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Mbr €  ملف €  رقم 5

  1. 1. The Roles of Membranes in Water Recycling and Reuse The Roles of Membranes in Water Recycling and Reuse Presented by Val Frenkel Presented by Val Frenkel WateReuse 2005 Conference, California Section, Feb 27 – March 01, 2005, San Diego, CA
  2. 2. Membrane Technologies
  3. 3. All text, image and other materials contained or displayed in this document are proprietary to Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, Inc. (K/J), constitute valuable intellectual property, and are protected by copyright laws. No part of this document may be transmitted, broadcast, reproduced distributed, displayed, published, or in any other way used or otherwise disseminated in any form to any person or entity, without the prior written permission of an officer of K/J. © 2004 Copyright K/J Membrane Technologies
  4. 4. Membrane Technologies Do we need to recycle ???
  5. 5. Membrane Technologies
  6. 6. Membrane Technologies
  7. 7. Membrane Technologies Where we are looking for more water?
  8. 8. Membrane Technologies 1. Conservation 2. Recycling 3. Desalination Where we are looking for more water?
  9. 9. Membrane Technologies LOW PRESSURE HIGH PRESSURE
  10. 10. Membrane Technologies 1. Flat Sheet 2. Hollow Fiber 3. Spiral Wound Membrane Shape Type: Membrane Type depending on driven pressure: 1. Pressure Driven (MF, UF, NF and RO) 2. Vacuum Driven (MF and UF only) 3. High Voltage current (EDR, EDI)
  11. 11. Membrane Technologies Vacuum Pressure MF/UF
  12. 12. Membrane Technologies Vacuum Pressure MF/UF Non standard configuration across industry
  13. 13. Membrane Technologies Pressure ONLY NF/RO
  14. 14. Membrane Technologies Pressure ONLY NF/RO Standard configuration across industry: Diameter: 2.5”, 4”, 8” (17”) Length: 40”, 60”
  15. 15. Membrane Technologies • Increased membrane flux • Decreased trans-membrane pressure • Increased particles rejection • Extended membrane lifetime • Improved operational process including back- wash technique and CIP cleaning • Improved membrane manufacturing process Major developments for low-pressure membranes currently focus on:
  16. 16. Membrane Technologies • Improving pore shape, uniformity, and distribution • Upgrading hydrophilic properties • Increasing overall porosivity of membranes • Developing more sophisticated and cost- effective membrane materials Membrane Parameters focused by R&Ds:
  17. 17. Membrane Technologies Membrane Brine Concentrate Reject Feed Raw Water Permeate Treated Water Qf, cf QC, Cc Qp, Cp Rec. = Qp / Qf Rej. = Cc / Cf
  18. 18. Membrane Technologies Concentrate Management Direction Pros Cons Discharge to surface water (may be combined with wastewater outfall) Cost-effective solution - Increases local salinity level, which may affect habitat in the discharge area Discharge to deep wells Cost-effective solution - Increases salinity in the underground water horizon, which may increase total dissolved solids level in the water supply source - Requires increased maintenance of the injection wells due to mineral precipitation and scaling Discharge to the ocean/sea (may be combined with wastewater outfall) A widely-accepted cost-effective approach for shore application from desalination plants Affects marine life, intensive studies required Evaporation fields, ponds Cost-effective approach for relatively small volumes, particularly for inland applications Needs extensive territory. May not be a cost-effective solution in areas where land is expensive, and/or not available Zero Liquid Discharge - ZLD Ideal solution to significantly reduce or eliminate brine stream Very costly process, especially for small and very large discharge volumes Cogeneration Discharge (Power Plants or other Industrial Facilities) - One of the most cost- effective solutions for desalination plants, especially for large size plants - Reduces O&M cost due to the reduced energy demand caused by the increased water temperature Not always an available option Local Management (discharge to the local sewer line, land applications) Simplest cost-effective local solution - May affect biological wastewater treatment plant performance - Elevates salinity level in treated wastewater effluent, which may affect discharge criteria, and/or recycling water acceptability
  19. 19. Membrane Technologies Worldwide Membrane Facilities 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year NumberofMembranePlants By AMTA
  20. 20. Membrane Technologies Membranes in Water Recycling/Reuse: - Membrane Biological Reactor – MBR - Tertiary Treatment for Discharge/Recycling - Dissolved Solids (TDS) and particular emerging contaminants removal by RO/NF membranes
  21. 21. Membrane Technologies clarifierBio-Reactor Filter RAS WAS Bio-Reactor WASRAS Conventional Biological Process Membrane Biological Reactor - MBR Membranes Membrane Biological Reactor – MBR
  22. 22. Membrane Technologies clarifierBio-Reactor Filter RAS WAS Bio-Reactor WAS RAS Conventional Biological Process Membrane Biological Reactor - MBR Membranes RO Membrane Biological Reactor – MBR
  23. 23. Membrane Technologies clarifierBio-Reactor Filter RAS WAS Conventional Tertiary Treatment Membrane Tertiary Treatment Membranes clarifierBio-Reactor RAS WAS Tertiary Treatment for Discharge/Recycling
  24. 24. Membrane Technologies clarifierBio-Reactor RAS WAS Bio-Reactor WAS RAS Conventional Biological Process Membrane Biological Reactor - MBR Membranes RO RO Filter Tertiary Treatment for Discharge/Recycling
  25. 25. Membrane Technologies clarifierBio-Reactor RAS WAS Bio-Reactor WAS RAS Conventional Treatment + Membrane Tertiary Treatment Membrane Biological Reactor - MBR Membranes RO Membranes RO Tertiary Treatment for Discharge/Recycling
  26. 26. Membrane Technologies Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) (treats raw wastewater) Biological wastewater treatment process which utilize MF/UF membranes, and provide tertiary quality effluent with complete removal of Pathogens.
