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Unit 10 Sense Relations (1)

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Unit 10 Sense Relations (1)

  2. 2. Sense Relations The sense of an expression : is the whole set ofsense relations it contracts with other expressions inthe language2SenseRelationsindividualpredicateswholesentences
  3. 3. 3Sense Relations(Sameness ofMeaning)Individualpredicates(Synonymy)Whole sentences(Paraphrase)
  4. 4. SYNONYMY* Synonymy is the similarity of meaning  vaguedefinition Synonymy is the relationship between two predicatesthat have the same sense.requires identity of sense  strict definition  very fewexamplese.g. stubborn and obstinate are synonyms (in mostdialects of English) Examples of perfect synonymy are hard to find.Why? there is little point in a dialect having two predicateswith exactly the same sense.1054
  5. 5. Synonymy & Sense interdependent  one can’t understand one withoutunderstanding the other best communicated by a range of examples When dealing with sense relations, stick to clear cases abstract away from any stylistic, social, or dialectalassociations the word may have concentrate on what has been called the cognitiveor conceptual meaning of a wordExample 106 1065
  6. 6.  Synonymy is a relation between predicates, and notbetween words (i.e. word-forms) Each distinct sense of a word is a predicatehide1  intransitive verb  Let’s hide from Mummyhide2  transitive verb  Hide your sweeties under thepillowhide3  noun  We watched the birds from a hideThese senses are related in meaninghide 4  noun  The hide of an ox weighs 200 lbsunrelatedBecause of the ambiguity of most words, questionsabout synonymy are formulated in terms of sentences. The thief tried to hide the evidence  the predicate hide2 a synonym of conceal6107
  7. 7. SYNONYMY The definition of synonymy as a relationship betweenthe senses of words  requires a clear separation ofall the (closely related/different) senses of a word The sense of a word does not depend entirely onits part of speech deep & profound  (adjective & adjective) sleeping & asleep  (verb & adjective) Grammar and meaning are separate though closelyrelated aspects of language.7
  8. 8. PARAPHRASE A sentence which expresses the same propositionas another sentence is a PARAPHRASE of thatsentence (assuming the same referents for anyreferring expressions involved). Paraphrase is to SENTENCES (on individualinterpretations) as SYNONYMY is to PREDICATES(though some semanticists talk loosely of synonymyin the case of sentences as well).e.g. Bachelors prefer redhaired girls is aparaphrase of Girls with red hair are preferred byunmarried menComment 1098109
  9. 9. 9SenseRelations(MeaningInclusion)Individualpredicates(Hyponymy)Propositions in alanguage involvingtruth conditions(Entailment)
  10. 10. HYPONYMY10 HYPONYMY is a sense relation betweenpredicates (or sometimes longer phrases) suchthat the meaning of one predicate (or phrase) isincluded in the meaning of the other.The meaning of red is included in the meaning ofscarlet. Red is the superordinate term  more general orinclusive in meaning, abstract, or schematic thanits hyponyms.scarlet is a hyponym of red  more specific inthe kind of colour it describes
  11. 11. HYPONYMY11Red describes a particular region in colour space whose prototype (or focal) examples are fairlydistinct from those of other colours more peripheral members of the extension ofred tend to fade into other colours subsumes (includes) more specific kinds ofred within this region of colour space, some of which have their own predicates todescribe the narrower sort of hue, includingscarlet, crimson, etc.110
  12. 12. Hyponymy & Extension12 Hyponymy is a sense relation. Sense = intension ( A term preferred bylogicians Extension ≠ intension  (deliberately chosen forits implicit contrast.) Hyponymy is defined in terms of the inclusion ofthe sense of one item in the sense of another ‘sense-components’ Example 112111
  13. 13. HYPONYMY & SYNONYMY13 We define HYPONYMY in such a way thatSYNONYMY counts as a special case of hyponymy. Thus synonymy can be seen as a special case ofhyponymy, i.e. SYMMETRICAL HYPONYMY. Rule If X is a hyponym of Y and if Y is also ahyponym of X, then X and Y are synonymous e.g. mercury and quicksilver
  14. 14. Entailment14 A proposition X ENTAILS a proposition Y if the truthof Y follows necessarily from the truth of X. Weextend this basic definition in terms of propositions tocover SENTENCES in the following way. A sentenceexpressing proposition X entails a sentenceexpressing proposition Y if the truth of Y followsnecessarily from the truth of X. Proposition X  proposition Y P X (T)  P Y (T) P X (F)  P Y (F) Sentence expressing X  sentence expressing Y
  15. 15. Entailment15 John ate all the kippers (X) entails Someone atesomething (Y). John killed Bill (X) entails Bill died (Y). It is not possible to think of any circumstances in whichsentence X is true and sentence Y false. The truth of sentences (and of propositions) isrelative to particular sets of circumstances, or statesof affairs E.g.  envisaging these sentences being uttered incircumstances where:- both instances of Bill have the same referent- the time is indicated by the use of the past tense(obviously Bill died could not be true any time before itwas true that John killed Bill.)
  16. 16. Entailment16 applies cumulatively. is a transitive relation.Thus, if X entails Y and Y entails Z, then X entails Z.X  Y & Y  ZX  ZX, Some boys ran down the street entails Y, Some kidsran down the streetY, Some kids ran down the street entails Z, Some kidswent down the street Therefore, X, Some boys ran down the street entails Z,Some kids went down the street.
  17. 17. PARAPHRASES17 Two sentences may be said to be PARAPHRASESof each other if and only if they have exactly thesame set of ENTAILMENTS; or, which comes to the same thing, if and only ifthey mutually entail each other so that whenever oneis true the other must also be true. Sentence expressing X  Sentence expressingY Sentence expressing X = Sentence expressingY113
  18. 18. Entailment, Paraphrase, Hyponymy &Synonymy18 The relationship between entailment andparaphrase is parallel to the relationship betweenhyponymy and synonymy Synonymy is symmetric (i.e. two-way) hyponymy paraphrase is symmetric (i.e. two-way) entailment113
  19. 19. Hyponymy & Entailment19113 - 114The Basic Rule of Sense Inclusion  applies to simple cases BUT does not work when certain logical words areinvolved. (e.g. not & all) 1- Cases with not (and n’t), i.e. cases ofnegative sentences. 2- Sentences involving the word all. 3- The case of gradable words115116115
  20. 20. Hyponymy & Entailment20 The case of gradable words E.g. big, tall, small, expensive, etc. Their meanings are:NOT invariably fixed with respect to some absolutescale,BUT vary depending upon the kind of noun theymodify.116