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AMMONIA SYNTHESIS BY KBR PROCESS
Submitted by-
Mohd Asif Siddique
Abhishek Gautam
Vineet Bhardwaj
Shashi Prakash Chaubey
D...
Introduction
Ammonia, the most widely used intermediate for
making fertilizers, is usually manufactured by the
catalytic ...
History of Ammonia Manufacture
• Ammonia is synthesized from hydrogen
and nitrogen
• Nitrogen source is always air
• Hydro...
Hydrogen Sources for Making Ammonia
Process Reaction App. Relative Energy
Consumption
Water electrolysis 2H2O 2H2+ O2 300 ...
CURRENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS
The proposed Ammonia Plant is based on the Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR)
Purifier™ ammonia proc...
CHEMISTRY OF SYN GAS PRODUCTION
Process Chemical Reaction Favourable Condition
Primary Reforming heat + CH4 + H2O → 3H2 + ...
Primary Reforming
Secondary Reforming
Shift Conversion
Process Description Favorable Conditions
CO2 Removal Physical Dissolution or Chemical
Reaction
Low temp &
High pressure
Me...
Syngas Purification
KBR Cryogenic Purifier
Process Description Favorable Conditions
Synthesis 3H2 + N2 → 2NH3 + heat Low T & high P
Heat Recovery Generate 100 bar+ s...
Refrigeration System
Ammonia Synthesis Loop
Advantages of KBR Process
 A clean, dry make-up gas reduces the load on the synloop compressor
and refrigeration systems,...
Conclusion
The new KBR natural gas to ammonia process is based on the
KBR purifier reforming technology.
Integrated with...
Thank You
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ammonia synthesis by natural gas with the use of KBR process

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Kbr

  1. 1. AMMONIA SYNTHESIS BY KBR PROCESS Submitted by- Mohd Asif Siddique Abhishek Gautam Vineet Bhardwaj Shashi Prakash Chaubey Deo Narain Goswami Sanchit Agarwal
  2. 2. Introduction Ammonia, the most widely used intermediate for making fertilizers, is usually manufactured by the catalytic steam reforming of natural gas. Natural gas has one of the highest proportions of hydrogen among all fossil fuel feed stocks. Hence, from an efficiency standpoint, natural gas is an ideally suited feedstock for the manufacture of ammonia.
  3. 3. History of Ammonia Manufacture • Ammonia is synthesized from hydrogen and nitrogen • Nitrogen source is always air • Hydrogen source has varied over the years
  4. 4. Hydrogen Sources for Making Ammonia Process Reaction App. Relative Energy Consumption Water electrolysis 2H2O 2H2+ O2 300 % Coal gasification C + 2H2O 2H2+ CO2 170 % Heavy fuel oil CH + 2H20 2.5H2 + CO2 135 % Naptha reforming CH2 + 2H2O 3H2 + CO2 104 % Natural gas reforming CH4 + 2H2O 4H2 + CO2 100 %
  5. 5. CURRENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS The proposed Ammonia Plant is based on the Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) Purifier™ ammonia process. The plant is a single continuous train using natural gas as feedstock. The plant has a capacity of 1500 tonnes per day (tpd), which is exported to atmospheric ammonia storage at -33C.
  6. 6. CHEMISTRY OF SYN GAS PRODUCTION Process Chemical Reaction Favourable Condition Primary Reforming heat + CH4 + H2O → 3H2 + CO High temp & High stm/carbon Secondary Reforming O2 + 2H2 → 2H2O + heat heat + CH4 + H2O → 3H2 + CO High temp & High stm/carbon High Temp Shift CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 + heat Low temperature High steam/CO Low Temp Shift CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 + heat Low temperature High steam/CO Process Equipment Features Primary Reforming Catalyst-packed tubes in a furnace Nickel catalyst Secondary Reforming Refractory-lined pressure vessel Nickel catalyst High temp shift Pressure vessel Iron-chrome catalyst Low temp shift Pressure vessel Copper-zinc catalyst
  7. 7. Primary Reforming Secondary Reforming
  8. 8. Shift Conversion
  9. 9. Process Description Favorable Conditions CO2 Removal Physical Dissolution or Chemical Reaction Low temp & High pressure Methanation CO + 3H2 → CH4 + H2O CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O 280 - 350°C Drying Physical Adsorption to remove water & CO2 2 - 4 °C Cryogenic Purification Separation of argon, residual CH4 and excess N2 from syngas -180 °C Chemistry of Syngas Purification
  10. 10. Syngas Purification
  11. 11. KBR Cryogenic Purifier
  12. 12. Process Description Favorable Conditions Synthesis 3H2 + N2 → 2NH3 + heat Low T & high P Heat Recovery Generate 100 bar+ steam High T Product Recovery Condense via refrigeration Low T & High P Process Equipment Features Synthesis Catalyst filled pressure vessel P = 90 – 175 bar T = 400 - 500 C Heat Recovery Shell & tube heat exchanger Proprietary design Product Recovery Compression refrigeration system Ammonia as the refrigerant Engineering of Ammonia Synthesis Chemistry of Ammonia Synloops
  13. 13. Refrigeration System Ammonia Synthesis Loop
  14. 14. Advantages of KBR Process  A clean, dry make-up gas reduces the load on the synloop compressor and refrigeration systems, providing operational cost savings.  Higher loop conversion is achieved with low inerts.  No separate purge gas recovery unit is needed because purge gas rejected from the synloop is passed through the Purifier unit.  Achieves greater stability and flexibility of operation, since the reforming section does not need to be tightly controlled to produce a precise H2/N2 ratio.  Low reforming temperatures translate to lower stresses in and longer life of reformer tubes.  Numerous Purifier plants have run 3 - 4 years without a maintenance shutdown.
  15. 15. Conclusion The new KBR natural gas to ammonia process is based on the KBR purifier reforming technology. Integrated with proven KBR ammonia synthesis technology. The process is well suited to a wide range of Natural gas feedstocks.  The process offers a robust and energy efficient design, with several advantages when compared to traditional Natural gas to ammonia processes. It is an economically attractive option for manufacturing ammonia.
  16. 16. Thank You

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