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  1. 1. Staples: starch – rice, corn, millet, yamVegetables: wide variety, but peasants must sell & not eat them, they eat wildgreens that they gather in open fieldsFruits: citrus fruits, avocados, breadfruit, mangoesMeat: nonexistent, when raised by ordinary people it is soldPois ac duriz colles – rice & beansPetit mil – sorghum (eaten by the poor)Peasants’ breakfast – strong coffee, disk of sour bread baked form bitter maniocflour: Peasants’ lunch – light & eaten in the fields: Dinner – rice & beans, or astew with a small piece of meat if the family can afford some: *Summer seasonbefore crops are ready – one meal a day such as porridge made from corn,sorghum, or rice – to cure the hunger pangs the may chew on sugarcane stalksor green mangoesSugar: consumed in enormous quantities: Rapadou is a syrup produced in therefining of sugar, it sweetens tea and coffee, it is the basis for clairin a raw &concentrated rum, sugarcane stalks are plucked from the fields and eatenMealtime
  2. 2. Upper-class tastes:Creole cooking – spicedshrimp, pheasant withorange sauce, green-turtle steak, wild duck,salad made with heartsof palmRice djon-djon: rice-&-bean dish is foundnowhere else because itrequires Haitian blackmushroomsCalalou – mixture of salted pork, crabmeat, pepper, onion, spinach, okra, & chilipepperTassot – grilled meatPain patate – pudding made of grated potato, figs, banana, & sugarSauces: ti-malice – tomato & onion
  3. 3. Staples: starch – cassava, taro, sweet potatoes, yams, plantains, seafood,guandules/pigeon peas, rice and beans together to form a complete proteinComida criolla / creole food - Spicy food, not hot. Has black or red beans,white rice, plantains, sometimes meat.Sancocho – stew made with chicken, cassava, plantains, pepper, coriander,vinegarMondongo – made with tripeDrinks: Juice drinks (jugo or batido=with milk) tamarindo, nispero, jaugo,guanabana, pineapple, mango, guava, orange, grapefruit, papayaCoffee three times a day with mealsBeer and rum – evenings, weekends, special daysBreakfast: plantains, cereal or bread with coffee and juiceLunch: rice and beans, meat, stewSupper: boiled roots, eggs, bread, spaghetti, mashed potatoes, mangu, sweetsMealtime
  4. 4. Plantains: must be cooked beforeeating, high in starch and low in sugar,similar to a potato in texture, they areoften sliced, fried, and served in place ofFrench friesSiestas except for in the citiesDesserts: from staples used in candy sweet potatoes & red beans,corn puddings, rich cakes, caramel custard, flan
  5. 5. National priority is providing basic meals for everyone, very poor, food linesSpain and Africa is the basis for flavor, not hot but still slightly spicyCrocodile meat – believed to be an aphrodisiacStaple: riceMoros y cristianos - white rice and black beansArroz con pollo – chicken with ricePicadillo / minced meat – ground beef, green peppers, onions, tomatoes, olives.Raisins with rice and sometimes a fried egg over the riceDrinks: rum for social and festive occasions, recently beer and rum becamealmost unavailable for local consumption. Cervecerias (bar) are rarely open.Guaraperas, bars selling drinks of freshly pressed sugarcane, a product inabundance, are closed.Coffee is most popular and is drunk from tiny cups and sipped with icewater. It is thick and syrupy. Stalls serve only coffee.Herbal tea and drinks are popular – medicinal properties
  6. 6. Staples: Red or black beans usually cooked in large batches with some sort ofsalted meat such as bacon for flavoring. Rice is the staple starch in the diet andis generally boiled. On special occasions rice will be cooked with coconut milkfor added flavor and richness. Coconut milk is a standard in Creole cooking.Mayans in the South substitute corn for rice as their staple. Near the coastpeople eat more seafood. Inland people depend on chicken for protein. Garifunaeat fish regularly and on special occasions they will cook it in coconut milk.“Quick” bread: made from wheat for cakes, johnnycakes. Jacks, and fritters(eaten for breakfast with fruit preserves) or corn (Mayans for tortillas andtamales) Bammie –cassava starch Breadfruit and bananas– dried and ground into flour for bread.Meats: Forests and wild game – gibnut or paca (rabbit like rodent), wildducks, iguanas, iguana eggs, deer, armadillo, peccarySea and rivers – conch, shark, sea turtle, lobster, squid, red snapper,shrimp, sea bass, barracuda OR “boil up” a stew made form whatever could becaught that day cooked with coconut milk and spices
  7. 7. The Paca, known as the gibnut in Belize, is a nocturnal rodent. Inhabiting the forestfloor, this solitary animal feeds on fallen fruit, leaves and some tubers dug from theground. The gibnut is most often found near water and are found throughout manyhabitats of Belize, from river valleys to swamps to dense tropical forest. The gibnut isthe most prized game animal of Belize and the Neotropics. They are easily hunted byday with dogs which can sniff out the pacas dens, or during the night with headlampswhile they feed. While thriving in Belizes many protected areas, the paca has beenhunted to extinction in many parts of its range from Mexico to Southern Brazil.In many of Belizes protected areas, gibnut can be heard and seen at night. This largerodent makes lots of noise while walking through the dry leaves of the forest or whilechewing on the hard shells of the cohune nut, one of its favorite foods. The gibnutalso produces a hoarse bark or a deep rumbling when disturbed.
