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Managing Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

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Course Objectives
• Describe how to use Quality Management tools and methods.
• Build strong customer relationships.
• Hel...

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Introducing Quality Management and
Customer Services
© www.asia-masters.com

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Training Slides of Managing Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction discussing the importance of Quality.

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Training Slides of Managing Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction discussing the importance of Quality.

For further information regarding the course, please contact:
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www.asia-masters.com

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Managing Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

  1. 1. © www.asia-masters.com
  2. 2. Course Objectives • Describe how to use Quality Management tools and methods. • Build strong customer relationships. • Help influence and set customer expectations. • Measure their own degree of customer focus and be able to apply a variety of methods to get closer to the customer. • Implement improved people skills to enhance customer service. • Improve service to internal customers as well as external customers. • Use skills to build effective relationships. © www.asia-masters.com
  3. 3. Introducing Quality Management and Customer Services © www.asia-masters.com
  4. 4. Introduction to Quality Management • Quality management explained Quality assurance (QA) provides the basic components required of a quality system. Quality assurance incorporates standards against which internal or external assessment is undertaken, together with the processes in place to control the components of the quality system. Quality assurance systems are designed to provide assurance that a particular standard of quality has been met and maintained. © www.asia-masters.com
  5. 5. © www.asia-masters.com
  6. 6. With a quality management approach, continuous improvement systems are added to QA by incorporating a quality cycle of continuous improvement. Unlike QA, where the goal is to meet the specified standard, quality management is seen as an ongoing journey of continuous improvement. A quality management system is designed to provide evidence that a specified standard of quality has been met and continuously improved. © www.asia-masters.com
  7. 7. It is accepted as good management practice that organizations need to establish structural supports (e.g. documented plans, policies, standard operating procedures) to provide parameters for practice and enable them to demonstrate that those practices are sustainable. However, in determining ‘quality’ it is also acknowledged that a mechanism is needed to measure service user outcomes and the impact of service delivery in meeting service users’ needs and improving quality of life. Service users have an integral role to play in monitoring the quality of services they receive, so providers have a responsibility to investigate and implement a range of mechanisms for service user feedback on levels of satisfaction and opportunities for service users to participate in the decision-making processes of the service. The focus on outcomes is a particular strength of a quality management system approach. © www.asia-masters.com
  8. 8. © www.asia-masters.com
  9. 9. The History of Quality In Business • The quality movement can trace its roots back to medieval Europe, where craftsmen began organizing into unions called guilds in the late 13th century. • Until the early 19th century, manufacturing in the industrialized world tended to follow this craftsmanship model. The factory system, with its emphasis on product inspection, started in Great Britain in the mid-1750s and grew into the Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s. © www.asia-masters.com
  10. 10. • In the early 20th century, manufacturers began to include quality processes in quality practices. • After the United States entered World War II, quality became a critical component of the war effort: Bullets manufactured in one state, for example, had to work consistently in rifles made in another. The armed forces initially inspected virtually every unit of product; then to simplify and speed up this process without compromising safety, the military began to use sampling techniques for inspection, aided by the publication of military- specification standards and training courses in Walter Shewhart’s statistical process control techniques. © www.asia-masters.com
  11. 11. • The birth of total quality in the United States came as a direct response to the quality revolution in Japan following World War II. The Japanese welcomed the input of Americans Joseph M. Juran and W. Edwards Deming and rather than concentrating on inspection, focused on improving all organizational processes through the people who used them. • By the 1970s, U.S. industrial sectors such as automobiles and electronics had been broadsided by Japan’s high- quality competition. The U.S. response, emphasizing not only statistics but approaches that embraced the entire organization, became known as total quality management (TQM). © www.asia-masters.com
  12. 12. • By the last decade of the 20th century, TQM was considered a fad by many business leaders. But while the use of the term TQM has faded somewhat, particularly in the United States, its practices continue. • In the few years since the turn of the century, the quality movement seems to have matured beyond Total Quality. New quality systems have evolved from the foundations of Deming, Juran and the early Japanese practitioners of quality, and quality has moved beyond manufacturing into service, healthcare, education and government sectors. © www.asia-masters.com
