Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
•Regional Cultures Central India And Deccan-Malwa,Jorwe, Kayatha.
•2 Copper Hoard
•3Relationship Between Aryans, Late Hara...
REGIONAL CULTURES CENTRAL INDIA AND
DECCAN-MALWA, JORWE, KAYATHA.
 Early farming Chalcolithic cultures which are non-
Har...
 Pd1- Kayatha culture and is datable to B.K.Thapar
(2100-1800BC), M.K.Dhalvikar (2450-2000BC)Then
there is a break of 15c...
 KAYATHA- Earliest agricultural Chalcolithic
village community.
 Main Features-
 A. Sturdy violet painted pinkish red w...
 B. Red painted buff ware having a very thin wall
sections and this pottery is also known as deluxe
ware.
 In one of suc...
 Other associated objects –
 Copper- Axes, Bangles & Chisels.
 Siliceous stones- Chalcedony, Agate, Stone Mace
head.
 ...
 MALWA Culture (1700-1500 BC)

 -Malwa is a region, not a particular site.This
terminology is based on the basis of its...
 Characteristics features-
 - Ware-It is a ware of buff or orange slipped pottery, painted in black
or dark brown. ‘Thes...
 -Terracotta- Animal figurines, wheels, discs made out of waste
potsherds, stoppers and lamps.
 A painted bull from Prak...
 Some important sites of Malwa culture-

 Navdatoli & Maheshwar- In ancient time, this site is known as
Maheshmati whic...
 Sub phases-
 Phase I- Painted black and red ware and cream slipped ware
and Malwa ware.
 Phase II-Black & red ware dis...
 Nagda- District Ujjain, east bank of Chambal. Excavation was done in
1955-56 by N.R. Banerjee.
 Pd. 1- Chalcolithic Mal...
 Daimabad- Situated in district Ahmednagar on the river Pravara. It
was discovered by Shri. B.P. Bopardikar and for the f...
 Eran– In district Sagar on the river Bina, a tributary of Betwa. It was
excavated by Alexander Cunnigham and again excav...
 Characteristics:
 Surface: Dark to light orange and shades of red colour. It has a
metallic ring. Most of the vessels a...
 Terracotta- one of the terracotta pots was found in shape of womb with a handmade
child figurine inside.This must be a w...
 Chandoli- Excavated by Ansari of Deccan College, Pune.
 Pd. 1 Malwa, Jorwe.

 Nevasa- Situated in district Ahmadnagar...
 Ochre Colour Pottery
 K.N.Dixit- Late Harappan phase which is found in GangaYamuna
Doab
 Bargaon (Saharanpur district)...
 Around 110 OCP sites have been found.
 Area of distribution- 110 sites are in Doab region from Mayapur in
district Saha...
 Architecture- Lal Quila in district Bulandshaher. Here rammed earth
floor was found. Use of mud and burnt bricks is pres...
- Variety of pottery & shapes- This kind of
pottery has paintings in black on red which look
very close to Harappan potter...
 COPPER HOARD
 COPPER HOARD CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 3 GROUPS:-

 Group A- Celts (flat, shouldered and Bar Celts)
 Group B...
Anthropomorphic Figurine
 Anthropomorphs-
 Such anthropomorphic objects have been found from various
sites such as- 35 such specimens found from ...
 Double axe- 3 specimens have been found so far, 2 among
which are double edged and 1 has only one edge.
 So these are a...
 Group A-
 i.) Flat Celt- Usually these kinds of Celts have sub-rectangular edge on one
end. In total, 255 Celts have be...
 iii.) Bar Celt- Parallel sided bar with a crescent cutting edge. So far 30 Celts
have been found from 8 sites.
 3 Celts...
 Group C-
 i.) Harpoon- Harpoons again can be divided into
two-
 A- Cut and hammered from sheets- 2 such
harpoons have ...
 ii.) Antennae sword -These antennae hoard can be
divided into two types-
 A- Antennae sword-These swords have antennae
...
 iii.) Anthropomorphs- Such anthropomorphic objects
have been found from various sites such as- 35 such
specimens found f...
 iv.) Double axe- 3 specimens have been found so far, 2 among
which are double edged and 1 has only one edge.

 So thes...
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ARYANS, LATE
HARAPPANS, COPPER HOARD AND OCP. On the basis of typological analysis of copper objects...
