Types of industry and textile industry


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Types of industry and textile industry

  1. 1. S.S. project Name :- Ashutosh, Zaid Roll no.:- 3,25 Introduction to Industry and textile industry
  2. 2. Subject:- Industry, Textile industry in India
  3. 3. What is an industry <ul><li>Definition of Industry </li></ul><ul><li>As per the Industrial Disputes Act,1947 “Industry” means any systematic activity carried on by co-operation between an employer and his workmen whether such workmen are employed by such employer directly or by or through any agency, including a contractor) for the production ,supply or a </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>distribution of goods or services with a view to satisfy human wants or wishes (not being wants or wishes which are merely spiritual or religious in nature), whether or not,- </li></ul><ul><li>any capital has been invested for the purpose of carrying on such activity; or </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>such activity is carried on with a motive to make any gain or profit, and includes- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any activity of the Dock Labour Board established under section 5-A of the Dock Workers ( Regulation of Employment)Act,1948( 9 of 1948); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>any activity relating to the promotion of sales or business or both carried on by an establishment, </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>but does not include- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>any agricultural operation except where such agricultural operation is carried on in an integrated manner with any other activity (being any such activity as is referred to in the foregoing provisions of this clause) and such other activity is the predominant one. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Explanation:- For the purposes of this sub-clause ,” agricultural operation” does not include any activity carried on in a plantation as defined in clause (f) of section 2 of the Plantation Labour Act,1951; or </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hospitals or dispensaries; or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>educational, scientific, research to training institutions ; or </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><ul><li>institutions owned or managed by organizations wholly or substantially engaged in any charitable ,social or philanthropic service; or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>khadi or village industries ; or </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>any activity of the Government relatable to the sovereign functions of the Government including all the activities carried on by the departments of the Central Governments dealing with defence research , atomic energy and space ; or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>any domestic service ;or </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><ul><li>any activity ,being a profession practiced by an individual or body of individuals ,if the number of persons employed by the individuals or body of individuals in relation to such profession is less than ten; or </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>any activity , being an activity carried on by a co-operative society or a club or any other like body of individuals , if the number of persons employed by the co-operative society ,club or other like body of individuals in relation to such activity is less than ten; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Definition of Industrial Dispute </li></ul><ul><li>As per Section 2(k) of ID Act,1947 </li></ul><ul><li>“ industrial dispute” means any dispute or difference between employers and employers ,or between employers and workmen, or between workmen and workmen , which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour , of any person; </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Definition of Workman </li></ul><ul><li>As per Section 2(s) of ID Act,1947 </li></ul><ul><li>“ workman” means any person (including an apprentice) employed in any industry to do any manual ,unskilled ,skilled ,technical ,operational ,clerical or supervisory work for hire or reward ,whether the terms of employment be express or implied ,and for the purposes of any </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>proceeding under this Act in relation to an industrial dispute ,includes any such person who has been dismissed ,discharged or retrenched in connection with ,or as a consequence of ,that dispute ,or whose dismissal ,discharge or retrenchment has led to that dispute ,but does not include any such person- </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>who is subject to the Air Force Act,1950 (45 of 1950),or the Army Act,1950(46 of 1950), or the Navy Act,1957(62 of 1957); or </li></ul><ul><li>who is employed in the police service or as an officer or other employee of a prison; or </li></ul><ul><li>who is employed mainly in a managerial or administrative capacity; or </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>who, being employed in a supervisory capacity, draws wages exceeding one thousand six hundred rupees per exercises ,either by the nature of the duties attached to the office or by reason of the powers vested in him ,functions mainly of a managerial nature. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Industry
