MINI PROJECT REPORT
SYNOPSIS OF GSM BASED ELECTRONIC
BTech ECE 4th
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
Hindustan Institute of Technology
32, 34, Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida, U.P
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4. Scope of Work
5. Aims of GSM electronics board
6. Objectives of the GSM electronics board
7. Theoretical Background
8. GSM architecture
9. GSM frequencies
10.Main Cellular Standards
13.Subscriber Identity Module(SIM)
14.Tentative model to be employed
15.Main Circuit Diagram
GSM and GPRS based Designs have developed another innovative and
Public utility product for mass communication . This is a Scrolling (Moving)
Message Electronic Display Board which displays the messages received as
SMS or GPRS Packets. Such Displays can be kept at different
parts of the city and the messages like Advertisements, News. Public can
send flash information from Mobiles or PCs to these displays for instant
viewing. These displays are designed to quickly display large amounts of
information in the liquid crystal display. Wireless communication has
announced its arrival on big stage and the world is going mobile . We
want to control everything and without moving an inch. This remote control
electronic notice board is possible through Embedded Systems. The use of
“Embedded System in Communication” has given rise to many interesting
applications that ensures comfort and safety to human life. The main aim of
the project will be to design a SMS electronic display toolkit which can
replace the currently used programmable electronic display. The message to
be displayed is sent through a SMS from an authorized mobile phone. The
toolkit receives the SMS, validates the sending Mobile Identification
Number (MIN) and displays the desired information after necessary code
conversion. The system is made efficient by SIMs so that the SMS can be
received by number of display boards in a locality using techniques of time
division multiple access. I have improved upon the currently used
programmable electronic display and tried to take advantage of the
computing capabilities of microcontroller. I envision a toolkit that will not
only display message but also can be used to do some mechanical work.
Looking into current trend of information transfer in this campus (SHARDA
UNIVERSITY), it is seen that important notice take time to be displayed on
the notice boards. This latency is not expected in most of the cases and
must be avoided. It is proposed to implement this project at the institute
level. It is proposed to place display boards in major access points. The
electronics displays which are currently used are programmable displays
which need to be reprogrammed each time. This makes it inefficient
for immediate information transfer, and thus the display board loses its
importance. The GSM based display toolkit can be used as add-on to this
display boards and make it truly wireless. The display board programs itself
with the help of the incoming SMS with proper validation. Such a
system proves to be helpful for immediate information transfer. The system
required for the purpose is nothing but a Microcontroller based SMS box.
The main components of the toolkit include microcontroller, GSM modem.
These components are integrated with the display board and thus incorporate
the wireless features. The GSM modem receives the SMS. The AT
commands are serially transferred to the modem through MAX232. In return
the modem transmits the stored message through the wireless link. The
microcontroller validates the SMS and then displays the message in the LCD
display board. Various time division multiplexing techniques have been used
to make the display boards functionally efficient. The microcontroller
used in this case is ATMEL AT89S52 .Motorola C168 is used as the GSM
modem. In this prototype model, LCD display is used for simulation
purpose. The results presented in the thesis support the proper functionalities
and working of the system. The timing diagram suggests the response of the
modem to various AT (attention) commands.
The method used to carry out this project is the principle of serial
communication in collaboration with embedded systems. This is a very good
project for college, police etc. This project has a moving message display,
which will be used as the digital notice board, and also a GSM modem,
which is the latest technology used for communication between the mobile
and the embedded devices. System will work like when the user wants to
display or update the notice board, he has to send the message in his mobile
defining the messages and then the password of the system to the number of
the subscriber identity module (SIM) which is inserted in the display system
MODEM. Then, the MODEM connected to the display system will receive
the SMS, the microcontroller inside the system is programmed in such a way
that when the modem receives any message the microcontroller will read the
message from serial headphone and verify for the password, if the password
is correct then it will start displaying the messages in the display system.
SCOPE OF WORK
We will use liquid crystal display for displaying the message; We will also
use GSM modem (Motorola c168) as my display interface. The LCD display
is limited to display 18 characters; the reason is because we are using 16 by
2 LCD. The LCD can be replacing with larger type without any
programming. I will send message from any phone irrespective of the GSM
network to the modem connected to the programmable device using a
password. The message will display on the liquid crystal display connected
to the programmable display.
AIMS OF THE GSM ELECTRONIC
Uses in Banks: There is a huge mass of population which depends upon
the banks for all their monetary transactions. To keep a proper track of such
huge mass of people and their transactions this technology helps with certain
degree of effectiveness.
Uses for Traffic Control : It’s known to all of us that traffic are the good
servants of the people and also the major invention to help people but only if
it is managed well otherwise we all know Bangalore’s traffic how ridiculous
and irritating it can be. So with the use of this technology we can maintain
the flow of traffic according to the needs of the people and also considering
the availability of roads.
Uses for advertisement : We can make use of this technology to display
the different advertisement on display panels to reach the larger number of
people at a time and in the populated places like shopping malls, road sides
as well as at the theaters, discos, hotels, motels, restaurants etc… about their
products and features.