  13. 13. Basic Quality Concepts • A History of Quality An overview of how the concepts and processes of quality have evolved from the craft guilds of medieval Europe to the workplaces of today. • Continuous Improvement How to take your products, services and processes to the next level through an ongoing cycle of activities that capitalize on improvement opportunities. • Cost of Quality Quality doesn't cost money. It's poor-quality products and services that pile up extra costs for your organization. Here's how to get started eliminating these expensive shortcomings. © www.asia-masters.com
  14. 14. Basic Quality Concepts • Customer Satisfaction Tips and resources for helping you identify your customers and what it will take to satisfy them. • Glossary A handy guide to the unique terminology of quality. • Problem Solving Using four basic steps to implement solutions by accurately defining problems and identifying alternatives. • Process View of Work Analyze how work gets done so that you can increase efficiency, effectiveness, and adaptability. © www.asia-masters.com
  15. 15. Basic Quality Concepts • Quality Assurance and Quality Control What's the difference? In the world of quality, these terms have very different meanings. • Root Cause Analysis Use a wide range of approaches, tools, and techniques to uncover causes of problems. • Supplier Quality The quality of what goes into a product or service determines the quality of what comes out. Here's how to keep costs low and quality high. • Variation Variation represents the difference between an ideal and an actual situation. © www.asia-masters.com
  16. 16. Getting Closer to Customers • The road to business success is rough. The business literature is crammed with descriptions of processes that would challenge the top executives while leading their companies to success. Commoditization, innovation, globalization, disruption, and others—we've heard it all. Simultaneously opportunities and threats, these processes can blur the leaders' visibility, making it hard to set and/or manage the right direction for their companies. • So what is to be done? How can leaders and their organizations see clearer through this foggy business environment? How can leaders find a solid ground amid this informational storm? The answer is relatively simple: deeper customer insight. © www.asia-masters.com
  17. 17. • Achieve higher knowledge The first step in getting closer to the customer is to go beyond his needs and understand the mechanics of his problem- solving behavior. Although its necessity has become more obvious in recent years, the quest for a higher degree of customer knowledge is not new. The past decade, for instance, has been characterized by advances materialized in concepts like "customer experience" and "customer status." Both concepts identify that in addition to the obvious customer's need, which can be addressed with a particular product or service, there are other complementary needs, which are also of high importance to the customer. © www.asia-masters.com
  18. 18. • Make knowledge relevant After getting a grasp on the mechanics of the customer's problem-solving behavior, it is important to make this knowledge relevant to practice. Therefore, we have identified three basic aspects of the process of setting and managing a company's direction that can benefit greatly from deeper customer insight: 1. Choosing the right strategy. 2. Solving the 'approach-or-offering dilemma‘. 3. Identifying opportunities and threats. © www.asia-masters.com
  19. 19. • Engage the organization As expected, a deeper customer insight can generate great results even when only a few members of an organization make use of it. However, the results have the potential to be far more powerful when the entire organization is engaged in the process of getting closer to the customer.
  20. 20. Understanding Customer Needs and Expectations You need to identify your customer’s needs and expectations to develop a competitive edge, build business relations, drive sales and become profitable. © www.asia-masters.com
  21. 21. Customer needs can include: • A request for advice or general information about your business or your products and services. • Specific requirements such as product features, quality and durability. • Special requests regarding delivery methods. • Inquiries about price and value. • Scheduling an appointment. • Purchasing products and services. • Lodging a complaint. • Returning products and services. © www.asia-masters.com
  22. 22. To help you identify a customer’s needs and expectations, you should: • Give customers your full attention. • Actively listen to what the customer is trying to communicate. • Speak clearly and concisely. • Use appropriate language and tone of voice. • Provide clear written information/ communication. • Provide opportunities for customers to confirm their request. • Ask questions to clarify and confirm customer requirements. • Seek feedback from the customer. © www.asia-masters.com
  23. 23. These tips will help to reduce the chance of a misunderstanding between you and the customer. They will also allow you to find a solution that will meet the customer’s needs and increase customer satisfaction. © www.asia-masters.com
  24. 24. Service Quality - Tools and Techniques © www.asia-masters.com
  25. 25. Five steps to Effective Quality Management • Step 1: Proper foundation Upgrading quality assurance is like improving other areas of your business, such as customer service. Certain standards apply industry-wide, but because every shop is different, every assurance program will be as well. As you assess yours, you'll need to look at factors such as industry standards, employee capabilities and talent, and how to most efficiently and effectively implement a system in your operations. © www.asia-masters.com
  26. 26. • Step 2: Keep a list No doubt your quality program involves the use of a checklist where quality inspectors can carefully record their work and "check off" all the areas they inspect. Bilderbury says shops can make these lists highly effective by keeping them fluid – continually modifying them to address changing quality challenges that a shop experiences. © www.asia-masters.com