  18. 18. 1. Cottage industry
  19. 19. <ul><li>&quot;Cottage industries&quot; is a term that was used prevalently during the eighteenth and nineteenth and centuries to describe the home-based system of manufacturing. This term is also used today to refer to goods or services that are produced at home. Sewing, craft production, sales and marketing, typing, bookkeeping, and auto repair are just a few examples of home-based employment. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2.Small scale industry
  21. 21. <ul><li>SSI – Definition in Brief Small Scale Industrial units are those engaged in manufacturing, processing or preservation of goods with investment in Plant and Machinery (original cost) not to exceed Rs.1 Crore </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>In case of ancillary units also, the investment in Plant & Machinery (original cost) should not exceed Rs. 1 crore to get classified under Small Scale Industry </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The investment limit of Rs. 1 crore for classification as SSI has been enhanced to Rs. 5 crore in respect of certain specified items like hosiery, hand tools, all Drug & Pharmaceuticals by Government of India </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Small Scale Service/ Business Enterprises (SSSBE) having investment in fixed assets (excluding land and building) up to Rs.10 lacs and registered as such, are also classified as SSI for the purpose. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The status of “Tiny enterprises” may be given to all Small Scale units whose investment in Plant & Machinery is up to Rs.25 lacs, irrespective of the location of the unit </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Medium Enterprises are defined as units with investment in plant and machinery of above Rs. 1 crore and up to Rs. 10 crores </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Artisans, Village and Cottage Industry has been defined as Artisans (irrespective of location) or Small Industrial activities (Viz. manufacturing, processing, preservation and servicing) in villages and small towns with a population not exceeding 50000, involving utilization of locally available natural resources and / or human skills (where individual credit requirement does not exceed Rs.50,000/-) </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>YEAR INVESTMENT LIMITS1960Upto Rs 5 lacs in Plant & Machinery1966Upto Rs 7.5 lacs in Plant & Machinery1975Upto Rs 10 lacs in Plant & Machinery1980Upto Rs 20 lacs in Plant & </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Machinery1985Upto Rs 35 lacs in Plant & Machinery1991Upto Rs 60 lacs in Plant & Machinery1997Upto Rs 100 lacs in Plant & Machinery </li></ul><ul><li>1999Upto Rs 100 lacs in Plant & Machinery  </li></ul>
  30. 30. CLASSIFICATION OF SSIs: <ul><li>A common classification is between traditional small industries and modern small industries. Traditional small industries include khadi and handloom, village industries, handicrafts, sericulture, coir, etc. Modern SSIs produce wide range of goods </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>from comparatively simple items t sophisticated products such as television sets, electronics, control system, various engineering products, particularly as ancillaries to the large industries. The traditional small industries are highly labour-intensive while the modern small-scale units make the use of highly sophisticated machinery and equipment. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Obviously, these industrial units would behaving higher labour productivity. One special characteristic of traditional small-scale industries is that they cannot provide full time employment to workers, but instead can provide only subsidiary or  part time employment to agricultural laborers and artisans. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Among traditional village industries, handicrafts possess the highest labour productivity, besides handicrafts make a significant contribution to earning foreign exchange for the country. Nowadays Indian small-scale industries (SSIs) are mostly modern small-scaleindustries. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Modernization has widened the list of products offered by this industry. The items manufactured in modern Small-scale service & Business enterprises inIndia now include rubber products, plastic products, chemical products, glass andceramics, mechanical engineering items, hardware, </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>electrical items, transport equipment, electronic components and equipments, automobile parts, bicycle parts, instruments, sports goods, stationery items and clocks and watches. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>For instance, during 1979-80, traditional small-scale industries accounted for only 135 of the total output but their share in total employment was 56%. As against this, the share of modern industries in the total output of this sector was 74% in 1979-80 but their share in employment was only 33%. </li></ul>