Uses in Educational sector : Currently in Nigeria we are relying on the
old style of displaying news by hanging bare time consuming papers on the
notice board which can be replaced by remote controlled notice boards at the
colleges and universities, also at the time of examination scheduling and
result publishing etc.
Information purpose: It would be wiser to make a use of this technology
for information purpose like news and its updates, real time reporting, live
telecasting, inclusive of various information which adds to the advanced and
busy life on daily basis.
Stock Exchange: The stock exchange is the hot topic nowadays. There
are millions of sales of shares every hours and it is very necessary to
maintain the real time services with the certain measures of reliability
because it deals with the money large number of the small or bigger
investors. With the help of this technology we can make it far easier and
Organizations: Every organization has large number of employees who
are assigned to accomplish the various tasks and each and everything should
be documented for the future reference purpose. And also their schedules
work reports, leaves, presentation as well as distribution of salary etc…
OBJECTIVES OF THE GSM
ELECTRONIC NOTICE BOARD
Programming of the mobile phone with AT (Attention) command
Interfacing the programming chip with the personal computer
Interfacing the programmable chip with the electronic board display
Interfacing of the mobile phone with the programmable chip
Sending messages from the remote phone to the electronic board
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications: originally from
GROUPE Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in
the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 80% of the
global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is used by over 3 billion
people across more than 212 countries and territories . Its ubiquity makes
international roaming very common between mobile phone operators
enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM
differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are
digital, and thus is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone
system . This has also meant that data communication was easy to build into
GSM is a complex system and difficult to understand. The Mobile Station
(MS) refers to the mobile equipment . The Base Station Subsystem controls
the radio link with the Mobile Station. The Network Subsystem performs
main functions such as switching of calls between mobile users, mobility
management operations, and proper operation and setup of a network .
These functions are controlled by the Mobile Services Switching Center
GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency ranges (separated
into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G).
Most 2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some
countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the
850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency
bands were already allocated. Most 3G GSM networks in Europe operate in
the 2100 MHz frequency band .
This project is an implementation to the idea of the wireless communication
between a mobile phone and a microcontroller. Currently the main work that
has been done on this proposed system is through serial port to the computer
but not wireless. If they want to change the message, they have to go to the
remote area with the laptop and change the message. The system has to be
reprogrammed to display new messages. But in this new design, the systems
need not be reprogrammed to display new messages because it is wireless.
The user will send SMS from his phone and it will be display on the
electronic board which is being made up of liquid crystal display. In the new
system, when new messages enter, the old messages will be deleted.
GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. The system was
designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and
challenge-response. Communications between the subscriber and the base
station can be encrypted.
As we see in the above figure, there are at least three interfacing circuits,
MAX-232 with Microcontroller, LCD display with microcontroller, and
MAX-232 with GSM MODEM.
The network behind the GSM seen by the customer is large and complicated
in order to provideall of the services which are required.
The Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their controllers).
The Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the network most
similar to a fixed network). This is sometimes also just called the core
The GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet based
All of the elements in the system combine to produce many GSM
services such as voice calls and SMS.
SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM)
One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module,
commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card
containing the user's subscription information and phone book. This allows
the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets.
Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handset
simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the
phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice
is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries
TENTATIVE MODEL TO BE EMPLOYED
The programmer used is a powerful programmer for the Atmel 89 series of
microcontrollers that includes 89C51/52/55, 89S51/52/55 and many more. It
is simple to use & low cost, yet powerful flash microcontroller programmer
for the Atmel 89 series. It will Program, Read and Verify Code Data, Write
Lock Bits, Erase and Blank Check. All fuse and lock bits are programmable.
This programmer has intelligent onboard firmware and connects to the serial
port. It can be used with any type of computer and requires no special
hardware. All that is needed is a USB communication port. All devices also
have a number of lock bits to provide various levels of software and
programming protection. These lock bits are fully programmable using this
programmer. Locks bits are useful to protect the program to be read back
from microcontroller only allowing erase to reprogram the microcontroller.
Major parts of this programmer are USB Port, Power Supply and Firmware
microcontroller. Serial data is sent and received to this programmer through
the USB connector. Most today’s computer has a USB connector. All the
programming ‘intelligence’ is built into the programmer so no need of any
special hardware to run it. Programmer comes with window based software
for easy programming of the devices.
The prototype of the GSM based display electronic notice board can be
efficiently designed. This prototype has facilities to be integrated with a
display board thus making it truly mobile. The toolkit accepts the SMS,
stores it, validates it and then displays it in the LCD module. The SMS is
deleted from the phone each time it is read, thus making room for the next
SMS. The major constraints incorporated are the use of ‘*’ as the
termination character of the SMS and the display of one SMS as at a time.
These limitations can be removed by the use of higher end microcontrollers
and extended RAM. The prototype can be implemented using commercial
display boards. In this case, it can solve the problem of instant information
transfer in this campus(SHARADA UNIVERSITY).