  27. 27. • Step 3: Get everyone involved A repairer recently told ABRN that with shops focused more than ever on processes and compartmentalizing tasks, they risk pushing their employees into a mindset of focusing solely on their tasks and not the total repair. This use of resources runs counter to some quality assurance best practices because it removes potential inspectors from the quality program. In the best possible quality programs, everyone involved with repairing a vehicle performs inspection duties. © www.asia-masters.com
  28. 28. • Step 4: Name a chief inspector Even with every employee playing a role in quality inspection, shops still need a chief inspector. Bilderbury says the employee taking this role assumes responsibility for the completeness of the entire inspection process. He explains that a chief inspector performs a separate check to ensure that all other inspectors have done their jobs. © www.asia-masters.com
  29. 29. • Step 5: Final check Arguably, the single most important spot for evolution and improvement is the final quality check. Bilderbury says shops should approach the final check like students should when studying for a final – performing the vast majority of their preparation in the time leading up to a test instead of cramming the night before. To him, this means catching at least 99 percent of all potential problems during the repair and before the final detailing. The final check mostly should entail looking for relatively minor cosmetic details that may have been overlooked. © www.asia-masters.com
  30. 30. Methods of Control Control techniques or methods are generally described as either quantitative or nonquantitative. © www.asia-masters.com
  31. 31. Quantitative Methods Quantitative methods use data and various quantitative tools to monitor and control production output. Two common quantitative tools are budgets and audits. By far the most widely recognized quantitative tool is the chart. Charts used as control tools normally contrast time and performance. The visual impact of a chart often provides the quickest method of relating data. A difference in numbers is much more noticeable when displayed graphically. Most charts are versions of either the Gantt chart or the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). © www.asia-masters.com
  32. 32. BUDGETS By far the best known control device is the budget. Budgets and control are, in fact, synonymous. An organization’s budget is an expression in financial terms of a plan for meeting the organization’s goals for a specific period. A budget is an instrument of planning, management, and control. We use budgets in two ways. First, we use them as established facts that must be factored into our operational planning. Second, we use them to prepare narrative descriptions and financial information that our chain of command uses in its annual request and management of its funds. At present, the Department of the Navy (DON) uses two major budget systems. These are zero- based budgeting (ZBB) and the planning, programming, and budgeting system (PPBS) © www.asia-masters.com
  33. 33. AUDITS Internal auditing provides an independent review and appraisal of accounting, financial, and other nontactical operations. As a management tool, the audit measures and evaluates the effectiveness of management controls. The Naval Audit Service provides an independent audit of programs, activities, systems, and procedures. It also provides an independent audit of other operations involving the use of funds and resources and the accomplishment of management goals. Budgets and audits are addressed in detail in Financial Management in the Navy, NAVEDTRA 10792-E © www.asia-masters.com
  34. 34. Nonquantitative Methods Nonquantitative methods refer to total or overall control of performance rather than specific processes. These methods use tools such as inspections, reports, direct supervision, and performance evaluation/counseling to accomplish goals. © www.asia-masters.com
  35. 35. TOTAL QUALITY LEADERSHIP The DON has recently adopted the concept of Total Quality Leadership (TQL) as the means of meeting DON needs into the 21st century. Executive Order 12637, signed April 27, 1988, establishes the Productivity Improvement Program for the federal government. TQL IS THE NAVY’S ANSWER TO THIS ORDER. © www.asia-masters.com
  36. 36. The concept behind TQL revolves around a change from leadership by results to leadership by process (quality) improvement. The manager’s task is to continually improve each and every process in his or her organization. This means combining quantitative methods and human resource leadership techniques to improve customer-supplier relations and internal processes. This cultural change in leadership practices has certain basic elements: © www.asia-masters.com
  37. 37. • Leaders must clearly state the organization’s mission. This is stated clearly and made available to all employees, suppliers, and customers. Aclear, public-mission statement prevents individuals from generating their own definitions of work priorities. • Leaders and supervisors must ensure their actions clearly support the organization’s mission. This support includes setting priorities and assigning tasks. • Leaders must focus their efforts toward a common goal. This focus is an important part of team building. • Leaders must make a long-term commitment to quality improvement. Individual leaders must set an example by providing consistent, focused leadership. © www.asia-masters.com
  38. 38. Continuous Improvement What is continuous improvement? Continuous improvement is a systematic, ongoing effort to raise a residential aged care home’s performance as measured against the Accreditation Standards. © www.asia-masters.com
  39. 39. Continuous improvement: • takes into account the needs of residents, and may involve them in improvement activities • involves a focus on lifting performance against each of the Accreditation Standards and expected outcomes • is part of an overall quality system, focusing on systematic and integrated improvements with clearly defined objectives • is a results-focused activity which can be demonstrated through outputs and outcomes • ranges in scale from smaller programs to significant strategic initiatives. • Approved providers have a responsibility to actively pursue continuous improvement throughout the accreditation period. Approved providers have a responsibility to actively pursue continuous improvement throughout the accreditation period. © www.asia-masters.com