  8. 8. Vegetables and fruit:Sweet potatoes, tomatoes, peppers,squash, pumpkin, avocados, guava,mangoes, pawpaws, bananas,plantain, grapefruit, breadfruitDrinks:Fresh fruit – combined with water oriceSoft drinks – produce their ownRum & Beer – Belikin is the localbrandGarifuna – cashew wine and “localdynamite” made from rum and coconutmilkEnergy drink: Chicory-flavored coffee;Mint and hot water for a tea
  9. 9. Did you know?The pawpaw is the only temperatemember of the tropicalAnnonaceae family and is thelargest tree fruit native to theUnited States. Pawpaws growwild in the rich, mesic hardwoodforests of 25 states in the easternUnited States ranging fromnorthern Florida to southernOntario (Canada) and as far westas eastern Nebraska. Pawpawsflourish in the deep, rich fertilesoils of river-bottom lands wherethey grow as understory trees orthicket-shrubs. In addition to thetropical Annona relatives, thereare eight members of the Asiminagenus that are native to theextreme southeastern states ofFlorida and Georgia.PawPawEaten in-hand as fresh fruit orprocessed into desserts. Twigs aresource of annonaceous acetogeninswhich are being used in thedevelopment of anti-cancer drugsand botanical pesticides.
  10. 10. Franesca – a soup eaten only at Easter, the most representative dish because itcontains ingredients from so many regions. It includes fish, eggs, cheese, corn,onions, peanuts, rice, squash, beans, lentils, and peas, but no meat.Serviche – raw fish or seafood marinated in lemon or lime juice and served withonions and peppers.Rice and plantains or bananas, boiled or deep fried.Cassava (a food and a drink) and river fish, including enormous catfish and thefierce but delicious piranha.Soups and stew in the highlands – range from thin with potato, chicken, or meat,to barley and quinoa soups.Locro or Chupe – which is a thick cram soup.Stews are made from corn, plantains, potatoes, cabbages, onions, and othervegetables.Hot sauce – is made from chili peppers, or aji, spices up many stews.Cuy or guinea pig – at one time provided the main source of meat in the Andesad was kept by indigenas in their homes, but today it is a delicacy.
  11. 11. Hot and Spicy, or at least have a variety of peppers served as a side dish. Anintact fruit of a small domesticated Habanero was found in Pre-ceramic levels inGuitarrero Cave of the Peruvian highlands. The chile was dated to 6500 B.C.,making it evident that mankind has been growing these fiery fruits for at least 85centuries!Dishes:Papas a la juancaina – potatoes with a spicy sauce is a favorite dishCoastal dishes are based on fishServiche – raw fish marinated in lemon juuice with onions and red peppersEscabeche – fish with onions, hot green peppers, red peppers, shrimp, eggs,olives, and cuminHighland dishes include potatoes and cornSoups and stews – cooked for many hours and containing many types ofvegetables, with pieces of pork, chicken, or beefTamales – boiled corn dumplings filled with meat and wrapped in a banana leafGuinea pig – a delicacy that is raised in Native homes for special occasionsChinese restaurants (chifa) – easily found
  12. 12. Aymara people: have domesticated animals such as sheep, cows, donkey, andmules, plants such as barley, beans, and onions; plus cereals quinoa andcañawa, potatoes, and totora reed that grows in the shallow water of LakeTiticaca’s bays. The roots and shoots of the plant are delicate and white. Theplant is used to feed people and cattle. The reed is also very useful for makingthings such as reed bundle rafts (balsas).Small gardens are kept by Native American women where their primary crop isyucca.totora reed
  13. 13. Staples: potatoes, quinoa (a cereal rich in protein), rice, breadLittle meat is eaten, though pork, chicken or mutton (the meat of a maturesheep) are added to several dishes.Varies region to region:Highlands: soups and stews are popular and can include all kinds of vegetablesand chunks of chicken, pork, or occasionally beef. They are very spicy, sincestrong aji peppers are often cooked with the dish or added as a sauce. On thetable there is always a small dish of locoto another very strong pepper, whichcan be green, yellow, or red.Lowlands: yucca (a tuber which takes the place of a potato), rice, bananas andother fruits are the most common foods, mainly because they are locally grown.*Because of the heat, which would spoil fresh meat without refrigeration, beef isoften cut into think slices and dried in the sun. It is fried and served with onions,tomatoes, or green pepper sauce.Bananas – often the first meal of the day; are fried
  14. 14. Potatoes: more than 200 potatoes originated in the Andes, these peoples havedeveloped a unique way to preserve them long after harvest has finished. The potatoesare spread on the ground, and women step on them to press out water. The potatoes arethen left to dry in the hot sun and freezing night air until they become small and hard. Inthis state they are know as chuño, or tunta, they only need to be soaked in water andboiled in order to be used like fresh potato.Quinoa: pronounced keen-wahDuring the period when the Incasthrived in Bolivia, relay teams ofbarefoot runners would carry news fromone region to another, often covering150 miles in a 24-hour period. Boliviaselevation is over 12,000 feet above sealevel, an altitude where oxygen isconsiderably reduced. How did therunners perform this unbelievable feat?A practice still prevalent with todaysBolivian athletes involves combiningcoca leaves and ash from the quinoaplant and holding it in the cheek. Thecombination increases the bodysoxygen because quinoa ash releasesalkaloids in the coca.