 K.N. Dixit in 1968, on the basis of mid rib of
Harpoons and sword found from Haryana, U.P. and
Rajasthan and the surface...
 The area of copper hoard distribution is known to have been
occupied by Austro-Asiatic speaking Mundas, Santhals and
oth...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

DIHRM -MAHM AMT – III rd sem –Regional Cultures Central India And Deccan-Malwa, Jorwe, Kayatha. 2 Copper Hoard 3 Relationship Between Aryans, Late Harappans, Copper Hoard And OCP.

206 views

Published on

Regional Cultures Central India And Deccan-Malwa, Jorwe, Kayatha. 2 Copper Hoard 3 Relationship Between Aryans, Late Harappans, Copper Hoard And OCP.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

DIHRM -MAHM AMT – III rd sem –Regional Cultures Central India And Deccan-Malwa, Jorwe, Kayatha. 2 Copper Hoard 3 Relationship Between Aryans, Late Harappans, Copper Hoard And OCP.

  1. 1. •Regional Cultures Central India And Deccan-Malwa,Jorwe, Kayatha. •2 Copper Hoard •3Relationship Between Aryans, Late Harappans, Copper Hoard And OCP. By Dr Ashwani Asthana
  2. 2. REGIONAL CULTURES CENTRAL INDIA AND DECCAN-MALWA, JORWE, KAYATHA.  Early farming Chalcolithic cultures which are non- Harappans.  Before the excavation of Kayatha, Malwa was considered as earliest but after its excavation- Kayatha proved to be the earliest site.  This type site is located 25km east of Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh on the right bank of Chotikali Sindh. A tributary of Kali Sindh which is the tributary of Chambal.  This site was first excavated in 1968 by V. S. Vakankar, Z.Ansari and M.K.Dhalvikar.  Kapitthaka (ancient name of Kayatha) is the same place where astronomer Varahmihir born, (505AD-587AD) which falls during Gupta period. This site has a thick deposition of around 12 meters.
  3. 3.  Pd1- Kayatha culture and is datable to B.K.Thapar (2100-1800BC), M.K.Dhalvikar (2450-2000BC)Then there is a break of 15cm thick deposit.  Pd2- Ahar culture. B.K.Thapar(1700-1500BC), M.K. Dhalvikar(1950-1700BC)  Pd3- Malwa culture. B.K.Thapar(1500- 1200BC),M.K. Dhalvikar(1700-1400BC)  Pd4- Early historic cultures. M.K. Dhalvikar(600-200 BC)  Pd5- Sunga, Kushana, Gupta Phase (200 BC – 600 AD) M.K. Dhalvikar.
  4. 4.  KAYATHA- Earliest agricultural Chalcolithic village community.  Main Features-  A. Sturdy violet painted pinkish red ware with geometric design over it with parallel oblique lines, parallel vertical lines, horizontal lines and group of vertical wavy lines.  Also series of continuous loops (creeper pattern) can be seen on it.This ware is made up of well levigated clay and it is a wheel made.  Shapes are- Storage jar and Bowls.
  5. 5.  B. Red painted buff ware having a very thin wall sections and this pottery is also known as deluxe ware.  In one of such vase, 160-175 beads of a necklace were found and in other 2 pots, 27 copper bangles were also found.  Shapes are- vases and dishes.  C. Combed ware treated with red slip, externally associated with these is coarse handmade ware with inside & appliqué design.
  6. 6.  Other associated objects –  Copper- Axes, Bangles & Chisels.  Siliceous stones- Chalcedony, Agate, Stone Mace head.  Beads of crystal,Terracotta, shell, but they are few and micro beads of steatite have been found over 40,000 (in hoard form).  Architecture- Houses were made up of mud or wattle and daub with floor of hard compact yellow silt.  So far 40 to 50 sites have been found in North Western M.P. mostly in the Chambal valley.
  7. 7.  MALWA Culture (1700-1500 BC)   -Malwa is a region, not a particular site.This terminology is based on the basis of its nuclear zone.This region is laying in the Chambal in north.  Basins are- Narmada in the south, Godavari, Betwa in the east uptoAravalli in the west.  The famous sites of this culture which were excavated are- Maheshwar & Navadatoli (Narmada), Nagda (Chambal), Prakash (Tapti), Daimabad (Pravara), Kaytha (Choti Kali Sindh), Inamagaon (Godh) and Eran (Pitwa/Betwa).