  40. 40. • What is the relationship between continuous improvement and quality assurance? Continuous improvement involves the establishment and support of a culture that aims for better practice in care and services for residents. Quality assurance is concerned with the maintenance of systems and processes to ensure variances are managed; continuous improvement moves beyond this to lift the home’s performance to a higher standard. © www.asia-masters.com
  41. 41. What are the principles of continuous improvement? There are many approaches and terms associated with continuous improvement. Whatever approach is used, the following framework helps to drive and support the process: • Resident-focused. • Strategic planning and implementation. • Clearly defined objectives and outcomes. • Involvement of key stakeholders. • Encouragement of innovation. • Utilization of a range of approaches and techniques. • Regular monitoring and evaluation. © www.asia-masters.com
  42. 42. A culture of continuous improvement means the home is responsive to change from a variety of inputs and can continually develop a quality service that is of value to its residents. A sound continuous improvement program can demonstrate: • Baseline – the current situation the home is trying to change • Planned improvements and the expected benefit to residents– this includes assigning priorities among improvement activities • monitoring – systems to monitor a new process or activity During its implementation including through key milestones or interim indicators • Evaluation – systems to monitor a new process or activity once it has been implemented, which should help ensure its sustainability and capture the actual improvements. © www.asia-masters.com
  43. 43. • How can homes implement improvements in a structured manner? The following model is used by assessment teams to review a homes’ continuous improvement processes:
  44. 44. Plan the Improvement Actively pursuing continuous improvement requires a systematic evaluation and improvement of service quality at various levels including researching possible solutions for improvement priorities, being receptive to suggestions for improvement from residents, representatives and staff, and assessing the practicality of new methods or technologies in terms of the home’s overall planning process. © www.asia-masters.com
  45. 45. Implement the Improvement As a new activity or process is implemented, homes should monitor the implementation to make sure the change is not causing problems, and to see if modifications to the new activity or process need to be made to ensure positive results for residents. © www.asia-masters.com
  46. 46. Evaluate Success of the Improvement Activity This step is to used to evaluate how effective the improvement effort has been in improving care and services for residents. This step can often be overlooked in the enthusiasm to improve and make a difference. This part of the improvement cycle may distinguish a mature continuous improvement approach from a less developed approach. © www.asia-masters.com
  47. 47. Why should keep track of improvement activities? Keeping track of improvement activities ensures a strategic approach to continuous improvement, including prioritisation of activities. It also allows homes to reflect back on what worked well, and what didn’t. A plan for continuous improvement can be in the home’s own format but must include clear information on: • issues identified • the expected outcome/s to which it relates • the planned action/s • planned completion date. © www.asia-masters.com
  48. 48. An example may therefore be:
  49. 49. Questionnaires Design © www.asia-masters.com
  50. 50. Steps to Design A Questionnaire 1. Write out the primary and secondary aims of your study. 2. Write out concepts/information to be collected that relates to these aims. 3. Review the current literature to identify already validated questionnaires that measure your specific area of interest. 4. Compose a draft of your questionnaire. 5. Revise the draft. 6. Assemble the final questionnaire.
  51. 51. Step 1: Define the aims of the study • Write out the problem and primary and secondary aims using one sentence per aim. Formulate a plan for the statistical analysis of each aim. • Make sure to define the target population in your aim(s). © www.asia-masters.com
  52. 52. Step 2: Define the Variables to Be Collected • Write a detailed list of the information to be collected and the concepts to be measured in the study. Are you trying to identify: – Attitudes – Needs – Behavior – Demographics – Some combination of these concepts • Translate these concepts into variables that can be measured. • Define the role of each variable in the statistical analysis: – Predictor – Confounder – Outcome © www.asia-masters.com
  53. 53. Step 3: Review the Literature • Review current literature to identify related surveys and data collection instruments that have measured concepts similar to those related to your study’s aims. • Saves development time and allows for comparison with other studies if used appropriately. • Proceed with caution if using only a subset of an existing questionnaire as this may change the meaning of the scores. Contact the authors of the questionnaire to determine if a smaller version of the instrument exists that has also been validated. © www.asia-masters.com
  54. 54. Step 4: Compose a draft [1]: • Determine the mode of survey administration: face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, self-completed questionnaires, computer-assisted approaches. • Write more questions than will be included in the final draft. • Format the draft as if it were the final version with appropriate white space to get an accurate estimate as to its length – longer questionnaires reduce the response rate. • Place the most important items in the first half of the questionnaire to increase response on the important measures even in partially completed surveys. • Make sure questions flow naturally from one to another.