  15. 15. Quinoa is a member of the goosefoot family, and yields a supergrain. Quinoa is anannual herb that has been cultivated for thousands of years in the west AndesMountains of South America. It was a staple food of the ancient Inca Indians andtheir Empire. Quinoa was such an important food of the ancient Incas that they consideredit the "Mother Grain."Quinoa is a plant that is very hardy and drought resistant. It bears clusters of seed on topof the plant that can range in color from white, orange, red, purple, to black, depending onthe variety. The ancestral seed color of Quinoa is black and the other colors havebeen obtained from mutations and breeding. The Quinoa seed, about the size of millet,resembles the grain of some cereal grasses, but it is not a grass.Quinoa is a very versatile food plant that can be cooked many ways and tastes excellent.The green leaves can be used in salads or cooked like spinach. The grain canbe sprouted, like alfalfa; used as a hot cereal; used in soups, casserolesand souffles; used in the place of almost any other grain, including rice; ground intoflour; and toasted.One cup has more calcium and protein than a quart of milk. Ounce for ounceit has as much protein as meat, contains all of the essential amino acids,and has high amounts of iron and calcium. All in all, it comes closer thanany other food in supplying all of the nutrients needed for life.
  16. 16. Most people eat a lot of meat and fishFruit is plentiful but seasonalTraditional dishes:Sopa Paraguay – dumpling made of ground corn and cheeseChipas – a corn bread flavored with lots of cheese and a small amount of anise(a licorice-flavored herb)Native Americans – eat by gathering natural foods and really like land tortoisesDrink:When men gather to talk they pass around a small gourd filled with Paraguayantea, or mate, which is known as terere when cold water is used. It is suckedthrough a metal straw called a bombilla
  17. 17. Staples: Meat, dairy products, fish, fruit, cheese, salamis, sausages, and hamsare locally produced and are plentiful at the market stalls.Lunch in the city such as Montevideo: parrilladas –very like a large barbeque, metal grills the size of doors are propped up overopen charcoal fires at angles, on the grills are huge pieces of beef, pork, mutton,veal, and spicy sausagesPizzas & pastasDrinks:Yerba Mate – Legend of the Guarini Indians: There is anold Guarani Indian legend that relates the origins of theGuarani in the Forests of Paraguay. According to thelegend, the ancestors of the Guarani at one time in thedistant past crossed a great and spacious ocean from a farland to settle in the Americas. They found the land bothwonderful yet full of dangers; through diligence and effortthey subdued the land and inaugurated a new civilization.