  8. 8.  Characteristics features-  - Ware-It is a ware of buff or orange slipped pottery, painted in black or dark brown. ‘These people were using copper, stone tools and their settlement was made up of wattle and daub huts.  - Economy-Farming, hunting, fishing.They were cultivating wheat in Malwa region but not in Deccan region. In general they cultivated Barley, Rice, Lentil and Green Gram.  - Architecture-They made both circular and rectangular huts.They used to dispose their garbage in rectangular pits found at Navadatoli. The floors were made up of rammed clay with lime coating over it.At Eran, evidence of fortification wall of mud and use of Mud brick (for rampart) which is made up of compact clay and a moat has been found.  - Metallurgy- Copper & low grade bronze was used.The objects of metal found are Celts, mid ribbed sword, arrow head, beads, bangles, rings, fish hook, nails and chisels.  - Stone objects-Ring stone, hammer stone.  - Other material- Coral, crystal, faience, steatite, lapis lazuli, shell etc.
  9. 9.  -Terracotta- Animal figurines, wheels, discs made out of waste potsherds, stoppers and lamps.  A painted bull from Prakash of Harappa tradition is a note worthy finding.  - Pottery Dishes-They made orange slip from outside and inside or sometimes both of local clay, having design on the slipped surface. Thin purplish brown black pigment.The red background however predominates.  - Common vases shape- Jars, Bowls including spouted one. We have challises, dish on stand, lids, saucers with geometrical patterns and paintings.  - Animals in painting- Spotted deer, crane and stylised peacock. These animals were used in paintings as fillers.  Harappans affinity can be seen with dish on stand, goblets and globular vases.We have cream and buff ware painted in Black or Purple pigment. One can see geometrical designs, human figurines and antelopes. With this, thick burnish grey ware is also present occasionally in ochre paint.At Prakash, white painted pale grey, Black & grey ware with egg shell lustre is a unique finding. (Spheroid or ovoid bowls).Technology is of black and red ware ofAhar.
  10. 10.  Some important sites of Malwa culture-   Navdatoli & Maheshwar- In ancient time, this site is known as Maheshmati which was the capital of Ananti. It is on a highway between Prathisthan (paithan) in Ujjain.  Inscription- One inscription has been found (by the people of Maheshmati) states that they have donated something to Sanchi. It is also mention in Purana- Haihayas. It was explored in 1950 & excavated in 1952-53 by University ofVadodara and Pune under the directorship of H.D. Sankalia.Total cultural sequence started from lower Palaeolithic to 18th cent. A.D. [7 cultural periods].   Pd.1- Lower Palaeolithic culture comparable to the group of DeTerra & Peterson in 1930 at lower & upper Narmada.  Pd.2- Middle Palaeolithic.  Pd.3- Chalcolithic (which is datable to 1500-1200 B.C.) from Maheshwar mound 5.
  11. 11.  Sub phases-  Phase I- Painted black and red ware and cream slipped ware and Malwa ware.  Phase II-Black & red ware disappeared. Only cream slipped ware along with Malwa ware was there. Evidence of fire in the city in large area has been reported from here.  Phase III-Cream slipped ware + Jorwe + 2 sherds of lustrous red ware + Malwa.  Phase IV-Characterised by storage jars with appliqué design. Malwa ware is predominated.   Pd. 4- Northern black polish ware (400-100 B.C.)  Pd. 5- Early historical + transition of NBPW to RPW + black & red decreases (100BC-100AD).  Pd. 6- Early historical + red polish ware + black and red ware + black slipped ware (100-500A.D).  Pd. 7- Muslim to Maratha Period.
  12. 12.  Nagda- District Ujjain, east bank of Chambal. Excavation was done in 1955-56 by N.R. Banerjee.  Pd. 1- Chalcolithic Malwa culture (hitus between 1 and 2).  Pd. 2- Pre NBPW, use of iron and early Chalcolithic features. (500 B.C.)  Pd. 3- NBPW (500-200 B.C.)   Prakash– District Dhule on the confluence ofTapti and Gomai. Here deposition is of  17m and excavation was done by B.K.Thapar in 1955-56.  Pd. 1- Chalcolithic (1700-1300 B.C.)  1A: Malwa.  1B: Malwa + Lustrous red ware + Jorwe.  Pd. 2-Tool of iron, Black and red ware and NBPW (700- 100 B.C).  Pd. 3- Characterized by red polished ware (Mid 2nd B.C. to the end of 6th A.D.).  Pd. 4- (6th – 11th A.D.).