  55. 55. Compose a draft [2]: • Question: How many cups of coffee or tea do you drink in a day? • Principle: Ask for an answer in only one dimension. • Solution: Separate the question into two – – (1) How many cups of coffee do you drink during a typical day? – (2) How many cups of tea do you drink during a typical day? © www.asia-masters.com
  56. 56. Compose a draft [3]: • Question: What brand of computer do you own? – (A) IBM PC – (B) Apple • Principle: Avoid hidden assumptions. Make sure to accommodate all possible answers. • Solution: – (1) Make each response a separate dichotomous item • Do you own an IBM PC? (Circle: Yes or No) • Do you own an Apple computer? (Circle: Yes or No) – (2) Add necessary response categories and allow for multiple responses. • What brand of computer do you own? (Circle all that apply) – Do not own computer – IBM PC – Apple – Other © www.asia-masters.com
  57. 57. Compose a draft [4]: • Question: Have you had pain in the last week? [ ] Never[ ] Seldom [ ] Often [ ] Very often • Principle: Make sure question and answer options match. • Solution: Reword either question or answer to match. – How often have you had pain in the last week? [ ] Never [ ] Seldom [ ] Often [ ] Very Often
  58. 58. Compose a draft [5]: • Question: Where did you grow up? – Country – Farm – City • Principle: Avoid questions having non-mutually exclusive answers. • Solution: Design the question with mutually exclusive options. – Where did you grow up? • House in the country • Farm in the country • City
  59. 59. Compose a draft [6]: • Question: Are you against drug abuse? (Circle: Yes or No) • Principle: Write questions that will produce variability in the responses. • Solution: Eliminate the question. © www.asia-masters.com
  60. 60. Compose a draft [7]: • Question: Which one of the following do you think increases a person’s chance of having a heart attack the most? (Check one.) [ ] Smoking [ ] Being overweight [ ] Stress • Principle: Encourage the respondent to consider each possible response to avoid the uncertainty of whether a missing item may represent either an answer that does not apply or an overlooked item. • Solution: Which of the following increases the chance of having a heart attack? – Smoking: [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Don’t know – Being overweight: [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Don’t know – Stress: [ ] Yes [ ] No [ ] Don’t know © www.asia-masters.com
  61. 61. Compose a draft [8]: • Question: – (1) Do you currently have a life insurance policy? (Circle: Yes or No) – If no, go to question 3. – (2) How much is your annual life insurance premium? • Principle: Avoid branching as much as possible to avoid confusing respondents. • Solution: If possible, write as one question. – How much did you spend last year for life insurance? (Write 0 if none). © www.asia-masters.com
  62. 62. Step 5: Revise • Shorten the set of questions for the study. If a question does not address one of your aims, discard it. • Refine the questions included and their wording by testing them with a variety of respondents. – Ensure the flow is natural. – Verify that terms and concepts are familiar and easy to understand for your target audience. – Keep recall to a minimum and focus on the recent past. © www.asia-masters.com
  63. 63. Step 6: Assemble the final questionnaire [1]: • Decide whether you will format the questionnaire yourself or use computer-based programs for assistance: – SurveyMonkey.com – Adobe Live Cycle Designer 7.0 – GCRC assistance • At the top, clearly state: – The purpose of the study – How the data will be used – Instructions on how to fill out the questionnaire – Your policy on confidentiality • Include identifying data on each page of a multi-page, paper-based questionnaire such as a respondent ID number in case the pages separate. © www.asia-masters.com
  64. 64. Assemble the final questionnaire [2]: • Group questions concerning major subject areas together and introduce them by heading or short descriptive statements. • Order questions in order to stimulate recall. • Order and format questions to ensure unbiased and balanced results. © www.asia-masters.com
  65. 65. 65 Assemble the final questionnaire [3]: • Include white space to make answers clear and to help increase response rate. • Space response scales widely enough so that it is easy to circle or check the correct answer without the mark accidentally including the answer above or below. – Open-ended questions: the space for the response should be big enough to allow respondents with large handwriting to write comfortably in the space. – Closed-ended questions: line up answers vertically and precede them with boxes or brackets to check, or by numbers to circle, rather than open blanks. • Use larger font size (e.g., 14) and high contrast (black on white). © www.asia-masters.com
  66. 66. Cause and Effect Analysis When you have a serious problem, it's important to explore all of the things that could cause it, before you start to think about a solution. That way you can solve the problem completely, first time round, rather than just addressing part of it and having the problem run on and on. Cause and Effect Analysis gives you a useful way of doing this. This diagram-based technique, which combines Brainstorming with a type of Mind Map , pushes you to consider all possible causes of a problem, rather than just the ones that are most obvious.
  67. 67. About the Tool Cause and Effect Analysis was devised by professor Kaoru Ishikawa, a pioneer of quality management, in the 1960s. The technique was then published in his 1990 book, "Introduction to Quality Control." The diagrams that you create with Cause and Effect Analysis are known as Ishikawa Diagrams or Fishbone Diagrams (because a completed diagram can look like the skeleton of a fish). Cause and Effect Analysis was originally developed as a quality control tool, but you can use the technique just as well in other ways. For instance, you can use it to: • Discover the root cause of a problem. • Uncover bottlenecks in your processes. • Identify where and why a process isn't working.
