RoleRole of Media in Crisis and Disasterof Media in Crisis and Disaster
Dr Ashok KumarDr Ashok Kumar
Assistant Professor, IMC&MTAssistant Professor, IMC&MT
Kurukshetra University, KurukshetraKurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
Email :Email : email@example.com@kuk.ac.in,, firstname.lastname@example.org@gmail.com
Crisis can be man
made or may occur
due to natural reason
Types of Crisis……Types of Crisis…… Exploding crisis-Actual
disaster such as fires,
earthquakes, flood, famine
• Immediate crisis-
Controversial or scandalous
• Building crisis –Anticipated
crisis due to pre mediated
decision closer of company,
Discontinuance of service,
• Continuing crisis- When an
organisation or government,
product or service is under
long term attack from some
NDMA, Disaster or crisisNDMA, Disaster or crisis
Disaster is a critical event that alters the
regular order things.
Natural Disaster- earthquake, cyclones,
storm, volcanic eruptions, landslide, floods.
Slow impact Disaster- Drought, famine,
environmental degradation, deforestation,
Man Made Disaster - Complex emergencies,
industrial displacement, terrorism, food
Name of Event Year Fatalities
1. Bengal Earthquake 1737 300,000
2. Bengal Cyclone 1864 60,000
The Great Famine of
1876-1878 5.5 million
4. Maharashtra Cyclone 1882 100,000
5. The Great Indian famine 1896-1897 1.25 million to 10 million
6. Kangra earthquake 1905 20,000
7. Bihar Earthquake 1934 6,000
8. Bengal Cyclone 1970 500,000 (include Pakistan & Bangladesh)
9. Drought 1972 200 million people affected
10. Andhra Pradesh Cyclone 1977 10,000
11. Latur Earthquake 1993 7,928 death and 30,000 injured
12. Orissa Super Cyclone 1999 10,000
13. Gujarat Earthquake 2001 25,000
14. Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 10,749 deaths 5,640 persons missing
15. Kashmir Earthquake 2005 86000 deaths (include Kashmir & Pakistan)
Major Disasters in India
Reason of Crisis & Disaster in IndiaReason of Crisis & Disaster in India
• 58 per cent of India’s land area is under threat of moderate to severe seismic hazard.
• During the last 20 years, India has experienced 10 major earthquakes that have
resulted in more than 35,000 deaths
• About 30 million people are affected annually.
• Nearly 75% of the total rainfall occurs over a short monsoon season (June –
September). 40 million hectares, or 12% of Indian land, is considered prone to
• On account of climate change floods have also occurred in recent years in areas that
are normally not flood prone.
About 8% of the land is vulnerable to cyclones of which coastal areas experience two
or three tropical cyclones of varying intensity each year.
About 50 million people are affected annually by drought. Of approximately 90 million
hectares of rain-fed areas, about 40 million hectares are prone to scanty or no rain.
Road Accident :On an average 17 lives were lost every hour in road accidents in the
country nearly half (54 percent) of all persons killed in road accidents were in the
productive age group of 15 -34 years.
5 lakh accidents occurred last year, killing 146,000 people and leaving thrice the
Terror “Tourism ”Terror “Tourism ”
In time and age of 24X7 media exposure ,
the war theatre came alive during the
Mumbai terrorist attack.
India today, outlook, the week hiked the
price of their issues that carried 26/11
People criticize media for making money
on death and destruction.
“They have to be told how to behave in times
like these. There action have to be
considered criminal conduct if they in any
way compromise security operation. And
really if a channel puts a terrorist on air
and airs his views in the middle of the
operations, it should legally considered a
criminal act ;
Indian media is “Insensitive”Indian media is “Insensitive”
See even indians r ashamed of ur media.
If u do have some selfrespect left then plz
call back ur media
Stop your Media-quake!!
We are already in pang by devastating
Earthquake and your news are not helping
“However, me being a Nepali outside from my
motherland, when (I) saw your news and
news reports, my heart cried and hurt
more than those destruction caused by
(the) earthquake. Like all the medical
personnel are taught and trained for
potential disasters in future, as a reporter,
I hope there is some kind of training on
how to report different events. Your media
and media personnel are acting like they
are shooting some kind of family serials.
If your media person can reach to the
places where the relief supplies have not
reached, at this time of crisis can’t they
take a first-aid kit or some food supplies
with them as well?” --------CNN Blog
Kashmir Floods Milking ofKashmir Floods Milking of
Nationalism !Nationalism !
Sympathy for the Army!
• Indian media, Indian journalism and
newspapers on an all time low
• Sristi Sinha @snazzedout
• So many leading newspapers didn't
write or cover anything about the
Why aren't people screaming or
Kanksha Raina @SpoiledHobo
• It's sad that leading newspapers didn't
bother covering the horrendous
#ChennaiFloods. Feeling hopfeul
looking at brands coming for help
• Dear National Newspapers, Thanks for
Covering the#ChennaiFloods it really
helped us a lot! Chii! Shame on you!!