  13. 13.  Daimabad- Situated in district Ahmednagar on the river Pravara. It was discovered by Shri. B.P. Bopardikar and for the first time it was excavated by M.N. Deshpande in 1958-59.This site was re-excavated by S.R. Rao in 1974-75 and 1975-78. In 1979, again it was excavated by S.A. Sali.  Phase 1- Savalda culture (2300-2000 B.C.).  Phase 2- Late Harappan/ Harappan (2200 to 1800 B.C).The Harappans were living with the Chalcolithic people.  Phase 3- Buff & cream ware.  Phase 4- Malwa (1700-1500 B.C.)  Phase 5- Jorwe   Kayatha- Situated in district Pune, on the bank of river Godh, which is a tributary of river Bhima. It is excavated in 1968-74.This is an upper Palaeolithic site.   Pd. 1- Malwa (1600-1400 B.C.), M.K.Dhavlikar (1700-1500 B.C.)  Pd. 2- Early Jorwe ( B.K.Thapar 1400-1000B.C), Dhavlikar (1500-900 B.C.)  Pd. 3- Late Jorwe (B.K.Thapar 1000 – 700 B.C).
  14. 14.  Eran– In district Sagar on the river Bina, a tributary of Betwa. It was excavated by Alexander Cunnigham and again excavated by K.D. Bajpayee in 1960-65.  Pd 1:  Pd. 1A- Early Chalolithic (2100-1700 B.C.) and Malwa Culture.  Pd. 1B- Late Chalcolithic (1700-1500 B.C.)  Pd. 2:  Pd. 2A- Iron bearing deposit + Black and red painted ware of Ahar tradition + one sherd of NBPW is found (700-200 B.C.)  Pd. 2B- RPW (200 B.C – 100 A.D.)  Pd. 3: (100A.D- 600A.D) and this site is still in occupation.   JORWE Culture-  It was the semi arid zone of Deccan platue with Pravara & Godawari basin as the nuclear area. Name of this culture is based on the type site Jorwe on the left bank of Pravara which is a tributary of Godawari in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. It is identified with Jarasandnagar. It has a distinct ceramic industry called Jorwe ware. Some important sites are Nevasa, Nasik, Prakash, Navadatoli, Daimabad, Inamgaon, Chandoli etc.
  15. 15.  Characteristics:  Surface: Dark to light orange and shades of red colour. It has a metallic ring. Most of the vessels are slipped often on the both sides in various shades of red colour in combination with yellow and brown. They are designed with linear & geometrical designs shapes like carinated bowl or dish, tubular spouted vase and high neck globular vases.  Associated finds: Full fledged blade industries.Trapezoid, Lunates etc.  Copper object- Celts, chisels, beads, rings, bangles, fish hooks and dragger with antin hilt (similar as OCP).  Beads-Variety of semi precious stones and gold.  Terracotta- Lamps, discs, stoppers, wheels, animals and Goddess figurines, theriom- orphic vessels (reported from Chandauli).  Stone object- Querns and mullers, ponders and spherical balls.   *Theriomorphic vessel found, a concept of Koban culture of north Caucasus.Also a burial was found from Inamgaon in coffin of mother and child. Orientation of this burial was north to south and it was inside the house.
  16. 16.  Terracotta- one of the terracotta pots was found in shape of womb with a handmade child figurine inside.This must be a way to give respect to the dead ones.   Economy- farming, hunting & fishing  Agriculture- barley, wheat, peas, rice (rare), lintel.  Fruits (Indian Jujube or ber).  Architecture- huts with conical roof (wattle and daub). Floor was rammed with cow dung & lime.  At Inamgaon & Daimabad, some structures are also found.The people are still living in the same pattern. In early Jorwe, the houses were circular and some bones of goat and sheep were found.   Nasik- Situated near river Godawari.This was described in Patanjali also. 15km away from this one will get a lower Palaeolithic site.   Pd. 1- Chalcolithic, Jorwe ware.  Pd. 2- Early historical (5th- 3rd B.C.)  2A  2 B (3rd- 1st C. B.C) Jhukkar ware, rusticated ware. Some un-inscribed casted copper coins were also found.  Pd. 3- (50-200A.D.) found roman contacts there.The date of these contacts was given on the basis of roman pottery.  Pd. 4- Muslim and Maratha period (1400-1857A.D.)