  68. 68. How to Use the Tool Follow these steps to solve a problem with Cause and Effect Analysis: Step 1: Identify the Problem First, write down the exact problem you face. Where appropriate, identify who is involved, what the problem is, and when and where it occurs. Then, write the problem in a box on the left-hand side of a large sheet of paper, and draw a line across the paper horizontally from the box. This arrangement, looking like the head and spine of a fish, gives you space to develop ideas. Example: In this simple example, a manager is having problems with an uncooperative branch office. © www.asia-masters.com
  69. 69. Figure 1 – Cause and Effect Analysis Example Step 1 Tip 1: Some people prefer to write the problem on the right-hand side of the piece of paper, and develop ideas in the space to the left. Use whichever approach you feel most comfortable with. Tip 2: It's important to define your problem correctly. CATWOE* , can help you do this – this asks you to look at the problem from the perspective of Customers, Actors in the process, the Transformation process, the overall World view, the process Owner, and Environmental constraints. By considering all of these, you can develop a comprehensive understanding of the problem. * CATWOE: Understanding the Different Elements That Contribute to a Problem. © www.asia-masters.com
  70. 70. • Step 2: Work Out the Major Factors Involved • Next, identify the factors that may be part of the problem. These may be systems, equipment, materials, external forces, people involved with the problem, and so on. • Try to draw out as many of these as possible. As a starting point, you can use models such as the McKinsey 7S Framework (which offers you Strategy, Structure, Systems, Shared values, Skills, Style and Staff as factors that you can consider) or the 4Ps of Marketing (which offers Product, Place, Price, and Promotion as possible factors). • Brainstorm any other factors that may affect the situation. • Then draw a line off the "spine" of the diagram for each factor, and label each line. © www.asia-masters.com
  71. 71. Example: The manager identifies the following factors, and adds these to his diagram: • Site. • Task. • People. • Equipment. • Control. © www.asia-masters.com
  72. 72. Figure 2 – Cause and Effect Analysis Example Step 2 - See more at: © www.asia-masters.com
  73. 73. Step 3: Identify Possible Causes Now, for each of the factors you considered in step 2, brainstorm possible causes of the problem that may be related to the factor. Show these possible causes as shorter lines coming off the "bones" of the diagram. Where a cause is large or complex, then it may be best to break it down into sub- causes. Show these as lines coming off each cause line. Example: For each of the factors he identified in step 2, the manager brainstorms possible causes of the problem, and adds these to his diagram, as shown in figure 3. © www.asia-masters.com
  74. 74. Figure 3 – Cause and Effect Analysis Example Step 3 - See more at: © www.asia-masters.com
  75. 75. Step 4: Analyze Your Diagram By this stage you should have a diagram showing all of the possible causes of the problem that you can think of. Depending on the complexity and importance of the problem, you can now investigate the most likely causes further. This may involve setting up investigations, carrying out surveys, and so on. These will be designed to test which of these possible causes is actually contributing to the problem. Example: The manager has now finished his Cause and Effect Analysis. If he hadn't looked at the problem this way, he might have dealt with it by assuming that people in the branch office were "being difficult." © www.asia-masters.com
  76. 76. Managing Customer Expectations © www.asia-masters.com
  77. 77. Exceeding Customer Expectations Every Time When you exceed a customer’s expectations you are delivering what they purchased and more. Exceptional services or products are rarely forgotten. Here are six ways to make your customer’s experience with your business both exceptional and memorable. © www.asia-masters.com
  78. 78. 1. Be thoughtful. Provide a pleasant, easily navigable shopping experience. Chances are you hear the same questions over and over again from potential customers. These questions point to issues your site is not addressing as well as it could. >Take action: Review a month’s worth of your correspondence with customers. Make a list of their questions. Figure out how your website or shop policies can better answer the three questions that are the most frequently asked. © www.asia-masters.com
  79. 79. 2. Be impeccable with your words. Provide accurate product or service descriptions, and only make promises you can keep. You are better off under promising and over delivering than vice versa. (Consider the example of shipping. “Ships within 24 hours” sounds impressive, but if you have trouble meeting that promise 1 time out of 10, you end up with one-tenth of your customers unhappy. You don’t need to change anything except your description of your shipping policy. If it’s “ships within 48-72 hours” but you are still shipping within 24 hours 9 times out of 10, you’ve given yourself a chance to impress 9 customers. And the tenth customer still gets their package exactly when they expected it, so they’re pleased too.) >Take action: Identify at least one promise (real or implied) that you are making to your customers that you might not be living up to every time. Rewrite it so you can exceed the promise 9 times out of 10.