  37. 37. ROLE OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN INDIAN ECONOMY <ul><li>The small-scale industrial sector plays a pivotal role in the Indian economy in terms of employment and growth has recorded a high rate of growth since Independenceinspite of stiff competition from large-scale industries. There are several important reasons why these industries are contributing a lot to the progress of the Indian economy: </li></ul>
  38. 38. 1.PRODUCTION: <ul><li>The small-scale industries sector plays a vital role in the growth of the country. It contributes almost 40% of the gross industrial value added in the Indian economy. It has been estimated that a million Rs. of investment in fixed assets in the small scale sector produces 4.62 million worth of goods or services with an approximate value addition of ten percentage points. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>The small-scale sector has grown rapidly over the years. The growth rates during the various plan periods have been very impressive. The number of small-scale units has increased from an estimated 0.87 million units in the year 1980-81 to over 3 million in the year 2000.When the performance of this sector is viewed against the growth in the manufacturing and the industry sector as a whole, it instills confidence in the resilience of the small-scale sector. </li></ul>
  40. 40. 3. Heavy industry
  41. 41. Heavy industry Operations & Production <ul><li>manufacturing sector making large products a manufacturing industry that requires a lot of resources, uses heavy raw materials such as coal, and makes large products such as ships or engines </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Heavy industry is a general term that can be used to describe a variety of industrial concerns and operations. Generally speaking, the term describes industrial processes that are highly capital or labor intensive or which produce heavy end products. It tends to be difficult to enter into this type of industry because the start-up costs are often quite high. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>It is also often difficult to transport the base materials or products involved in heavy industrial processes because of their bulk and weight. In fact, the transportation of the materials used in heavy industry is a major and important heavy industry in its own right. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Heavy industry is often defined relative to light industry , though both have relatively vague definitions that are often based on each other. Light industry is often used to describe industrial concerns and operations that involve less capital, a lighter environmental impact, and less necessary labor than heavy industry. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>In many cases, light industry is much more service oriented, and the products developed by light industry are often easier to transport. The manufacture of clothing, furniture, and consumer electronics falls into the category of light industry while the production of automobiles, large structures, some military equipment, such as tanks and bombs, is generally considered to be heavy industry. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Textile industry
  47. 47. Definition of Textile Industry <ul><li>The textile industry includes every business involved in growing or producing fibers, such as sheep farmers and cotton growers; those who make the fiber into thread; those who make the thread into cloth; and those who dye, bleach and finish the cloth. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>The textile industry also includes chemical companies that make synthetic fibers and all the resultant products. Then there are the wholesalers and retailers of all these textiles, and the products that are made from them. </li></ul>
  49. 49. History <ul><li>Textiles have been around almost as long as humankind itself. Early humans wore animal skins and clothing woven from leaves and grasses. As humans evolved, so did the textiles they used in their daily lives and the processes by which they were made significance. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The textile industry affects every aspect of our lives. There are textiles in our cars, on our furniture, hanging at our windows, in the carpeting on the floors in our vehicles, homes and workplaces, and in the clothing on our backs. We dry ourselves with towels and sleep on sheets made by the textile industry. There are even textiles in the bag that carries your laptop computer from place to place. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Effects <ul><li>Whole industries rely on the textile industry for their own products, such as the fashion and furniture industries, and the carpet and rug manufacturing industry. The textile industry also serves other segments of the marketplace, such as those involved in the textile arts like quilters and knitters. Even painters rely on the textile industry for canvas on which to paint. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Other artists are actually part of the textile industry: those who sell their designs to fabric manufacturers, who print those designs directly on the fabric they make. There are industries that have been built on serving the textile industry, such as weaving machinery manufacturers, and even software providers who customize software for the textile industry. