongue or regional language. Mathematics, Study of environment, Creative activities, Work Experience, Health Education etc. Higher Primary- Two languages: Mother tongue or regional language, Hindi or English. Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, Art, Work Experience, Social Service, Physical Education, Education in moral and spiritual values etc.
  • 11. Lower Secondary- Three languages: In non-Hindi speaking areas :Mother tongue or regional language, Hindi in higher or lower standard, English in higher or lower standard. In Hindi speaking areas: Mother tongue or regional language, English or Hindi, One modern Indian language besides Hindi. Mathematics, Science, Art, Work Experience, Physical Education, Education of moral and spiritual values, Civics, History, Geography etc. Higher Secondary- Any two languages, which should include any modern Indian language, any modern foreign language and any classical language. Any three subjects to be selected from the following: One additional language, History, Geography, Economics, Logic, Psychology, Art, Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology, Home Science, Work Experience, Physical Education, Arts and Crafts, Education in moral and spiritual values etc.
  • 12. OTHER IMPORTANT RECOMMENDATIONS The commission also stressed the importance of science,education,vocational and technical training ,agricultural research ,adult education, literacy campaign.
  • 13. MERITS The Kothari commission report was a masterly piece of work on all aspects of Indian Education.  The commission presented a comprehensive study of educational problems in the context of the national needs and aspirations.  The commission made a realistic approach to link education to the socio-economic , cultural and spiritual aspects of Indian life. The commission recommended reasonable and respectable scales of pay to all categories of teachers subject to periodical revision.
  • 14. DEMERITS The position of heads of schools was left undecided by the commission. The commission committed a mistake in placing Sanskrit on a par with Arabic. The views of commission on medium of instruction was not only conflicting but also controversial.
  • 15. GOVERNMENT ACTION It was on the basis of the report that the NEW EDUCATION POLICY was declared in 1968.