  80. 80. 3. Be polite. Your customers enjoy hearing their own names, and they like to hear “please” and “thank you” as much as you do. It’s free to provide service with good manners, and you are grateful for their business, aren’t you? Say so with your actions and your words. Over and over and over. Do this every day with every customer. © www.asia-masters.com
  81. 81. 4. Be accountable. If you make a mistake, admit it, apologize, and make it up to the customer. A refund is less expensive – both financially and emotionally – than bad press from an unhappy customer. >Take action: Recall the best experience you’ve ever had returning something you bought. Make a list of things the vendor did to make that experience a good one. Can you implement any of these in your business? © www.asia-masters.com
  82. 82. 5. Be accessible. Make it easy to contact you. Use your full name. Respond promptly to all emails or calls from customers. Listen to and respond to what customers are asking or saying about your business. >Take action: Add your full name and email address to your Facebook page, Twitter profile, Etsy shop, and website. © www.asia-masters.com
  83. 83. 6. Be generous. Reward your clients with unexpected benefits. This could be a small gift added to the purchase, or a coupon for their next shopping experience with you. >Take action: Make a list of three possible rewards you could share with your customers. © www.asia-masters.com
  84. 84. Asking for Feedback on Performance © www.asia-masters.com
  85. 85.  How excited do we get when someone tells us they want to give us some feedback? For many of us, not very excited! No one ever feels like they are creating job security or strengthening relationships when they give feedback and thus don’t always provide the truth. Dr. Marshall Goldsmith, an authority in helping successful leaders get even better, found that if instead of focusing solely on feedback, we should also focus on feedforward. Feedforward is a process of gaining positive suggestions from others that are pertinent to improving performance in a specified area. © www.asia-masters.com
  86. 86.  Why does feedforward work? • When you make it clear to your stakeholders that you need their help in order to improve an area of development they become willing to share their ideas and thoughts on how to get better. They finally feel like they have a stake in the process. • Feedforward is focused on sharing positive, future oriented suggestions. • By following up on the suggestions you receive, you demonstrate your commitment to grow and your stakeholders develop an increased desire to help you and to share their thoughts. © www.asia-masters.com
  87. 87.  How do I implement the process? • Make it informal. You can ask for feedforward suggestions in person, on the phone or via email. • Keep your conversations focused. The purpose of the feedforward conversation is to answer the question, “What can I do to get better in my area of development?” • Keep the conversation very simple. “I am working on becoming a better listener. Can you give me a positive suggestion on how I can do this? What are some positive things you’ve noticed that good listeners do?” © www.asia-masters.com
  88. 88.  Who should I ask to provide me with this information? • The best people to help you are those that are in a position to give you accurate information about your behavior. They might be your supervisors, peers and/or direct reports. • You need to make sure they feel safe enough to be completely honest with you. • Will they fair in their assessment? • Will they take a few minutes on occasion to give you their suggestions? © www.asia-masters.com
  89. 89.  What are the major roadblocks to doing feedforward? What are the roadblocks that keep you from asking for feedforward? • It feels awkward. • I think it needs to be a formal process. • It is difficult to change culture; this is not a part of our culture. • I am so busy already, how do I fit it into my schedule. • I don’t know how to do it. • I don’t know who I should ask or how many people.  How can I overcome these roadblocks? What are some of the best practices used to create success? • Don’t put too much pressure on yourself. • Make it an informal experience. Fit it into your regular conversations. • Create a reminder in Outlook. • Practice what you are going to say with someone. • Cast a wide net and include as many people as you possibly can. • Be quick – a 2 minute conversation may be long enough. © www.asia-masters.com
  90. 90.  Important things to remember • The recommendations you receive are accurate reflections of how you can improve from their perspective. • The responses you receive are current indicators of your behavior. • Feedforward is a way for others to support you in your goals and challenge you to reach your • full potential. • Remember to thank them for willingly helping you. • Don’t spend time debating the responses. Just say, “thank you.” • You do not need to implement every suggestion. Ask yourself, “What would happen if I implemented this suggestion?” © www.asia-masters.com
  91. 91. The magic of feedforward is that it’s a positive way to get many more ideas than one could probably use. Choose a few and try them out. You’ll be amazed at what will happen! © www.asia-masters.com
  92. 92. People Skills to Deliver Excellent Customer Service © www.asia-masters.com
  93. 93. Building Rapport • Building rapport and engaging with people-whether it’s in person or online—takes practice. Much of it is based on intuition. It’s about creating a bond, link, connection, and understanding. • The goal is to connect with others and get them thinking, feeling, reacting, and involved. It doesn’t matter if you’re in sales, own a business, or work for someone else. Rapport building is an art and skill in communication that’s used daily in all of our relationships. © www.asia-masters.com
  94. 94. • Here are 10 tips to help you get in sync with others and build rapport: 1. Be approachable. In person, carry yourself in such a way that is easy-going, friendly, and confident. When you’re online, have a welcoming and intriguing profile. Use an avatar of your smiling face. 2. Ask good questions. People love to talk about themselves. Asking questions and paying attention to the answers helps you learn more about the other person and shows that you have a genuine interest in them. The key is in your follow-up. This is how they’ll know you are truly catching their details. © www.asia-masters.com
  95. 95. 3. Use their name. In person, the sweetest sound to anyone is the sound of their own name. Sprinkle it into a conversation. Online, using Twitter as an example, if the person’s name is not in their handle, click on their profile and get their name. It will take only a few seconds but sends that wonderful message of, “I care; I took the time to find out.” 4. Understand that you can still have rapport with someone even though you disagree. If you don’t see eye-to-eye, you can be respectful and appreciate differing opinions. Communication and relationships are based on compromise. With both in person and online communication, you don’t have to agree. A simple acknowledgement is usually sufficient—and appreciated.