  18. 18. The Guarani tribes looked forward to the coming of a tall, fair-skinned, blue eyed, bearded God (Pa iShume) who, according to legend, descended from the skies and expressed his pleasure with theGuarani. He brought religious knowledge and imparted to them certain agricultural practices to be ofbenefit during times of drought and pestilence as well as on a day-to-day basis. Significantly, Heunlocked the secrets of health and medicine and revealed the healing qualities of native plants. One ofthe most important of these secrets was how to harvest and prepare the leaves of the Yerba Mate tree.The Mate beverage was meant to ensure health, vitality and longevity.It was like this: the tribe would clear part of the forest, plant manioc and corn, but after four or five yearsthe soil would be worn out and the tribe had to move on. Tired of such moving, an old Indian refused togo on and preferred to stay where he was. The youngest of his daughters, beautiful Jary, had her heartsplit: to go on with the tribes youths, or remain isolated, helping the old man until death would take himto Ivy-Maraes peace. Despite her friends pleas, she ended up staying with her father.This love gesture deserved a prize. One day, a unknown shaman arrived at the ranch and asked Jarywhat she wanted in order to feel happy. The girl did not ask anything. But the old man asked: "I wantnew forces to go on and take Jary to the tribe that went away".The shaman gave him a very green plant, perfumed with kindness, and told him to plant it, pick theleaves, dry them on fire, grind them, put the pieces in a gourd, add cold or hot water and sip theinfusion. "In this new beverage, you will find an healthy company, even in the sad hours of the cruelestsolitude." After which he went away.Thus was born and grew the "caá-mini," whence came the caá-y beverage that white people wouldlater adopt under the name of Chimarrão in Brazil and Yerba Mate in Argentina, Uruguay andParaguay.Sipping the green sap, the old man recovered, gained new strengths and was able to resume their longjourney toward meeting their kinsmen. They were received with the greatest joy. And the whole tribeadopted the habit of drinking the green herb, bitter and sweet, that gave strength and courage andYerba Mate cont.
  19. 19. MEAT! Meat! Meat! Asado con cuero – beef barbecued in its hide over an openfire, is the traditional food of the gaucho (cowboys of Argentina)A variety of cooking styles because the country is a melting pot.Noquis / Pasta and potato dumplings – Italians broughtMorcillas / Black puddings & blood sausages – German & European immigrantsLocro – a thick soup with meat, beans, potatoes, & peppers – Native IndiansEmpanadas – pastries stuffed with meat or seafoodPucheros – stews of chicken or other meats with vegetablesDrinks: Yerba Mate – a hot drink made form the bitter leaves of a shrub calledParaguay holly, a major crop of northeastern Argentina. The drink is namedfrom a Native American word mati, which means gourd. It is still drunk from agourd shaped container. It is sipped through a silver straw called a bombilla,which strains off the leaves. It is seen as a mark of old fashioned hospitality. Incertain areas it is sweetened with sugar & flavored with herbs or spices, such asanise seed. Other areas drink it bitter. A drink of the gauchos.
  20. 20. Southern Argentina produces olives, citrus fruits, and grapes.Wine – Produce a good quality for hundreds of years, and the grape harvest iscelebrated in this area with a special festival to bless the winesIn cities such as Buenos Aires cafés are the center of social life.Founded in 1858, Café Tortoni is the oldest coffee shop in the wholecountry. With a very rich history, it is visited at all times byintellectuals, politicians and artists. for Making an ArgentineAdd in the following order:- one Indian woman - two spanish horsemen - three mestizo gauchos- one English traveler - half a Basque worker - and a pinch of AfricanAllow to cook for 300 centuries at low temperature. Before serving, quickly add fiveItalians, a Russian Jew, a German, a Galician, three-fourths a Lebanese, and finally awhole Frenchman.Allow to sit for 50 years, then serve.
  21. 21. If there is a single food that can represent Argentina, it is beef. The richgrassland plains, the pampas, rest in the shadows of the Andes and feed thepeople not only their wheat and corn, but also the grazing land for the cattleand sheep. Argentine beef is highly prized for its flavor and tenderness. Thecattle were introduced in the 16th century, and were running wild in vast herdsless than 200 years later. As with the US, the romantic image of the cowboy, or"gaucho," pervades the culture. The cooking method of choice in Argentina is,without a doubt, grilling. Beef steaks, sweetbreads and kidneys crackle over theflame, along with vegetables, fish and sausages. The tender skirtsteak, thechurrasco, and the bistek, or flank steak, are some of the most popular cuts.Ropa viejo ("old clothes") slowly simmers less tender cuts until they can beshredded easily."A vegetarian in Argentina is like a duckout of water." - anonymous
