DIHRM -MAHM AMT – III rd sem –Regional Cultures Central India And Deccan-Malwa, Jorwe, Kayatha. 2 Copper Hoard 3 Relationship Between Aryans, Late Harappans, Copper Hoard And OCP.
•Regional Cultures Central India And Deccan-Malwa,Jorwe, Kayatha.
•2 Copper Hoard
•3Relationship Between Aryans, Late Harappans, Copper Hoard And OCP.
By Dr Ashwani Asthana
REGIONAL CULTURES CENTRAL INDIA AND
DECCAN-MALWA, JORWE, KAYATHA.
Early farming Chalcolithic cultures which are non-
Before the excavation of Kayatha, Malwa was considered
as earliest but after its excavation- Kayatha proved to be
the earliest site.
This type site is located 25km east of Ujjain in Madhya
Pradesh on the right bank of Chotikali Sindh. A tributary of
Kali Sindh which is the tributary of Chambal.
This site was first excavated in 1968 by V. S. Vakankar,
Z.Ansari and M.K.Dhalvikar.
Kapitthaka (ancient name of Kayatha) is the same place
where astronomer Varahmihir born, (505AD-587AD) which
falls during Gupta period. This site has a thick deposition of
around 12 meters.
Pd1- Kayatha culture and is datable to B.K.Thapar
(2100-1800BC), M.K.Dhalvikar (2450-2000BC)Then
there is a break of 15cm thick deposit.
Pd2- Ahar culture. B.K.Thapar(1700-1500BC), M.K.
Pd3- Malwa culture. B.K.Thapar(1500-
Pd4- Early historic cultures. M.K. Dhalvikar(600-200
Pd5- Sunga, Kushana, Gupta Phase (200 BC – 600
AD) M.K. Dhalvikar.
KAYATHA- Earliest agricultural Chalcolithic
A. Sturdy violet painted pinkish red ware with
geometric design over it with parallel oblique
lines, parallel vertical lines, horizontal lines and
group of vertical wavy lines.
Also series of continuous loops (creeper pattern)
can be seen on it.This ware is made up of well
levigated clay and it is a wheel made.
Shapes are- Storage jar and Bowls.
B. Red painted buff ware having a very thin wall
sections and this pottery is also known as deluxe
In one of such vase, 160-175 beads of a necklace
were found and in other 2 pots, 27 copper
bangles were also found.
Shapes are- vases and dishes.
C. Combed ware treated with red slip, externally
associated with these is coarse handmade ware
with inside & appliqué design.
Other associated objects –
Copper- Axes, Bangles & Chisels.
Siliceous stones- Chalcedony, Agate, Stone Mace
Beads of crystal,Terracotta, shell, but they are few
and micro beads of steatite have been found over
40,000 (in hoard form).
Architecture- Houses were made up of mud or
wattle and daub with floor of hard compact yellow
So far 40 to 50 sites have been found in North
Western M.P. mostly in the Chambal valley.
MALWA Culture (1700-1500 BC)
-Malwa is a region, not a particular site.This
terminology is based on the basis of its nuclear
zone.This region is laying in the Chambal in
Basins are- Narmada in the south, Godavari,
Betwa in the east uptoAravalli in the west.
The famous sites of this culture which were
excavated are- Maheshwar & Navadatoli
(Narmada), Nagda (Chambal), Prakash (Tapti),
Daimabad (Pravara), Kaytha (Choti Kali Sindh),
Inamagaon (Godh) and Eran (Pitwa/Betwa).
- Ware-It is a ware of buff or orange slipped pottery, painted in black
or dark brown. ‘These people were using copper, stone tools and their
settlement was made up of wattle and daub huts.
- Economy-Farming, hunting, fishing.They were cultivating wheat in
Malwa region but not in Deccan region. In general they cultivated
Barley, Rice, Lentil and Green Gram.
- Architecture-They made both circular and rectangular huts.They
used to dispose their garbage in rectangular pits found at Navadatoli.