  96. 96. 5. Stay upbeat. No one likes to be around a complaining, negative victim. It’s awfully difficult to connect and engage with people who are leaking poison. Be known for your positive attitude and willingness to help others (yes, even strangers). Remember, easy-going and approachable. 6. Discover the fine art of small talk. This will help in person and online—especially if you feel shy or nervous. Have a few “conversation starters” up your sleeve in case you run into a snag. Always be looking for opportunities that connect you with others—it can be something as basic as liking the same sports team, having the same kind of SUV, or ordering the same lunch. Focus on similarities, not differences. © www.asia-masters.com
  97. 97. 7. Notice how others handle information. This is especially important in live conversations. It may be at a networking breakfast, on Skype, or a u-Stream video. Does the other person like “the big picture” or do they prefer the fine details? As you speak, feed back information in the size they prefer. 8. Learn communication modalities. If someone is a visual communicator, they will say things like, “Looks good to me” or “I get the picture.” An auditory person will say things like, “ That sounds good to me” or “Listen to this.” Pay attention to the clues the person drops you (in person or online) and follow their modality. It will bring a subliminal sense of comfort to them and instantly builds rapport. These “modality clues” will be evident in your live conversations and in social networking. This is called NLP- Neurolinguistic Programming. © www.asia-masters.com
  98. 98. 9. Pick up on favorite words and phrases. In a subtle way, intersperse them into your conversation. This will help you bond. It also brings a sense of comfort to the individual you’re speaking with—in person or online. 10. Watch and listen to people. Pay attention to those you admire who seem to easily connect and engage with others, particularly strangers. Whether it’s in person or online, observe the conversations, posts, and Tweets. What works for them? How do they break the ice and bond with others? How do people respond to them? Rapport is about making a two-way connection. How do you know that’s happened? You experience a genuine sense of trust and respect with another human being. You easily engage with them, regardless of how different the two of you may be. You feel like you are listening and being listened to. That’s rapport © www.asia-masters.com
  99. 99. Developing Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence, also referred to as ‘EQ’, is the ability to identify, evaluate and control your own emotions and to better understand and manage the emotions (or motivations) of others. The term "emotional intelligence" has been around since the 1980s and came to popular prominence through Daniel Goleman who wrote a best-selling book titled Emotional Intelligence. The term itself is subject to disagreement as to what defines it precisely but being such a broad topic, it is possible to discern the main components of EQ so that you can draw on these aspects when seeking to improve both your understanding and your personal implementation of EQ. © www.asia-masters.com
  100. 100. Steps 1- Understand the importance of emotional intelligence in all aspects of your life. Being intellectually capable is important in life, but being emotionally intelligent can be considered even more so, as there are many benefits associated with high emotional intelligence. © www.asia-masters.com
  101. 101. 2- Learn to recognize stress triggers and how to deal with them. Life is filled with difficult situations from relationship breakdowns to job loss. In between, there are myriad stress triggers that can make any daily issue seem much more challenging than it probably is and the more stressed we are, the more vulnerable we are to not coping with life's many stressors. © www.asia-masters.com
  102. 102. 3- Be open-minded, intellectually curious and agreeable. Openness and being agreeable go hand-in-hand when it comes to emotional intelligence. Be open to new ideas – a narrow mind is generally an indication of a lower EQ.
  103. 103. 4- Be outgoing and empathetic. Those who have the ability to understand others and direct interest toward external properties (i.e., being focused on what is outside of the self) instead of being focused on oneself (self-absorbed) have the qualities of extroversion and empathy. To break it down, being selfless is known as extroversion (note that this is not the same as being an extrovert) and understanding others is known as empathy. © www.asia-masters.com
  104. 104. 5- Be conscientious and prepared to deliberate. Rational thinking and actions are abundant aspects of emotional intelligence. While you can understand a situation well and have a clear idea of it, if you can’t take rational actions toward it then what use would an analytical understanding of the situation be? © www.asia-masters.com
  105. 105. 6- Be attentive and self-aware – know thyself. To be attentive is to pay attention to oneself and your surroundings in a positive manner. Knowing who you are comes in big here. If you don’t know who you are how can you expect to know others? Worse still is expecting others to define you, to remove your autonomy and sense of life purpose by delineating your pathway for you. © www.asia-masters.com
  106. 106. 7- Practice communication skills. Having good communication skills results in a better EQ. A high level of communication skills makes it is easier to send across and receive messages that are clear, to-the-point and respectful of both your own boundaries and those of others. © www.asia-masters.com
  107. 107. 8- Be optimistic. Those who are optimistic tend to live a happy, successful life. When you're optimistic, it's easier to see the beauty in life and everyday objects. In a way, being optimistic results in an open mind, making it a crucial element of improving your emotional intelligence. © www.asia-masters.com
  108. 108. © www.asia-masters.com

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