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  1. 1. Inclusion
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>LRE </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming/integration </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse mainstreaming/integration </li></ul>
  3. 3. Inclusion Perspective <ul><li>DEC position statement </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of an Inclusive Program: </li></ul><ul><li>All children attend the same program, all of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Each child is given the support he/she needs to be successful in the setting. </li></ul><ul><li>For children age 3 to school age, these settings are most often public and private community preschool and childcare programs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Goals of Inclusion <ul><li>Goal 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the unique educational, curricular, instructional, social, and emotional needs of all children in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a safe and welcoming environment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide peer support </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage friendships </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Goal 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge every student to fulfill their unique potential </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge students to complete as far and fast as they can </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Create and maintain a positive environment that is conducive to learning. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Goal 5. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange the physical environment, routine organizational factors to accommodate all children. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal 6. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support that is needed. </li></ul>
  7. 7. DAP <ul><li>The process of professionals making decisions about the well-being and education of children based on at least three important kinds of information or knowledge. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>1. what is known about child development and learning-knowledge of age-related human characteristics that permits general predictions within an age range about what activities, materials, interactions, or experiences will be safe, healthy, interesting, achievable, and also challenging to children. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Age Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Universal, predictable sequences of growth and changes that occur in the early years (birth through 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a framework for preparing the environment so as to be appropriate and challenging </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>2. what is known about the strengths, interests and needs of each individual child in the group to be able to adapt for and be responsive to inevitable individual variation </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Individual Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Unique patterns and timing of growth, and individual personality, temperament and background </li></ul><ul><li>Be responsive to the strengths, interests and needs of each child and respond to and adapt for individual variation </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>3. knowledge of the social and cultural contexts in which children live to ensure that learning experiences are meaningful, respectful and relevant for the participating children and their families </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Cultural Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the social and cultural contexts in which children live to ensure meaningful experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Allows educators to have a better understanding of growth and learning in context to the environment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Teacher Perspective of Working with a CLD Population (Holiday, Bitseedy, Russell, Multiple Voices) <ul><li>Being CLD in itself is not a problem; growing up in another cultural environment is frequently a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must seek out Community members from the culture to work with students and assist teachers to link the culture with the learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The classroom must incorporate routines that are familiar to the students across content areas. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Teacher Perspective of Working with a CLD Population (Holiday, Bitseedy, Russell, Multiple Voices) <ul><li>CLD students grow up experiencing at least 2 different views of the world they live in. </li></ul><ul><li>Must establish self identity and pride for belonging in the culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools oblivious to the traumatic cultural differences & traditions when going to school. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize diversity, traditions & its impact on life & experiences & infuse it in the curriculum, not just add on. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Teacher Perspective of Working with a CLD Population (Holiday, Bitseedy, Russell, Multiple Voices) <ul><li>Lack of relevant curriculum and does not address what the child already knows. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to be receptive & expressive in their own language. Establish holisitc strategies that are student driven: cooperative learning, literature, oral traditions </li></ul><ul><li>For all these do not try to reinvent the wheel. Ask family members or others in the community. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Best Practices in Special Education <ul><li>Intervention Focused on Functional Goals </li></ul><ul><li>A functional skill is one that is essential to participation within a variety of integrated environments. </li></ul><ul><li>In early childhood settings, functional skills are those that assist children to interact more independently and positively with their physical and social environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Family-Centered Services </li></ul><ul><li>The family is the heart of all early childhood programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Families participate in planning and decision making for all aspects of their children ’s program. </li></ul><ul><li>A good school-family partnership includes a system for a child ’s family to have regular communication with the classroom staff and have frequent opportunities to participate in their child’s program. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular Monitoring and Adjustment of Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Educators and care providers should systematically monitor the effects of specific interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have shown the effectiveness of using formative assessment data to monitor children ’s progress toward their individual goals and objectives. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Transition Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Educators and child care providers of all children – especially children with disabilities – must plan for transition from one school or child care setting to the next one. </li></ul><ul><li>Early childhood special educators are particularly concerned with transition from preschool to kindergarten because this move signals a major change for the child and the family from familiar and secure surroundings to a new, unknown setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary Services </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals from many disciplines need to participate in the planning of comprehensive services for children with disabilities and their families. </li></ul><ul><li>Because many of these children and their families have complex needs, no single professional and no one discipline can provide a full range of services. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Rationale for Inclusive Early Education <ul><li>Ethical issue </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization issue </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental issue </li></ul><ul><li>sensitive periods </li></ul><ul><li>teachable moments </li></ul><ul><li>imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Cost issue </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Research based or value based </li></ul><ul><li>Family centered </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural </li></ul><ul><li>Cross disciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Developmentally/chronologically appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Normalized </li></ul>
  20. 20. Supporting Inclusion <ul><li>Individualizing programs </li></ul><ul><li>Learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>All children belong </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Balance activities </li></ul><ul><li>Participation with peers </li></ul><ul><li>Range of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Structure child-child interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Plan classroom activities </li></ul><ul><li>Professional collaboration </li></ul>
  21. 21. Benefits of Inclusion <ul><li>Children with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>enhanced experiences </li></ul><ul><li>developmental scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>better opportunities for interaction </li></ul><ul><li>implicit motivation </li></ul><ul><li>learn from others </li></ul><ul><li>Children without disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>peer tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>individualized instruction for all children </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul>
  22. 22. Concerns and Challenges <ul><li>Will special needs be served </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate behaviors </li></ul>