The floors were made up of rammed clay with lime coating over it.At
Eran, evidence of fortification wall of mud and use of Mud brick (for
rampart) which is made up of compact clay and a moat has been
- Metallurgy- Copper & low grade bronze was used.The objects of
metal found are Celts, mid ribbed sword, arrow head, beads, bangles,
rings, fish hook, nails and chisels.
- Stone objects-Ring stone, hammer stone.
- Other material- Coral, crystal, faience, steatite, lapis lazuli, shell
-Terracotta- Animal figurines, wheels, discs made out of waste
potsherds, stoppers and lamps.
A painted bull from Prakash of Harappa tradition is a note worthy
- Pottery Dishes-They made orange slip from outside and inside or
sometimes both of local clay, having design on the slipped surface.
Thin purplish brown black pigment.The red background however
- Common vases shape- Jars, Bowls including spouted one. We have
challises, dish on stand, lids, saucers with geometrical patterns and
- Animals in painting- Spotted deer, crane and stylised peacock.
These animals were used in paintings as fillers.
Harappans affinity can be seen with dish on stand, goblets and
globular vases.We have cream and buff ware painted in Black or
Purple pigment. One can see geometrical designs, human figurines
and antelopes. With this, thick burnish grey ware is also present
occasionally in ochre paint.At Prakash, white painted pale grey, Black
& grey ware with egg shell lustre is a unique finding. (Spheroid or
ovoid bowls).Technology is of black and red ware ofAhar.
Some important sites of Malwa culture-
Navdatoli & Maheshwar- In ancient time, this site is known as
Maheshmati which was the capital of Ananti. It is on a highway
between Prathisthan (paithan) in Ujjain.
Inscription- One inscription has been found (by the people of
Maheshmati) states that they have donated something to Sanchi. It is
also mention in Purana- Haihayas. It was explored in 1950 &
excavated in 1952-53 by University ofVadodara and Pune under the
directorship of H.D. Sankalia.Total cultural sequence started from
lower Palaeolithic to 18th cent. A.D. [7 cultural periods].
Pd.1- Lower Palaeolithic culture comparable to the group of DeTerra
& Peterson in 1930 at lower & upper Narmada.
Pd.2- Middle Palaeolithic.
Pd.3- Chalcolithic (which is datable to 1500-1200 B.C.) from
Maheshwar mound 5.
Phase I- Painted black and red ware and cream slipped ware
and Malwa ware.
Phase II-Black & red ware disappeared. Only cream slipped
ware along with Malwa ware was there. Evidence of fire in the
city in large area has been reported from here.
Phase III-Cream slipped ware + Jorwe + 2 sherds of lustrous red
ware + Malwa.
Phase IV-Characterised by storage jars with appliqué design.
Malwa ware is predominated.
Pd. 4- Northern black polish ware (400-100 B.C.)
Pd. 5- Early historical + transition of NBPW to RPW + black &
red decreases (100BC-100AD).
Pd. 6- Early historical + red polish ware + black and red ware +
black slipped ware (100-500A.D).
Pd. 7- Muslim to Maratha Period.
Nagda- District Ujjain, east bank of Chambal. Excavation was done in
1955-56 by N.R. Banerjee.
Pd. 1- Chalcolithic Malwa culture (hitus between 1 and 2).
Pd. 2- Pre NBPW, use of iron and early Chalcolithic features. (500
Pd. 3- NBPW (500-200 B.C.)
Prakash– District Dhule on the confluence ofTapti and Gomai. Here
deposition is of
17m and excavation was done by B.K.Thapar in 1955-56.
Pd. 1- Chalcolithic (1700-1300 B.C.)
1B: Malwa + Lustrous red ware + Jorwe.
Pd. 2-Tool of iron, Black and red ware and NBPW (700- 100 B.C).
Pd. 3- Characterized by red polished ware (Mid 2nd B.C. to the end of
Pd. 4- (6th – 11th A.D.).
Daimabad- Situated in district Ahmednagar on the river Pravara. It
was discovered by Shri. B.P. Bopardikar and for the first time it was
excavated by M.N. Deshpande in 1958-59.This site was re-excavated
by S.R. Rao in 1974-75 and 1975-78. In 1979, again it was excavated by
Phase 1- Savalda culture (2300-2000 B.C.).