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Size <ul><li>The textile industry is a multi-billion-dollar industry. One small component of the industry alone--the organic cotton growers (which excludes growers who don't farm with organic methods and all other components of the industry)--reached an estimated $3.2 billion in 2008, according to the nonprofit Organic Exchange. </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Considerations Other industries that rely on the textile industry for the success of their own business include manufacturers of embellishments used on clothing, such as buttons, sequins and zippers; and manufacturers of sewing machines, knitting needles and drapery hardware, just to name a few. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Types of textile industry Types of textile industry Cotton textile industry Silk textile industry Jute textile industry Woolen textile industry
  56. 56. 1.Cotton textile industry
  57. 57. Introduction <ul><li>The textile industry in India occupies a unique position in our economy contributing to nearly a third of the country's export earnings. This industry includes manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers and exporters of Cotton Textiles, Handloom, and Woolen Textiles etc. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>From the production of textile machinery and equipment, dyes and raw materials to the delivery of finished textiles, fabrics and garments, the textile industry in India has the vast potential for creation of employment opportunities. The number of textiles manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers and textiles exporters in India has increased rapidly after independence. Today, handloom and cotton textiles exports in India is counted among the most important sectors. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Origin and History <ul><li>The cotton plant has always thrived in the wild. By contrast, the historical origin of its commercial exploitation, particularly with regard to textile uses, is fuzzier. Relevant literary references point to two distinct geographical origins of cultivated cotton, namely, Asia and pre-Columbian America. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>The first cotton fabric would date back to approximately as early as 3,200 BC, as revealed by fragments of cloth found at the Mohenjo-Daro archaeological site on the banks of the River Indus. From India, cotton textiles probably passed to Mesopotamia, where the trade started around 600 years BC. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>There is evidence to suggest that trade in cotton started around Rome at the time of Alexander the Great, in the 4th century BC. The trade flourished after the discovery of the maritime route passing by the Cape of Good Hope and the establishment of trading posts in India. Portuguese trading prominence in this part of the world had been challenged by other European countries (notably, France and England) since 1698. </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>The Arab conquests introduced the first cotton manufacturing facilities into Spain (Granada), Venice, and Milan. In England, the first cotton-spinning factory opened its doors in Manchester in 1641. This date marked the beginning of the cotton industry in Europe. The industrial revolution of eighteenth century Europe paved the way for the most far-reaching, influential transformation of cotton textile manufacturing. In this connection, the major technological innovations were the following: </li></ul>
  63. 63. 2. Woolen textile industry
  64. 64. <ul><li>Woollen textile industry is one of the oldest industries of India. The Aryans knew the use of wool as far back as 5000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Woollen textile manufacturing was a handicraft and then a cottage industry run on very small scale during the historical times. The Indian blankets, lohis, 'namdas', shawls etc. were popular in different countries in the past. The first woollen mill 'Lalimli' was set up at Kanpur in 1876. </li></ul><ul><li>Later in 1881 in Punjab (Dhariwal) another woollen mill was started. Mumbai in 1882 and Bangalore in 1886 followed suit. The industry developed steadily with the increase in population in the country. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>A recent survey shows that presently, there are over 625 big and small woollen mills spread over the different parts of the country. There are thousands of hosiery units in the country manufacturing a variety of woollens.The major concentration of the industry is in Punjab, Maharashtra and U.P these states produce 75% of the total output.Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal and J & K also have woolen mills. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Maharashtra <ul><li>Maharashtra is another important state of India where woolen mills exist. These are 31 mills. The majority are in Mumbai. Mumbai being a port, it is easy to import wool from Australia, U.K., Italy, etc. Superior quality fabrics are manufactured including blended fiber. </li></ul>
  67. 67. U.P. <ul><li>Kanpur is the most outstanding centre. Mirzapur, Varanasi, Agra, Tanakpur are other centres. There are nearly 40 woollen mills in the state. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Gujarat . <ul><li>There are 10 mills in Gujarat, Jamnagar, Ahmadabad and Vadodra are the main centres. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Haryana <ul><li>Panipat, Bhiwani, Faridabad, Gurgaon </li></ul>