  22. 22. Fish is the most widely eaten food – lots of coastlineFruits and Vegetables are abundant and are grown in the central valleyCountry families grow plantains, bananas, potatoes, beans, corn, fruits,vegetables, yucca, cassava and raise livestock and dairy cattlePoor: most common meal is mute, a soup with boiled corn, cabbage, squash,and potatoes. It is often the first and only meal of the day until evening. SomeIndians chew coca leaves to sustain them during the dayDishes: Porotos granados – made of corn, squash, beans, onion, garlicEmpanadas – pastries filled with eggs, olives, cheese, seafood, or finely choppedmeats: often eaten as snacks
  23. 23. Mixture of Spanish and Native Indian and African Foods:Native: Sweet potatoes, Cassava, Yams, Peanuts, Chili, Tobacco, CornSpanish Settlers: Cash crops, vegetables, meat and spices such as coffee,coconuts, sugarcane, bananas, oranges, plantains, potatoes, onions, sheep,cattle, pigs, hens, goats, ginger, garlic, tomatoes, coriander, cumin, chiliTaino Foods: corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, peanuts, starchyroots, birds, iguanas, guinea pigs, oysters, clams, turtles and otherseafood / bread from smashed cassava root , tea from campana tree(hallucinogenic effect)Fruit: custard apple, quenepa (Spanish lime), hog plum, genipap, plantains,and bananasBreakfast: cities – boiled or fried eggs and coffeecountry – ground cereal with hot milkLunch and Supper: rice and beans (white beans, kidney beans,garbanzo beans, and pigeon peas) cooked in a sofrito sauceMealtime
  24. 24. Because of work schedules: no real siestasLunch at fondas (roadside stalls)Pork dishes: cuchifrito (internal organs), mondongo (pork tripe with sofritosauce), gandinga (liver, heart, kidneys mixed with vegetables), lechon asado(served at Christmas spit roasted), chicharron (dry crisp skin a delicacy)Steak dishes: carne mechada, piononos, al calderoFish dishes: salted dried codfish, serenata (fish not as often eaten)Others: pastelillos (stuffed plantain pies), flan de coco, bienmesabe (coconutsauce)Important IndustruiesRum: from the development of the sugar industryCoffee: less important because of production costs. Yauco coffee (strongerthan ours) served half coffee and half milk, it is served at small roadside stallsmore as a stimulant than as a thirst quencher.
  25. 25. Tortilla making: mano = handstone to grind dough on a metate = grinding stone,then fried on a comal = hot griddlePoor in rural areas: Malnutrition a problem, only get 2/3 of of calories theyneed Staple diet in rural areas: beans, rice, tortillas (meat, poultry, fish a raretreat) Wealthy citydwellers: vegetables, fruit, poultry, shrimp, lobster, swordfishPupusas, national “fast food” filled tortillas are sold at food stalls, markets andsmall restaurantsMealtimeBreakfast: cities – coffee, bread, fruitcountry – coffee and a hot tortilla, sometimes diced and soaked in warm milkLunch: cities – tortillas with rice & beans (not necessarily biggest meal)country – soup, tortillas, rice, corn, or beans, & rarely meat (biggest meal)& siestaSupper: cities – vegetables, rice, beans, tortillas, fish or meatCountry – lighter meal of vegetables, tortillas, beansDrinks: Tic-Tack is a strong spirit made from sugarcane it has beennicknamed the national liquor of El Salvador it is colorless and has avery high alcohol content
  26. 26. Specialties:Pupusa are small thick corn tortillas filled with sausage, cheese or beans andserved hot with salad or salsa.Tamales – steamed rolls of cornmeal stuffed with shredded meat, peppers, andcorn and wrapped in corn husks because they take a great deal of time toprepare they are a dish for special occasionsSopa de pata – hoof soup, made from the hoof of a cow or an ox, withvegetables and sometimes with beef tripe, although it is made year round it ismost popular for holidays and family gatherings
  27. 27. 1980-now Costa Rican households cook with wood fuel instead of electricityeven when it is availableStaples – Starches, red meat, rice, beans, plantains, & potatoes. Prefer beefand pork to fish. Love sweet pastries, breads, and cakes. Commonly usedspices: coriander and mild jalapenos.Americas + Spain = Ollade carne – beef & vegetable stew made with beef, yucca, potatoes, corn,plantains, squash, and other vegetablesGallo pinto – breakfast dish consists of black beans, white rice, onions, sweetpeppers, & corianderCeviche – seafood as an appetizer: shrimp, shellfish, sea bass marinated in amixture of lemon juice, onion, garlic, corianderBocas/Boquitas=Appetizers: made of black beans, chicken stew, or potato chipsCorn (tortillas), Tamales (festival food) filled with tomatoes, pumpkin seeds,sweet peppers, and deer or turkey meat“Rundown” stew made along coast with available ingredients (*coconut milk)
  28. 28. Fruits: melons, pineapples, mangos, passion fruit, guava, apples, papaya, &rose apple, star apple, breadfruit, coconut pejibaye (must be cooked to eat)Drinks: Coffee – strong, very sweet, hot milk (even given to kids and babies)Juices, Coconut water by punching hole in it with a machete Refresco– juice with milk or water Horchata – milky drinkmade from cornmeal and cinnamon Agua dulce – boiledwater and brown sugar Alcohol – Chicha & Guaroboth from sugarcane (Ginger beer non-alcoholic)MealtimeCampesinos: Breakfast – coffee and gallo pinto with a fried egg, or tortillasand sour cream with dry, white bread. Lunch & Supper – tortillas or white bread,black beans, rice, plantains, and maybe meat or sausage, with agua dulce todrink.Urban: Breakfast – processed and convenience foods, cereal, egg, juice, whitebread and coffee. Lunch – soup, beef steak, plantains, bread or tortillas, salad,cooked vegetables, eggs, milk, fruit dessert, coffee. Supper –sandwiches or leftovers from lunch.