Phase 2- Late Harappan/ Harappan (2200 to 1800 B.C).The
Harappans were living with the Chalcolithic people.
Phase 3- Buff & cream ware.
Phase 4- Malwa (1700-1500 B.C.)
Phase 5- Jorwe
Kayatha- Situated in district Pune, on the bank of river Godh, which
is a tributary of river Bhima. It is excavated in 1968-74.This is an
upper Palaeolithic site.
Pd. 1- Malwa (1600-1400 B.C.), M.K.Dhavlikar (1700-1500 B.C.)
Pd. 2- Early Jorwe ( B.K.Thapar 1400-1000B.C), Dhavlikar (1500-900
Pd. 3- Late Jorwe (B.K.Thapar 1000 – 700 B.C).
Eran– In district Sagar on the river Bina, a tributary of Betwa. It was
excavated by Alexander Cunnigham and again excavated by K.D.
Bajpayee in 1960-65.
Pd. 1A- Early Chalolithic (2100-1700 B.C.) and Malwa Culture.
Pd. 1B- Late Chalcolithic (1700-1500 B.C.)
Pd. 2A- Iron bearing deposit + Black and red painted ware of Ahar
tradition + one sherd of NBPW is found (700-200 B.C.)
Pd. 2B- RPW (200 B.C – 100 A.D.)
Pd. 3: (100A.D- 600A.D) and this site is still in occupation.
It was the semi arid zone of Deccan platue with Pravara & Godawari
basin as the nuclear area. Name of this culture is based on the type
site Jorwe on the left bank of Pravara which is a tributary of Godawari
in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. It is identified with
Jarasandnagar. It has a distinct ceramic industry called Jorwe ware.
Some important sites are Nevasa, Nasik, Prakash, Navadatoli,
Daimabad, Inamgaon, Chandoli etc.
Surface: Dark to light orange and shades of red colour. It has a
metallic ring. Most of the vessels are slipped often on the both sides
in various shades of red colour in combination with yellow and brown.
They are designed with linear & geometrical designs shapes like
carinated bowl or dish, tubular spouted vase and high neck globular
Associated finds: Full fledged blade industries.Trapezoid, Lunates
Copper object- Celts, chisels, beads, rings, bangles, fish hooks and
dragger with antin hilt (similar as OCP).
Beads-Variety of semi precious stones and gold.
Terracotta- Lamps, discs, stoppers, wheels, animals and Goddess
figurines, theriom- orphic vessels (reported from Chandauli).
Stone object- Querns and mullers, ponders and spherical balls.
*Theriomorphic vessel found, a concept of Koban culture of north
Caucasus.Also a burial was found from Inamgaon in coffin of mother
and child. Orientation of this burial was north to south and it was
inside the house.
Terracotta- one of the terracotta pots was found in shape of womb with a handmade
child figurine inside.This must be a way to give respect to the dead ones.
Economy- farming, hunting & fishing
Agriculture- barley, wheat, peas, rice (rare), lintel.
Fruits (Indian Jujube or ber).
Architecture- huts with conical roof (wattle and daub). Floor was rammed with cow
dung & lime.
At Inamgaon & Daimabad, some structures are also found.The people are still living
in the same pattern. In early Jorwe, the houses were circular and some bones of goat
and sheep were found.
Nasik- Situated near river Godawari.This was described in Patanjali also. 15km away
from this one will get a lower Palaeolithic site.
Pd. 1- Chalcolithic, Jorwe ware.
Pd. 2- Early historical (5th- 3rd B.C.)
2 B (3rd- 1st C. B.C) Jhukkar ware, rusticated ware. Some un-inscribed casted copper
coins were also found.
Pd. 3- (50-200A.D.) found roman contacts there.The date of these contacts was given
on the basis of roman pottery.
Pd. 4- Muslim and Maratha period (1400-1857A.D.)
Chandoli- Excavated by Ansari of Deccan College, Pune.