  27. 27. AirAir PermeatePermeate PumpPumpFeed WaterFeed Water RASRAS Anoxic TankAnoxic Tank WASWAS Membrane Bio-Reactor Aerobic TankAerobic Tank
  28. 28. Membrane Technologies MBR Wastewater Treatment Parameter MBR Value, Metric MBR Value, US Conventional Treatment Value, Metric Conventional Treatment Value, US Transmembrane Pressure (Immersed Membranes), TMP 10 – 50 kPa 1.5 – 7.5 psi NA* NA Flux 15 – 25 l/m2 x hr 9 – 15 GFD NA NA Energy Consumption, TOTAL 1 – 3.5 kW-hr/m3 5.0 – 17.5 HP- hr/1,000 gal 0.9 – 2.9 kW- hr/m3 4.5 – 14.5 HP-hr/1,000 gal Energy Consumption, aeration 0.9 – 3.2 kW-hr/m3 4.5 – 16.0 HP- hr/1,000 gal 0.9 – 2.9 kW- hr/m3 4.5 – 14.5 HP-hr/1,000 gal Energy Consumption, permeate discharge 0.1 – 0.3 kW-hr/m3 0.5 – 1. 5 HP- hr/1,000 gal NA NA MLSS 10 – 25 gr/liter 80 - 200 lbs/1,000 gal 3.5 – 6.0 gr/liter 28 - 48 lbs/1,000 gal Hydraulic Retention Time, Average 12 hrs 12 hrs 24 hrs 24 hrs Sludge age 20 – 60 days 20 -60 days 17 – 20 days 17 – 20 days BOD Removal 95 – 99% 95 – 99% 90 – 95% 90 – 95% COD Removal 95 – 99% 95 – 99% 90 – 95% 90 – 95% TKN Removal 40 – 95 % 40 – 95 % 40 – 80% 40 – 80% Membrane Warranty 5 – 8 years (prorated up to 10) 5 – 8 years (prorated up to 10) NA NA Membrane Module Price 50 – 100 US$/m2 5 – 10 US$/ft2 NA NA
  29. 29. Membrane Technologies MBR Performance Parameter of effluent MBR guaranteed MBR typical Conventional typical BOD5 < 5 ppm < 0.4 ppm 10 – 30 ppm TSS < 5 ppm < 0.4 ppm 10 - 30 ppm Turbidity < 1 NTU < 0.3 NTU 10 - 20 NTU NH3-N < 1 ppm < 0.5 ppm < 5 ppm TN < 10 ppm < 5 ppm < 10 ppm TP < 0.5 ppm < 0.2 ppm < 1.0 ppm
  30. 30. Membrane Technologies Why Membranes?
  31. 31. Membrane Technologies 1. Complete removal of Pathogenic organisms, providing disinfection at the same time. 2. Smaller footprint/Layout; 3. Consistent effluent quality, not affected by the influent hydraulic, solids and organic contaminants overloads, spikes and fluctuations; 4. Provides effluent quality of tertiary treatment ready for the reuse/recycling; RO can be plugged directly to MF/UF or MBR to address dissolved matter: TDS, Na and others. 5. Ideal technology for the existing systems up-grade; 10 Major Reasons with Membranes:
  32. 32. Membrane Technologies 6. Longer retention of nitrifying Bacteria results in greater nitrification. Anoxic reactor provides denitrification; 7. Modular expandability (for the future expansions; 8. Less volume of the discharged wastes (including sludge due to the long sludge age, and chemicals); 9. Simplicity of operation with the remote monitoring; 10. Lower post-disinfection demand in chlorine, UV intensity due to the complete solids removal by membranes. 10 Major Reasons with Membranes (continued):
  33. 33. Membrane Technologies MBR Hollow Fiber Membrane Immersed MBR by ZENON ZeeWeed® Membrane Cassettes Permeate Header Permeate Pump Air Header Air Separator Main Permeate Header
  34. 34. Membrane Technologies MBR Hollow Fiber Membrane Immersed MBR by ZENON ZW 2000 Concrete Tank Section w ith Piping Air header Perm eate header
  35. 35. Membrane Technologies MBR Hollow Fiber Membrane Immersed MBR by USFilter
  36. 36. Membrane Technologies MBR Hollow Fiber Membrane Immersed MBR by IONICS
  37. 37. Membrane Technologies MBR Flat Sheet Membrane Immersed MBR by KUBOTA/Enviroquip
  38. 38. Membrane Technologies MBR Flat Sheet Membrane Immersed MBR by HUBER from bioreactor Permeate discharge by pump or gravity flow Scouring blower to clean the membranes Membrane plates
  39. 39. Membrane Technologies MBR AquaMB Process™ by Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc.
  40. 40. Membrane Technologies SUMMARY Membrane treatment offers the advantages of higher effluent water quality, a more compact foot-print, and are often simpler to operate than conventional treatments. With widespread industry acceptance of membrane technologies and the rapid growth in the number of operating facilities, the costs of membrane systems are now approaching those of conventional systems. Sooner or later, membranes are likely to be in your future, either for upgrading existing facilities or considered as the preferred choice for new water treatment needs.
  41. 41. Membrane Technologies Q & A

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