  29. 29. Passion fruit
  30. 30. Staples: White rice, cassava, pineapples, plantains, corn (tortillas), red beansWhen beans & corn are eaten together they are a complete source of protein.When beans are eaten alone, the body misses out on the essential amino acidsthat mixing corn with beans provides, thus people eat this for almost every meal.Most rural families own a cow, from the milk, cuajada, a kind of cottage cheeseis made. Milk is not drank as a beverage but they eat the cream, sour cream, &cheese the milk provides.Rare to have meat, fish is more commonly eaten, fried chicken is a favorite.Few green vegetables. Hot chili peppers are eaten with many meals.Fruits are eaten for a sweet treat. Fried bananas are a popular snack. Tajadita,or crispy fried banana chips, and sliced green mangoes sprinkled with salt andcumin are sold in bags on the street. Sweet bread is is eaten regularly, on thecoast a coconut bread is eaten daily.Drinks: coffee for every meal (no tea), Culey a very sweet fruit juice drink,Guifiti tea-like drink to detoxify the body, sodas and colas, 4 beers, licuados –milk blended with fruit, very little alcohol (aguardiente – fire water)
  31. 31. Cuajada around the world!
  32. 32. Breakfast: red beans and tortillas, eggs, cheese, plantains, salty butter on bread,coffee, homemade cereal with milk. Poor have coffee with bread.Lunch:Meat if the family can afford it. White rice with pork, beef, or chicken, asoup made of red beans, fish or chicken, and tortillas. Culey is often drunk.Supper: soup, red beans, eggs, plantains, butter, and tortillas, fried beans withonions eaten with a tortilla, meat is not commonly eaten at this meal.Dessert:Not eaten because they cannot afford the luxury. If there is one (maybeat a fiesta) sweet cake and ice cream are favorites.Dulce de rapadura – a candy made from sugarcane juiceNacatamales – large corn cakes stuffed with vegetables and meat bought in themarketplaceTapado – stew made with meat or fish, vegetables, and cassavaSopa de mondongo – stew made with tripe (part of a cow’s stomach)Baleada – tortilla, refried beans, cheese, and sour creamTortillas con quesillo – 2 crisp, fried tortillas with melted white cheeseMealtime
  33. 33. Staples: (SPICY) rice, corn, beans, coffee, potatoes, fish, shrimp, lobster,marlin, sea bass, snapper, chicken, beef, yucca, cilantro, onions, peppers,tomatoes, pineapples, coconuts, papaya, avocados, watermelon, citrus fruitsSea turtle eggs – close to extinction Iguana –eggs and meat: close to extinction = hatch and rear three different species ofiguanaBreakfast: thick, deep-fried tortillas with a white cheese; sautéed liver, garlic andonions; and fresh rolls or bread. Urban areas also eggs. Coffee.Lunch: soup, chicken or steak with a mixture of cooked rice and red kidneybeans or pigeon peas, salad.Supper: meat covered with a spicy sauce, rice and saladAfter dinner= coffee such as espressoDessert: usually fruit indulge in cake, chocolate mousse, pie, cheesecake.Drinks: Beer= chief industrial product, 3 local favorites: Panama, Soberna,Cristal Balbo Panamanians also like rumMealtime
  34. 34. Specialties:Corivna – Sea Bass = Ceviche – appetizer, Bolita de pescado – breaded andfried balls of fishRopa vieja – beef, green peppers, spices, plantains, and riceEmpanadas – fried meat piesLomo relleno – steak stuffed with spices and herbsSoups: Sancocho – chicken, corn, plantains, yucca, coriander leaves,potatoesGuacho – very liquidy and provides complete nutritionDesserts:Sopa borracha – pound cake topped with syrup, rum or brandy, cinnamonraisins, and cloves with whipped cream it is sopa de gloriaArroz con cacao – chocolate rice puddingResbaladera – rice, mlik, vanilla, sugar, cinnamon
  35. 35. EmpanadasSancocho