Pd. 1 Malwa, Jorwe.
Nevasa- Situated in district Ahmadnagar, near Pravara River.
North part of the mound is known as Nevasa Buduruk and
south part is known as Nevasa khurd. It was explored by M.S.
Deshpande and was excavated by H.D. Sankalia in 1954-56.
Pd. 1- Lower Palaeolithic.
Pd. 2- Middle Palaeolithic
Pd. 3- Chalcolithic (1500-1000 B.C.)
Pd. 4- Early historical (2nd – 1st cent B.C.)
PMC, cast copper coins.
Pd. 5- Indo-roman rouletted ware, red polish ware, roman
Amphorae, black on red ware and northern black polish sherds.
Pd. 6-A break of 3rd cent and then Muslims and Maratha. Also
evidence is found of silk from here.
Ochre Colour Pottery
K.N.Dixit- Late Harappan phase which is found in GangaYamuna
Bargaon (Saharanpur district).
Pd. 1- Late Harappan and OCP (1700-1300 B.C.)
Pd. 2- (1300-1000 B.C.)
*Possehl suggested a date of OCP on the basis of his comparative
study which is [(1900 B.C. - 1000 B.C.)- Alamgirpur].
Mardarpur- This site is in District Muradabad inThakurdwara. Here 31
anthropomorphic figurines have been found. In total its number is 42
which have been found from 8 sites of U.P. total 44 in world.
According to Gordon Child, they were like missiles.
According toTiny, they were like a cult object and it symbolizes
ancestors who regard as defenders of rais (in north East Asia).
Double axe- only 3 specimens are known two are double sided and
one is single sided.
Around 110 OCP sites have been found.
Area of distribution- 110 sites are in Doab region from Mayapur in
district Saharanpur in the north up to Saipai in district Etawa in the
88 sites in Saharapur,
7 sites in Merrut,
7 sites in Bulandsahar,
3 sites in Muzaffar nagar,
1 site in Muradabad,
1 site in Etta,
1 site in Alighar,
1 site in Etawa
* Recently 3 more sites revealed OCP deposition, which are, Bargaon,
* Out of 88 sites in Saharanpur, 36 sites seem to have late Harappan
deposits. Small mounds found from Bahadrabad, Bisauli, Rajpur
parsu and Saipai.These sites are 5-8 km apart from each other. Some
famous sites are Hastinapur,Ahichchatra,Atrajikhera and Noh.
Architecture- Lal Quila in district Bulandshaher. Here rammed earth
floor was found. Use of mud and burnt bricks is present only for
bathroom and for drains.
Houses had thatch roof. Burnt plaster, reed impression and mud clot
with lead & bamboo impression was found.Technology and material
remain known from Bahadrabad, Lal Quila,Atranjikhera especially
Saipai, where Harpoons found with OCP deposition.
Ornaments-Terracotta bangles, beads.
Toys- Animals figurines, cart wheel with knobs.
Kitchen object- Stone pestles and querns.
Weapons- Bone points.
Economy- Evidence from Atranjikhera of Rice, Barley cultivation and
consumption, Gram and Khaseri. No animal bone has been found.
Nasirpur,Ambala, Jhinjhana and late Harappan Bargaon excavation
revealed OCP and cemetery H ware influence of late Harappans.
Flood theory- from Ambakheri.
- Variety of pottery & shapes- This kind of
pottery has paintings in black on red which look
very close to Harappan pottery (although
evidences of paintings are very flimsy). It has
form of wavy lines, circles, wet designs on
shoulder and body. AtAtranjkhera and Saipai,
incised designs are present. In 1964, M.N.
Deshpandey has said that this OCP is a
degenerated form of Harappan pottery or refuge
of late Harappans on the basis of Ambarkeri and
Bargaon. Another view point is these people of
OCP culture must have come from the North-
east Rajasthan (from Noh).
COPPER HOARD CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 3 GROUPS:-
Group A- Celts (flat, shouldered and Bar Celts)
Group B- Rings.
Group C- Harpoons, Antennae sword, variants of
anthropomorphic and double axes.