  17. 17.  Chandoli- Excavated by Ansari of Deccan College, Pune.  Pd. 1 Malwa, Jorwe.   Nevasa- Situated in district Ahmadnagar, near Pravara River. North part of the mound is known as Nevasa Buduruk and south part is known as Nevasa khurd. It was explored by M.S. Deshpande and was excavated by H.D. Sankalia in 1954-56.   Pd. 1- Lower Palaeolithic.  Pd. 2- Middle Palaeolithic  Pd. 3- Chalcolithic (1500-1000 B.C.)  Pd. 4- Early historical (2nd – 1st cent B.C.)  PMC, cast copper coins.  Pd. 5- Indo-roman rouletted ware, red polish ware, roman Amphorae, black on red ware and northern black polish sherds.  Pd. 6-A break of 3rd cent and then Muslims and Maratha. Also evidence is found of silk from here.
  18. 18.  Ochre Colour Pottery  K.N.Dixit- Late Harappan phase which is found in GangaYamuna Doab  Bargaon (Saharanpur district).  Pd. 1- Late Harappan and OCP (1700-1300 B.C.)  Pd. 2- (1300-1000 B.C.)  *Possehl suggested a date of OCP on the basis of his comparative study which is [(1900 B.C. - 1000 B.C.)- Alamgirpur].   Mardarpur- This site is in District Muradabad inThakurdwara. Here 31 anthropomorphic figurines have been found. In total its number is 42 which have been found from 8 sites of U.P. total 44 in world.  According to Gordon Child, they were like missiles.  According toTiny, they were like a cult object and it symbolizes ancestors who regard as defenders of rais (in north East Asia).  Double axe- only 3 specimens are known two are double sided and one is single sided.
  19. 19.  Around 110 OCP sites have been found.  Area of distribution- 110 sites are in Doab region from Mayapur in district Saharanpur in the north up to Saipai in district Etawa in the south.  88 sites in Saharapur,  7 sites in Merrut,  7 sites in Bulandsahar,  3 sites in Muzaffar nagar,  1 site in Muradabad,  1 site in Etta,  1 site in Alighar,  1 site in Etawa  * Recently 3 more sites revealed OCP deposition, which are, Bargaon, Sanholi  * Out of 88 sites in Saharanpur, 36 sites seem to have late Harappan deposits. Small mounds found from Bahadrabad, Bisauli, Rajpur parsu and Saipai.These sites are 5-8 km apart from each other. Some famous sites are Hastinapur,Ahichchatra,Atrajikhera and Noh.
  20. 20.  Architecture- Lal Quila in district Bulandshaher. Here rammed earth floor was found. Use of mud and burnt bricks is present only for bathroom and for drains.  Houses had thatch roof. Burnt plaster, reed impression and mud clot with lead & bamboo impression was found.Technology and material remain known from Bahadrabad, Lal Quila,Atranjikhera especially Saipai, where Harpoons found with OCP deposition.  Ornaments-Terracotta bangles, beads.  Toys- Animals figurines, cart wheel with knobs.  Kitchen object- Stone pestles and querns.  Weapons- Bone points.  Economy- Evidence from Atranjikhera of Rice, Barley cultivation and consumption, Gram and Khaseri. No animal bone has been found.  Nasirpur,Ambala, Jhinjhana and late Harappan Bargaon excavation revealed OCP and cemetery H ware influence of late Harappans.  Flood theory- from Ambakheri.
  21. 21. - Variety of pottery & shapes- This kind of pottery has paintings in black on red which look very close to Harappan pottery (although evidences of paintings are very flimsy). It has form of wavy lines, circles, wet designs on shoulder and body. AtAtranjkhera and Saipai, incised designs are present. In 1964, M.N. Deshpandey has said that this OCP is a degenerated form of Harappan pottery or refuge of late Harappans on the basis of Ambarkeri and Bargaon. Another view point is these people of OCP culture must have come from the North- east Rajasthan (from Noh).