  36. 36. A weak economy has caused food shortages for manyOutdoor markets for the freshest food – Mercado Oriental inManagua – biggest, six vendors deepGoods sold out of homes:common for people who have refrigerators to buy milk in large quantities andsell to their neighbors each day & people who have ovens make tortillas to sellto neighborsMost working-class people, even in cities, raise a few turkeys, chickens, ducks,or pigs for the eggs or occasionally meat. Almost every backyard has coconut,banana, or mango treesStaples: rice and beans, fortunate families have cheese, butter, milk andtortillas, and once a week or so a stew or some other special dishSharing: Nicos believe that you will have bad luck if others see you being stingywith a special meal, you have to share with everyone who saw you fixing it oranyone who even heard you were fixing itVegetables: tomato, cabbage, sweet potato, avocado, yucca Fruits:for juices, jams, sauces. Bananas – porridge, milk shakes and cakes
  37. 37. Outdoor markets for the freshest foodMercado Oriental in Managuabiggest, six vendors deephttp:// DE NINO DE LA CALLE EN NICARAGUA4 de junio de 1998El martes 2 de junio, el joven WILLIAM ADOLFO AGUILAR LOPEZ de 17 años recibió un disparo enla parte de atrás de su cabeza por parte de un hombre adulto no identificado. El hecho ocurrió en elMercado Oriental de Managua, Nicaragua.William, un joven "huelepega", fue mortalmente herido por una bala que entró por detras de su orejaderecha y salió por su frente. Fue encontrado -todavia con vida- por dos policias que estaban fuerade servicio y quienes también trabajan como guardias privados en algunas tiendas de dichomercado. Uno de los policias llevó a William al Hospital Alemán, donde no aceptaron darle serviciosmédicos al muchacho. El joven fue transferido al Hospital Militar,donde fue atendido; pero murió pocodespues de ingresar. William, quien habia estado varias veces en el programa Quincho Barrilete, fueenterrado el 3 de junio.En este momento parece que las investigaciones policiales se están llevando a cabo correctamente,y la madre del joven hizo su declaración formal el dia de ayer. Aparentemente habia otro joven conWillian, de quien se dice habia robado la billetera a un hombre que se encontraba ahí con su esposay dos niños. Este hombre sacó su arma y le disparó a William en el momento en que este saliacorriendo del lugar.Fun & Friendly or Dangerous &Deadly
  38. 38. Drinks: Refrescos: fruitjuice, sugar, and water: locals can tell what the flavor is by the color- mango islight orange, papaya is yellow, and tamarind is brown; they are sold withcrushed ice in a plastic bag tied at the top, people hold the bag in one hand, biteoff a corner, and suck the drink out.Pinol: toasted cornmeal mixed with water or coconut milk and a flavoring likecinnamon or ginger, with cacao it is called pinolillo: commonly served in ahollowed-out gourdBreakfast: two slices of bread with butter(if available), an orange or a banana,heavily sugared coffee Lunch:beans and rice (or chicken), leftover bread from breakfast, cheese, fruit drinkmade from lemons or oranges picked form the backyard and heavily sweetenedDinner: gallo pinto,tortillas, fried cheeseGallo pinto – painted rooster, a mixture of red beans, rice, onions, garlic, andseasonings all fried in oil – named because of the colors of the beans and rice:families eat it at least once a dayMealtime
  39. 39. Indians - Staples: Corn (tortillas), beans, squash & meat rarely eatenUrban Areas –Guacamole (mashed avocados & onions) on rolls made fromsteamed corn dough and filled with beans, chicken, and hamburgersBreakfast: eggs, beans, and tortillas, with sour cream sauce, bananas: forsome even mosh which is a mixture of oats and milk, beans may be eatenPopol Vuh chilis – were believed to be made by the gods out of corn, a bowl ofthese raw or pickled are always served at restaurantsChilies are essential in the food, they are used for sauces, many levels of tasteand heat are possible, restaurants include a guide to how hot each dish isaccording to the amount of chilies it containsDrinks: Coffee is drunk with sugar and is weak, Tea without milk, Fruit andvegetable juices, Beer, Cocoa, Aguardiente is a strong sugarcane drinkknown as “White Eye”(Indians sometimes pour a small amount of it over thestatue of the saint they are praying to), Ron or rum is the most commonalcoholic drink which is sometimes poor quality and mixed with soft drinks.