Such anthropomorphic objects have been found from various
sites such as- 35 such specimens found from Sanulli, 31
specimens found from Mardarpur in districtThakardwara,
Muradabad, 13 from all other places in U.P. 1 such specimen is
in Patna museum and other is in Brookline museum, U.K.
According to Gordon Child, these might be used as a missile for
killing birds like boomerang. But size, shape and weight don’t
suggest it.Tiny says it seems to be a symbolic representation of
metal god as like today we have iron for god ‘Shani’. In North-
EasternAsia, according to S.P. Gupta, it symbolises ancestors
who were the defenders of the race.
Size-The height is 25/45cm and width is 30/43cm except one
found from Bisauli which is 22.5cm in length and 33.5cm in
Double axe- 3 specimens have been found so far, 2 among
which are double edged and 1 has only one edge.
So these are all the representatives of copper hoard (even a
single specimen). These types of specimens have not been
found from anywhere else except from India. Even from
certain burials such specimens have been found.
i.) Flat Celt- Usually these kinds of Celts have sub-rectangular edge on one
end. In total, 255 Celts have been found from 48 sites so far.
6 Celts found from 3 sites in Haryana,
88 Celts found from 21 sites in U.P,
74 Celts found from 5 sites in Rajasthan,
13 Celts found from 5 sites in M.P.,
72 Celts from 12 sites in Bihar,
2 Celts found from a site in Karnataka,
And fromWest Bengal and Orissa no Celt has been reported so far. Generally
these flat Celts are 10/12 cm in length and 8/18cm in width.
ii.) Shoulder Celt- In total, 84 shouldered Celts have been found from 28 sites.
38 found from 11 sites in U.P,
22 found from 7 sites in Bihar,
5 found from 5 sites inWest Bengal,
9 Celts found from 5 sites in Orissa.
This shows that distribution is South-Easterly. From south of doab no such
shapes have been found up till now.These Celts are- 14/23cm in length and
20/23cm in width.
iii.) Bar Celt- Parallel sided bar with a crescent cutting edge. So far 30 Celts
have been found from 8 sites.
3 Celts found from 2 sites in U.P.,
7 Celts found from 2 sites in Rajasthan,
17 Celts found from a site in Bihar,
1 Celt each has been found from M.P,West Bengal and Orissa. On most of the
Celts one can see trader marks. Size- 4/8cm in width and 50/60 cm in length.
Rings- 80 rings have been found 9 sites in total.
12 rings found from 8 sites in Harayana,
9 rings found from 3 sites in U.P.,
47 rings found from M.P. (at site Pondi in district Reva),
1 ring found from a site in Bihar,
11 rings found from a site inWest Bengal.
According to Smith-These rings look like ring money of silver & gold (like
Irish currency). Some other scholars say it could be a unit of measurement for
i.) Harpoon- Harpoons again can be divided into
A- Cut and hammered from sheets- 2 such
harpoons have been found from Bithur.Through
proper excavation such harpoons have also been
found from a site Saipai.These kinds of harpoons
generally have 6 to 9 barbs.They are sometimes
two and a half feet long.
B- Casted in double mould- Such harpoons are
casted in double mould having long blades 2/3 or 5
in number with incurved barbs.These harpoons are
the supreme example of craftsmanship of that time.
29 such harpoons have been found from 11 sites in
U.P., and only 1 such specimen has been reported
from Mithathal in Harayana.
ii.) Antennae sword -These antennae hoard can be
divided into two types-
A- Antennae sword-These swords have antennae
on the holding part. Length of the blades of such
swords varies in between 40 to 50cm. So far 19
swords have been found from 6 sites in U.P.
including a recent discovery of 2 swords from
Sanholi.These swords have been found all over
from theWestern U.P. except from a site Kallur in
district Raichur of Karnataka.
B- Hooked sword-These have hook on its butt part.