  22. 22.  COPPER HOARD  COPPER HOARD CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 3 GROUPS:-   Group A- Celts (flat, shouldered and Bar Celts)  Group B- Rings.  Group C- Harpoons, Antennae sword, variants of anthropomorphic and double axes.
  23. 23. Anthropomorphic Figurine
  24. 24.  Anthropomorphs-  Such anthropomorphic objects have been found from various sites such as- 35 such specimens found from Sanulli, 31 specimens found from Mardarpur in districtThakardwara, Muradabad, 13 from all other places in U.P. 1 such specimen is in Patna museum and other is in Brookline museum, U.K.  According to Gordon Child, these might be used as a missile for killing birds like boomerang. But size, shape and weight don’t suggest it.Tiny says it seems to be a symbolic representation of metal god as like today we have iron for god ‘Shani’. In North- EasternAsia, according to S.P. Gupta, it symbolises ancestors who were the defenders of the race.  Size-The height is 25/45cm and width is 30/43cm except one found from Bisauli which is 22.5cm in length and 33.5cm in width.
  25. 25.  Double axe- 3 specimens have been found so far, 2 among which are double edged and 1 has only one edge.  So these are all the representatives of copper hoard (even a single specimen). These types of specimens have not been found from anywhere else except from India. Even from certain burials such specimens have been found.
  26. 26.  Group A-  i.) Flat Celt- Usually these kinds of Celts have sub-rectangular edge on one end. In total, 255 Celts have been found from 48 sites so far.  6 Celts found from 3 sites in Haryana,  88 Celts found from 21 sites in U.P,  74 Celts found from 5 sites in Rajasthan,  13 Celts found from 5 sites in M.P.,  72 Celts from 12 sites in Bihar,  2 Celts found from a site in Karnataka,  And fromWest Bengal and Orissa no Celt has been reported so far. Generally these flat Celts are 10/12 cm in length and 8/18cm in width.  ii.) Shoulder Celt- In total, 84 shouldered Celts have been found from 28 sites.  38 found from 11 sites in U.P,  22 found from 7 sites in Bihar,  5 found from 5 sites inWest Bengal,  9 Celts found from 5 sites in Orissa.  This shows that distribution is South-Easterly. From south of doab no such shapes have been found up till now.These Celts are- 14/23cm in length and 20/23cm in width.
  27. 27.  iii.) Bar Celt- Parallel sided bar with a crescent cutting edge. So far 30 Celts have been found from 8 sites.  3 Celts found from 2 sites in U.P.,  7 Celts found from 2 sites in Rajasthan,  17 Celts found from a site in Bihar,  1 Celt each has been found from M.P,West Bengal and Orissa. On most of the Celts one can see trader marks. Size- 4/8cm in width and 50/60 cm in length.   Group B-  Rings- 80 rings have been found 9 sites in total.  12 rings found from 8 sites in Harayana,  9 rings found from 3 sites in U.P.,  47 rings found from M.P. (at site Pondi in district Reva),  1 ring found from a site in Bihar,  11 rings found from a site inWest Bengal.  According to Smith-These rings look like ring money of silver & gold (like Irish currency). Some other scholars say it could be a unit of measurement for copper smiths.
  28. 28.  Group C-  i.) Harpoon- Harpoons again can be divided into two-  A- Cut and hammered from sheets- 2 such harpoons have been found from Bithur.Through proper excavation such harpoons have also been found from a site Saipai.These kinds of harpoons generally have 6 to 9 barbs.They are sometimes two and a half feet long.  B- Casted in double mould- Such harpoons are casted in double mould having long blades 2/3 or 5 in number with incurved barbs.These harpoons are the supreme example of craftsmanship of that time. 29 such harpoons have been found from 11 sites in U.P., and only 1 such specimen has been reported from Mithathal in Harayana.
  29. 29.  ii.) Antennae sword -These antennae hoard can be divided into two types-  A- Antennae sword-These swords have antennae on the holding part. Length of the blades of such swords varies in between 40 to 50cm. So far 19 swords have been found from 6 sites in U.P. including a recent discovery of 2 swords from Sanholi.These swords have been found all over from theWestern U.P. except from a site Kallur in district Raichur of Karnataka.  B- Hooked sword-These have hook on its butt part. Length of the blades again varies in between 40 to 50 cm generally. So far 15 hooked swords have been found from 9 sites all in theWestern U.P.