  70. 70. Rajasthan . <ul><li>Bikaner, Bhilwara, Alwar, Sikar, Jaipur, Pushkar and Ajmer. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Punjab <ul><li>Punjab is the leader. There are over 250 small woollen mills in Punjab. Dhariwal in Gurdaspur district, which is an old centre of the industry, is well known. Amritsar and Ludhiana are other centres. The industry depends upon wool from H.P, J 8c K and Australia. The industry gets power from Bhalcra Dam. Labour is available in these centres. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Karnataka <ul><li>Banglore, Barrely </li></ul>
  73. 73. West Bengal <ul><li>Kolkata and Howrah </li></ul>
  74. 74. Jammu and Kashmir <ul><li>Srinagar </li></ul>
  75. 75. Himachal Pradesh <ul><li>Kulu </li></ul>
  76. 76. Tamil Nadu <ul><li>Chennai and Salem </li></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>The industry manufactures different types of woollens like Patti, carpets, hosiery goods, cloth, blankets, lohis, shawls etc. </li></ul>
  78. 78. <ul><li>Carpets are made in Mirzapur, Gopiganj, Agra (U.P), Srinagar (J.K.), Amritsar (Punjab), Panipat (Haryana), Jaipur, Bikancr (Rajasthan), Eluru (A.P), Chennai (T.N.). </li></ul>
  79. 79. There are certain problems which the industry presently faces. These are : <ul><li>I. Shortage of raw material. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Lack of modern machines. </li></ul><ul><li>III. Poor quality products. </li></ul><ul><li>IV Lack of market due to tropical and sub-tropical climate of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>V. Low production </li></ul>
  80. 80. Export markets <ul><li>The USA, CIS, East European countries, Canada, Australia, Germany, Denmark, France, Belgium, Netherlands, West Asian countries are major buyers of Indian woollens. The volume and direction of trade keeps on fluctuating with time. </li></ul>
  81. 81. 3.Silk textile industry
  82. 82. <ul><li>Sericulture has been carried on in India since ancient times. Four varieties of silk are made in India: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Mulberry, </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Tsar, </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Ere, </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) Muga. </li></ul>
  83. 83. <ul><li>This industry flourished in India under the patronage of ruler of medieval period. </li></ul><ul><li>In Jammu and Kashmir and in West Bengal, the Mughal rulers paid special attention towards its growth. In 1832, at Howrah the East India Company set up the first silk mill. Later mills were set up in Karnataka in 1845 and in Kashmir in 1892. </li></ul>
  84. 84. <ul><li>Presently there are nearly 300 silk mills functioning in various parts of the country absorbing over 63 lakh people directly and indirectly. </li></ul><ul><li>Silk is an export item from India. It earned Rs. 1274 crorcs foreign exchange in 1999-2000, which is nearly 3% of total textile exports. </li></ul><ul><li>Silk industry has flourished in the states of Karnataka, Assam, Bihar, West Bengal and J & K. </li></ul>
  85. 85. Karnataka. <ul><li>This state accounts for 70% of India's raw silk production. The centres in the districts of Bangalore, Tumkur, Belgaum, Mysore, Kolar and Mandya are significant. </li></ul>
  86. 86. West Bengal <ul><li>It contributes nearly 13% of silk production of India. The major districts are Birbhum, Bankura, Malda and Murshidabad. Baswa, Ragunathpur and Bishenpur.. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Jharkhand and Bihar States <ul><li>These contribute 8% of India's silk. The main districts are Palamau, Ranchi in Jharkhand and Bhagalpur in Bihar state. </li></ul>
  88. 88. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh States . <ul><li>Balaghat (M.P), Bastar, Bilaspur and Raigarh districts (Chhattisgarh). </li></ul>
  89. 89. J&K. <ul><li>Kashmir Valley's salubrious climate is very conducive to the raising of mulberry silk worms. The districts are Baramula, Anantnag, Doda. Other silk producing states are: U.P. Mirzapur, Varanasi. </li></ul>
  90. 90. Tamil Nadu . <ul><li>Coimbatore, Salem, Nilgiri districts. </li></ul>
  91. 91. Maharashtra <ul><li>Bhandara and Chandrapur districts. Mumbai is a leading Silk weaving centre. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Andhra Pradesh <ul><li>Warangal, Kurnool, Adilabad, Karimnagar districts. Manipur and Tripura states also have silk textile manufacturings </li></ul>
  93. 93. Jute textile industry
  94. 94. <ul><li>Jute Industry is one of the oldest industries of India. It is a major foreign exchange earner for the country as such plays a significant role in the economy of the country. </li></ul>
  95. 95. <ul><li>Jute is one of the most important fibres. It is used for manufacturing various items like Hessian, gunny bags, ropes, rugs, carpets, etc. Jute bags are in great demand for the storage of agricultural and industrial products such as wheat, rice, gram, maize, pulses, sugar, fertilizers, cement etc. </li></ul>
  96. 96. <ul><li>The other jute products are used for various other purposes. The demand for jute products has increased mainly on account of development of agriculture and industries in the world. </li></ul>