  40. 40. Comedors – small inexpensive eatingestablishments found near the mainmarket, serve rice & beansFrying plantains
  41. 41. The World: Corn, tomatoes, chocolate, vanilla, varieties of squash such aspumpkins, peanuts, assorted beans, avocados, chilies, guava, coconuts,pineapples, papayas, turkeysCorn Corn Corn Corn Corn Corn Corn CornTortillas – a table is incomplete without them Chilies –the smaller the hotterTraditional Meals: tacos, enchiladas, tamales, quesadillas, tortillas, chalupas,gorditas, flautasChiles rellenos – long green peppers are stuffed with cheese or ground meat,dipped in egg batter, fried, then simmered in a bland tomato sauceChile en nogada – stuffing is ground pork, and chilis are decorated with sauce,seeds, and parsley to make the red, white, and green colors of the Mexican flag:it is made to celebrate Mexican Independence Day for a two-month periodbeginning in mid-August
  42. 42. Drinks: Coffee (high-quality coffee is grown in Mexico), served at the end of ameal, not drank on an empty stomach, very strong and served with a lot ofsugar. Cafe con leche – a blend of strong black coffee and hot milk served in atall, thick glassHot chocolate – pre-Spanish times, breakfast and supper, touch of cinnamon,Aztecs used honey and cinnamon instead of sugarAtole – basis in corn (masa/corn flour), dilute masa in water and boil it until it isas thick as a milkshakeAlcoholic – made from fruits and cacti, Tequila (mescal) & pulque – agave plantBreakfast: 6am–8am coffee with tamales or a piece of bread or pastryBrunch: 11am-Noon eggs with meat or tortillas, with coffee & milk or fruit juicesLunch: 2 or 3pm soup, rice or pasta, beans, tortillas, or bread, dessert, fruit juiceor beer (siesta time) Merienda/High tea:between 7 and 8pm hot chocolate, coffee, or atole, some pastries and tamalesDinner: 7:30pm-Midnight (9-10pm)a light meal leftovers form lunchMealtime
  43. 43. Tiendassmall grocerystoresConasuposgovernmentowned storesSupermercadoslarge storesFondasFood stalls
  44. 44. Dishes:Pabellon criollo – shredded meat with onions and green pepper, beans, rice andfried plantainsArepas – are small flat pancakes of fried or baked corn or corn-flour dough, canbe filled with beef, cheese, avocados, tuna, and beans: a food of the poor peoplewho eat several a dayHuallacas – corn pancakes filled with chicken, beef, pork, onion, garlic, olives,raisins, tomatoes, green pepper, capers, and sugar and spiced with cumin,parsley, and black peppers. They are wrapped in plantain leaves, which are notto b eaten, and boiled. A Christmas specialty because they take a long time toprepare.Moriche Palm is a part of the diet on some of the islands in the Orinoco delta –flour for making bread, grubs which they eat, and seeds that they prepare asweet honey dish, wine, and the sap becomes a drink called majobo.Staples: cassava, plantains, and bananas, nuts, seeds, plants for medicineSiestas are still a way of life.
  45. 45. Arepas
  46. 46. Bahia area has been called “Africa in Exile”- Typical food of the coast hasits origins in Africa. Women of the coastal area cook with oil from the dendepalm, coconut milk, coconut, and sugarcane syrup, as well as cashew nuts,corn, and cassava flour. Many of the dishes prepared by these people havereligious connections as well as being a meal. Certain dishes are made forindividual ancient gods and are left as gifts for them at their shrines on a feastday. Caruru which is made with dried shrimp, peanuts, and ginger is offered toXango, the god of thunder. Acaraje containing garlic, dried shrimp, and dende oilis sold by street vendors in Salvador and given as an offering to Iansa, goddessof the tempest.Amazon Forest Area: cassava is the staple diet of thetribes that live in this area. Cassava is a poisonous tuber, but itcan be made edible by soaking it in water, grating it, andsqueezing it through a tube woven from palm or vine. It is thenused to make bread. Other crops include corn and yams.People collect food from the forest in the forms of plants, fruit,nuts, honey and spices. Fish is an important part of their dietas well as forest animals of all sizes.
  47. 47. Cassava - [kuh-SAH-vuh] Though native to South America, the majority ofcassava now comes from Africa, where its an important staple. Also calledmanioc and yuca, the cassava is a root that ranges from 6 to 12 inches inlength and from 2 to 3 inches in diameter. It has a tough brown skin which,when peeled, reveals a crisp, white flesh. There are many varieties of cassavabut only two main categories, sweet and bitter. The bitter cassava ispoisonous unless cooked. Cassava is available year-round in Caribbean andLatin American markets. It should be stored in the refrigerator for no morethan 4 days. Grated, sun-dried cassava is called cassava meal. Cassava is alsoused to make cassareep and tapioca.
  48. 48. CassavaA traveler of the Albert Schweitzer School for the Humanities detailed anexperience with cassava.An early morning walk takes us to the fields on the outskirts of the village. First wehelp one of the women hoe in her freshly sewn rice seed. Then the peopledemonstrate the technique of harvesting mature cassava tubers. Loaded with thelong, potato-like tubers we head back. Each cassava tuber is washed, trimmed, andpeeled. We all take turns grating the cassava to form a wet starchy pulp. The pulpis drained, squeezed and dried overnight in conical woven bags called matapie. Thefollowing morning we pound the cassava cake into a course tapioca flour. The flouris sifted and sprinkled onto a round metal baking sheet. The final product tasteslike pizza crust. We eat some later coated with piles of delicious local banana-peanut butter.
  49. 49. Cassava