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Grammar and its types

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Basic introductory lecture on basic concepts of linguistics.

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Grammar and its types

  1. 1. In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.
  2. 2. Presented by: Asif Ali Raza asifalirazzza@yahoo.com +92-300-4626234
  3. 3. Contents • What is syntax? • What is Grammar and its types? • What is Generative Grammar? • Deep and Surface Structure • Structural Ambiguity • Tree Diagram • Symbols used in Syntactic Analysis • Phrase structural rules • Lexical rules • Movement rules • Complement phrase • Recursion
  4. 4. What is Syntax? The word ‘syntax’ has been derived from the Greek word syntaxis which means ‘arrangement’. It implies the way in which words are arranged so as to reveal relationships of meanings within sentences and often between them. It studies combinations of words including word-structure and sentence-structure.
  5. 5. What is Grammar? Grammar is a word that confuses considerably. It has been approached and defined differently by different scholars and schools of linguistics. Etymologically, the term Grammar goes back (through French & Latin) to Greek word Grammatika or Grammatkia which may be translated as the art of ‘writing’. But for a long time, this term has been used very closely to incorporate the whole study of language.
  6. 6. Types of Grammar Prominent types of grammar are discussed below: • Traditional Grammar • Prescriptive Grammar • Descriptive Grammar • Sentence-Interpretative Grammar • Sentence-Producing Grammar • Reference Grammar • Contrastive Grammar • Theoretical Grammar • Structural Grammar • Phrase-Structure Grammar • Generative Grammar • Transformational Grammar • Stratificational Grammar • Communicative Grammar
  7. 7. Generative Grammar Generative Grammar is a grammar in which a set of formal rules are used to generate or define the membership of an infinite set of grammatical sentences in a language. Instead of analyzing a single sentence, this grammar devises a set of rules of construction that may help in generating sentences or structures in an infinitely large number. This grammar attempts to produce all and only grammatical sentences of language. (all and only means that our analysis must account for all the grammatical correct phrases and sentences and only those grammatical correct phrases and sentences in whatever language we are analyzing.) We have a rule such as “a prepositional phrase in English consists of a preposition followed by a noun phrase”. We can produce a large number of (infinite) phrase using this rule. e.g. in the zoo, on the table, near the window
  8. 8. Deep and Surface Structure • Charlie broke the window. (Active Voice) • The window was broken by Charlie. (Passive Voice) • Jack loves his brother. (Active Voice) • His brother is loved by Jack. (Passive Voice) Some linguists, in particular Noam Chomsky, have tried to account for this similarity by positing that these two sentences are distinct (different) surface forms that derive from a common deep structure.
  9. 9. Deep and Surface Structure • Charlie broke the window. (Active Voice) • The window was broken by Charlie. (Passive Voice) • Jack loves his brother. (Active Voice) • His brother is loved by Jack. (Passive Voice) The distinction between them is a difference in their surface structure. They have different syntactic forms of individual sentence. This superficial difference is called surface structure.
  10. 10. Deep and Surface Structure The sentences can have deep structure like this: • It was Charlie who broke the window. • Was the window broken by Charlie? • It is Jack loves his brother. And so on… An abstract level of structural organization in which all the elements determining structural interpretation are represented is called deep structure. OR The underlying level where the basic components can be represented is called their deep structure.
  11. 11. Structural Ambiguity • Annie bumped into a man with an umbrella. • Small boys and girls are playing hide and seek. Explanation can show in the first sentence two ideas: i. Annie had an umbrella and she bumped into a man. ii. Annie bumped into a man when he happened to be carrying an umbrella. Explanation can show in the first sentence two ideas: i. Small boys are playing with young girls. ii. Small boys and all girls are playing. Distinct underlying interpretations that have to be represented differently in deep structure is called Structural Ambiguity.