  97. 97. <ul><li>The history of jute manufacturing in India dates back to 1854, when the first mill was set up at Rishra near Kolkata, by an Englishman, George Auckland. By 1860, the Hoogly basin became the centre of jute mill industry in India. </li></ul>
  98. 98. <ul><li>Before independence, India had a monopoly in the production of raw jute and jute manufacturing's in the world. The partition of the country inflicted a severe blow to the jute industry, with the result that jute mills remained in India, whereas a major portion of jute producing area went over to Pakistan. </li></ul>
  99. 99. <ul><li>In 1947-48 production of jute was 16-5 lakh bales as against pre-partition output of 65-7 lakh bales. </li></ul><ul><li>This situation created a crisis in the jute textile industry and it was further worsened, when the Pakistan Government stopped supply of raw jute to India. </li></ul>
  100. 100. <ul><li>Thus, efforts were made by the Government of India for the extension of area under jute in the country after independence. From a paltry production of about 16-5 lakh bales in 1947-48 the production of raw jute rose to 60 lakh bales in 1961-62 and 120 lakh bales in 1985-86. </li></ul>
  101. 101. <ul><li>There are 69 jute mills in the country with a total installed capacity of 44,376 looms. The industry has absorbed about 2-5 lakh industrial workers. </li></ul>
  102. 102. <ul><li>The most important feature of the jute mill industry in India is its concentration in the lower Hoogly basin, within a radius of about 64 kms of Kolkata. This region alone has 55 jute mills. Jute manufacturing in this region has responded to a variety of factors. </li></ul>
  103. 103. The factors are <ul><li>(i) Raw Jute is locally available. </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Coal is available from Raniganj and Asansol Coalfields, which are situated close by. </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Humid climate favours manufacturing of jute yarn. </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) Availability of cheap labour from Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Labour is also available in the region on account of dense population. </li></ul>
  104. 104. <ul><li>(v) Availability of port facilities for import of machinery and export of finished products. </li></ul><ul><li>(vi) Development of means of transportation particularly water transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>(vii) Developed banking and marketing facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>(viii) Availability of capital for investment in jute textile industry from local business men. </li></ul><ul><li>(ix) Hydro-electricity from Damodar Valley Corporation. </li></ul>
  105. 105. <ul><li>Thus, the above-mentioned factors have played a very significant role in developing jute mills in the Hoogly Basin of West Bengal. Jute Centres have sprung up on both sides of the river. </li></ul>
  106. 106. <ul><li>The most important centres are Birlapur, Budge Budge, Uluberia, Kolkata, Bally, Rishra, Titagarh, Serampur, Shamnagar, Kankinara, Naihati and Bansberia. A variety of items are manufactured in these centres. </li></ul>
  107. 107. <ul><li>In the state of Andhra Pradesh, there are 4 jute mills. The important centres are Guntur, Ongole, Nelimarla and Eluru. In Uttar Pradesh jute mills have been developed at Kanpur and Gorakhpur. </li></ul>
  108. 108. <ul><li>The states of Bihar (3), Andhra Pradesh (4), Madhya Pradesh (1) and Assam (1) have also Jute mills. </li></ul><ul><li>India manufactures over one million tons of jute goods every year. The year-wise production is as under: </li></ul><ul><li>1982- 83 13 4 lakh tonnes </li></ul><ul><li>1983- 84 10-9 lakh tonnes </li></ul><ul><li>1985-86 13 S lakh tonnes </li></ul>
  109. 109. <ul><li>About 35% of the manufactured jute items are exported. In 1982-83, the country earned Rs. 202-76 crores by way of exporting jute goods, whereas in 1985-86, India exported jute manufacturing's worth Rs. 270 crores. </li></ul>
  110. 110. <ul><li>The markets are Australia, New Zealand, U.S.A., Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Argentina, and Russia, European, African and Middle East countries. </li></ul>
  111. 111. The jute textile industry faces a number of problems. They are: <ul><li>(i) Shortage of superior quality jute, (ii) labour strikes and lockouts, (iii) old machinery, (iv) competition with Bangladesh products and (v) emergence of Thailand, Myanmar, Philippines and Brazil in the filed of jute production and jute manufacturing's. </li></ul>
  112. 112. <ul><li>The use of other substitutes like bags made of sisal, hemp and synthetic fibers are gradually encroaching market of jute manufacturings. </li></ul>
  113. 113. <ul><li>In the recent years cut in power supply has become another problem for the industry. However, the jute mill industry has made a great progress in the country. </li></ul>
  114. 114. <ul><li>In 1971, Jute Corporation of India was set up with its headquarters at Kolkata, with a view to stabilize price of raw jute and marketing of jute products abroad. </li></ul>
  115. 115. <ul><li>The jute industry is traditionally export oriented. India ranks first in raw jute and jute goods production. It ranks second in export of jute goods in the world. Jute packing materials are facing tough competition from other low cost synthetic substitutes. </li></ul>