Length of the blades again varies in between 40 to
50 cm generally. So far 15 hooked swords have been
found from 9 sites all in theWestern U.P.
iii.) Anthropomorphs- Such anthropomorphic objects
have been found from various sites such as- 35 such
specimens found from Sanholi, 31 specimens found
from Mardarpur in districtThakardwara, Muradabad, 13
from all other places in U.P. 1 such specimen is in Patna
museum and other is in Brookline museum, U.K.
According to Gordon Child, these might be used as a
missile for killing birds like boomerang. But size, shape
and weight don’t suggest it.Tiny says it seems to be a
symbolic representation of metal god as like today we
have iron for god ‘Shani’. In North-Eastern Asia,
according to S.P. Gupta, it symbolises ancestors who
were the defenders of the race.
Size-The height is 25/45cm and width is 30/43cm except
one found from Bisauli which is 22.5cm in length and
33.5cm in width.
iv.) Double axe- 3 specimens have been found so far, 2 among
which are double edged and 1 has only one edge.
So these are all the representatives of copper hoard (even a
single specimen).These types of specimens have not been
found from anywhere else except from India. Even from certain
burials such specimens have been found.
We can divide the specimens on zone basis, such as-
*Zone A- Bihar,West Bengal and Orissa. (Specimens found-
Flat Celts, Shouldered Celts, Bar Celts and double axes).
*Zone B- U.P. and Haryana. (Specimens found-
Anthropomorphs, Antennae sword, Hooked sword, Harpoons
besides Flat Celts, Shouldered Celts and Bar Celts).
*Zone C- Rajasthan. (Specimens found- Flat Celts and Bar
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ARYANS, LATE
HARAPPANS, COPPER HOARD AND OCP. On the basis of typological analysis of copper objects (hoard) like Celts and
axes found from Harappa and Mohanjodaro with similar objects found from
Egypt, Sardinia, British Isles,Greece andTrans Caucasian., Hyne Gelern
propounded that copper hoard belonged to the Aryans who came to India
somewhere in between 1200-1000B.C. Professor B.B. Lal in his detailed
typological analysis and critical assessment on Hyne Geldern view shows that
none of the copper hoard type have been found from Egypt, Sardinia and
Piggott first supported the above view in 1944 and in his view these are the
late Harappan people. “It would be tamping to associate this movement with
something more than trade and see in it colonization of Ganges basin by
refugees and display person Punjab and Indus valley during the time of the
break up of Harappa, an empire and coming from Aryan from the west”.Y.D.
Sharma concluded that OCP & late Harappa was the later phase of Harappa
culture on the basis of some of the discoveries of copper hoard object, OCP,
late Harappan pottery at Bahaderabad and a broken anthropomorphic
figurine from Lothal.
K.N. Dixit in 1968, on the basis of mid rib of
Harpoons and sword found from Haryana, U.P. and
Rajasthan and the surface excavation of Saipai in
Itawa said that the copper hoard was never found in
stratigraphical content at copper hoard sites of
Bahaderabad, Nasirpur, and Rajpur parsu, Baheriya,
Kiratpur, Baisauli and Sanholi. OCP was not found
(the copper hoard using people were O.C.P.).
On the basis of evidences, Professor B.B. Lal
associated copper hoards with OCP, obtained from
Hastinapur, Bisauli and Rajpur Parsu.They were the
inhabitant of Doab prior to the arrival of Aryans.
The area of copper hoard distribution is known to have been
occupied by Austro-Asiatic speaking Mundas, Santhals and
other tribes belonging to the proto Astrolabe group of Indian
population.The Austro-Asiatic languages spoken in Burma and
by Khasis in North-East India could provide due to the route
which Mundas had taken on their migration towards Eastern
side of the central India. “It may also possible that Eastern
Austro-Asiatic tribes, the forefathers of Mon-Khmer might be
linguistically associated with Mundas” (quoted by Bon Gard and
Possibility is that the Mundas migrated to India with knowledge
of copper metallurgy during 3000-2000 B.C. and they were the
creators of such copper hoards. InVedic literature also we have
a reference that Aryans were encountered in certain native
tribes and they were called Nishadas (with short stature and
flat nose).Those were none but the Mundas, an Austro-Asiatic