  30. 30.  iii.) Anthropomorphs- Such anthropomorphic objects have been found from various sites such as- 35 such specimens found from Sanholi, 31 specimens found from Mardarpur in districtThakardwara, Muradabad, 13 from all other places in U.P. 1 such specimen is in Patna museum and other is in Brookline museum, U.K.  According to Gordon Child, these might be used as a missile for killing birds like boomerang. But size, shape and weight don’t suggest it.Tiny says it seems to be a symbolic representation of metal god as like today we have iron for god ‘Shani’. In North-Eastern Asia, according to S.P. Gupta, it symbolises ancestors who were the defenders of the race.  Size-The height is 25/45cm and width is 30/43cm except one found from Bisauli which is 22.5cm in length and 33.5cm in width.
  31. 31.  iv.) Double axe- 3 specimens have been found so far, 2 among which are double edged and 1 has only one edge.   So these are all the representatives of copper hoard (even a single specimen).These types of specimens have not been found from anywhere else except from India. Even from certain burials such specimens have been found.   We can divide the specimens on zone basis, such as-  *Zone A- Bihar,West Bengal and Orissa. (Specimens found- Flat Celts, Shouldered Celts, Bar Celts and double axes).  *Zone B- U.P. and Haryana. (Specimens found- Anthropomorphs, Antennae sword, Hooked sword, Harpoons besides Flat Celts, Shouldered Celts and Bar Celts).  *Zone C- Rajasthan. (Specimens found- Flat Celts and Bar Celts).
  32. 32. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ARYANS, LATE HARAPPANS, COPPER HOARD AND OCP. On the basis of typological analysis of copper objects (hoard) like Celts and axes found from Harappa and Mohanjodaro with similar objects found from Egypt, Sardinia, British Isles,Greece andTrans Caucasian., Hyne Gelern propounded that copper hoard belonged to the Aryans who came to India somewhere in between 1200-1000B.C. Professor B.B. Lal in his detailed typological analysis and critical assessment on Hyne Geldern view shows that none of the copper hoard type have been found from Egypt, Sardinia and Trans Caucasian.   Piggott first supported the above view in 1944 and in his view these are the late Harappan people. “It would be tamping to associate this movement with something more than trade and see in it colonization of Ganges basin by refugees and display person Punjab and Indus valley during the time of the break up of Harappa, an empire and coming from Aryan from the west”.Y.D. Sharma concluded that OCP & late Harappa was the later phase of Harappa culture on the basis of some of the discoveries of copper hoard object, OCP, late Harappan pottery at Bahaderabad and a broken anthropomorphic figurine from Lothal.
  33. 33.  K.N. Dixit in 1968, on the basis of mid rib of Harpoons and sword found from Haryana, U.P. and Rajasthan and the surface excavation of Saipai in Itawa said that the copper hoard was never found in stratigraphical content at copper hoard sites of Bahaderabad, Nasirpur, and Rajpur parsu, Baheriya, Kiratpur, Baisauli and Sanholi. OCP was not found (the copper hoard using people were O.C.P.).   On the basis of evidences, Professor B.B. Lal associated copper hoards with OCP, obtained from Hastinapur, Bisauli and Rajpur Parsu.They were the inhabitant of Doab prior to the arrival of Aryans.
  34. 34.  The area of copper hoard distribution is known to have been occupied by Austro-Asiatic speaking Mundas, Santhals and other tribes belonging to the proto Astrolabe group of Indian population.The Austro-Asiatic languages spoken in Burma and by Khasis in North-East India could provide due to the route which Mundas had taken on their migration towards Eastern side of the central India. “It may also possible that Eastern Austro-Asiatic tribes, the forefathers of Mon-Khmer might be linguistically associated with Mundas” (quoted by Bon Gard and Livin).  Possibility is that the Mundas migrated to India with knowledge of copper metallurgy during 3000-2000 B.C. and they were the creators of such copper hoards. InVedic literature also we have a reference that Aryans were encountered in certain native tribes and they were called Nishadas (with short stature and flat nose).Those were none but the Mundas, an Austro-Asiatic tribe. 

×