  12. 12. Tree Diagram • A tree diagram is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree diagram” because the classic representation resembles a tree, even though the chart is generally upside down compared to an actual tree, with the "root" at the top and the "leaves" at the bottom. • Tree diagram provides us visual representation of the constituents of the corresponding expression.
  13. 13. Tree Diagram • E.g. A child can kick a football. A child can kick footballa S NP Aux VP N V NPArt NArt
  14. 14. Tree Diagram • E.g. A child can kick a football. TP DP T' D N T VP V NP The child can kick football NV a
  15. 15. Symbols used in Tree Diagram • S - Sentence • NP- Noun Phrase • PN- Proper Noun • N-Noun • VP-Verb Phrase • Adv-Adverb • V-Verb • Adj-Adjective • Prep-Preposition • Art-Article • Pro-Pronoun • PP-Prepositional Phrase • * Ungrammatical Sentence • Consists of / rewrites as • ( ) Optional Constituent • { } Only one of these constituents must be selected
  16. 16. Phrase Structure Rules • TP/S • NP VP • NP • {Art (Adj+) N, Pro, PN} • VP • V NP (PP) (Adv) • PP • P NP Tree Diagrams S NP VP NP Art N VP V NP PP P NP Phrase structure rules generate structures.
  17. 17. Lexical Rules As we know, phrase structure rules generate structures. To turn those structures into recognizable English, we also need lexical rules that specify which words can be used when we rewrite constituents such as N. • PN • { Mary, George } • N • { Girl, Dog, Boy } • Pro • { It, you, he } • Art • { A, An, the } • V • { Help, run, play } We can rely on these rules to generate the grammatical sentences but not ungrammatical sentences.
  18. 18. Movement rules It is easy to represent Declarative forms in tree diagrams. e.g. You will help Mary. S NP Aux VP Pro V NP You will help Mary S NP Aux VP
  19. 19. Movement rules It is easy to represent Declarative forms in tree diagrams. e.g. You will help Mary. BUT HOW CAN YOU REPRESENT THIS ONE? Will you help Mary?
  20. 20. Movement rules Simply Will you help Mary? S NPAux VP Pro V NP youWill help Mary S Aux NP VP
  21. 21. Movement rules You will help Mary. Will you help Mary? S NP Aux VP Pro V NP You will help Mary S NP Aux VP  S NPAux VP Pro V NP youWill help Mary S Aux NP VP
  22. 22. Recursion Examples: • a. ab • b. aabb • c. aaabbb • a. The man [who the girl saw is my friend • b. The man [who the girl [who sneezed] saw] is my friend. • c. The man [who the girl [who Peter [who knows] met] saw] is my friend.
  23. 23. Recursion Notice these: • Mary helped George. • Cathy knew that Mary helped George. • John believed that Cathy knew that Mary helped George. The rules of grammar will also need the crucial property of recursion. In this, we can put sentences inside other sentences and these sentences can be generated inside another sentences.
  24. 24. Complement Phrase • Mary helped George. • Cathy knew that Mary helped George. • John believed that Cathy knew that Mary helped George. Traditionally, such sentences are called clauses (that-clause) In the above examples, that is called complementizer (C). We can say that sentences with that are Complement Phrase (CP). Complement Phrase Rule S NP VP VP V CP CP C S
  25. 25. Complement Phrase John believed that Cathy knew that Mary helped George. S NP VP V CP C S NP VP V CP C S NP VP PN PN PN V NP PN John believed that Cathy knew that Mary helped George.
  26. 26. Query Session
  27. 27. Thanks
  28. 28. Bibliography •http://www.personal.uni- jena.de/~x4diho/FORM.Generative%20grammar%20theory.p df •https://linguistics.stonybrook.edu/files/undergrad_theses/m cadams.pdf •http://linguistics.arizona.edu/sites/linguistics.arizona.edu/fil es/3.Carnie%20Chapter1%20Introduction.pdf •http://dingo.sbs.arizona.edu/~massimo/publications/PDF/M PPCecchetto1.pdf •http://philosophy.fas.nyu.edu/docs/IO/1176/SchifferMeaning AndFormalSemantics.pdf •http://lohndal.com/wp-content/uploads/lasniklohndal.pdf •http://wac.colostate.edu/jbw/v6n2/noguchi.pdf •http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generative_grammar •http://lingo.stanford.edu/sag/papers/harman63.pdf •The Study of Language by George Yule •Some aspects of Linguistics by Famous Products •An Intrduction to Linguistics by V.S.Parsad •An Intoductory Text Book for Linguistics by Famous Products •Language on Target by NKM •An Easy Approach to Linguistics by NKM •A Handbook of Linguistics by Famous Products

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