Chennai Floods : Lack of Information & Lack ofChennai Floods : Lack of Information & Lack of
Why the drought is not The BigWhy the drought is not The Big
Story ?Story ?
Lack of in depth reporting (Section 144) Coverage
Distorted coverage ofDistorted coverage of ““UttrakhandUttrakhand””
Tourism Centric Coverage
"Fireworks house became slaughter"Fireworks house became slaughter
January 2005: Up to 300 people die in
a stampede during a Hindu pilgrimage to
the remote Mandhar Devi temple in
August 2008: At least 140 people die in
a stampede at a hilltop Hindu temple in
Himachal Pradesh during the Shravan
September 2008: Stampede at the
Chamunda Devi Hindu temple inside
Jodhpur's Mehrangarh Fort
kills more than 220
January 2011: More than 100 die at
stampede at a festival in Kerala state
October 2013: Stampede at a Hindu
festival in Madhya Pradesh
kills at least 115
July 2015: At least 27 pilgrims die in a
stampede on the banks of a holy river in
Andhra Pradesh at the start of the Maha
10 April 2016 : Kollam temple: India
fireworks blast kills at least 100 in
Social Conflict in IndianSocial Conflict in Indian
Communicating in a crisisCommunicating in a crisis
is differentis different
• In a serious crisis, all affected people …..
• Take in information differently
Process information differently
Act on information differently
In a catastrophic event: communication is different
Communication not only helps in sharing peoples views
and opinion, it also helps in discussing and carrying out
rescue plan successfully.
Public expect media to be there at crisis spot.
Give important protective actions for the public.
Publics wants quality of information which provide facts
Public expect Media provide information in such a way that
empowered public decision making.
Media person should involved as a participant, not spectator
Media should be the watchdog over resource allocation
Recover or preserve well-being and normalcy.
The strength of a character of a person ,as goes the age old
adage is judged in adversity.
Ever crisis poses a test about how an organizations would
respond to emergency ? How it take care of people ? Crisis is
also always a test of Media person how media covered the
Public expect maturity, sensitivity, empathy in coverage.
Public expect media should keep human concern uppermost.
What Public Expect From Media ?
Media Tells, what is happening ?Media Tells, what is happening ?
Media tells what is happening ? Where ? who is
effected ? How things are changing and why ?
Media is a communication life line. Saving lives by
relaying critical information to and form affected parties.
Media is a early warning beacon.
Media transmitting timely, reliable information that
Media communication channels is a community forum,
giving citizen a way come together.
Platform for sharing concern and support one another
during difficult times.
Mass media is definitely the best tool to share
information quickly and efficiently.
Crisis gave the media an opportunity to showcase there
alertness in bringing issues to the public domain , pull up
authorities and get closer to there readers & viewers.
Information “Save lives”Information “Save lives”
in Crisisin Crisis
Media is the most important source of information on
Hazards and disaster
Media play an important role in awareness raising and
providing information to the masses.
Media Educate the masses in crisis
Media gave warning of crisis or Hazards
Media gather and transmit information of affected areas
Media Alert government and its officials.
Media help relief organisation and public towards specific
Media facilitate discussion about disaster preparedness
During crisis and emergency media provide reliable , up
to date and reliable information
What should we do ?What should we do ?
Know how to reach their audiences and what their
audiences need ?
Identifying the stake holders ?
Identify channels of communication for reaching
out to various stake holders ?
Articulate flow of Information
Gather more information to make coverage is
When reporters have less information they
What we are doing ?What we are doing ?
Media personal talk directly to the victim just after the event.
They show anger of the victim upon government.
Media made the stories of suffering of people which show the
victim as helpless and degraded situation.
Media Make disaster reporting breaking & sensational.
Some time news media give the biased coverage of political
parties and exaggerate the information.
Media choose the places which are easy to cover.
Extraordinary situation require extra effort. Which is not seen in
the media ?
The rescuing efforts were ignored or access coverage ?
Attracting more audience & readers media showed that media
reached those places where government has not reached.
Media exploit Crisis and Disaster situation for promoting there
own newspaper & channel
Biased coverage of relief work .
Strengths of Media Reporting Crisis &Strengths of Media Reporting Crisis &
Media channel provide real time image.
Media communicate the risk
Media act as a bridge of communication between
victim & general public
Announce appeals of aid.
Media motivate the general public to help the
Divert the attention of the public & the government
Gave weather forecast for coming days
Update the general public about the current situation
of the suffering of victims.
Media realize the government, public & politician it
is not the time for fight but help the victim.
Skills Required for Crisis &
The STARCC PrincipleThe STARCC Principle
Messages in a crisis must be:
Keep eyes on Phases crisisKeep eyes on Phases crisis
Pre crisis phases
Post crisis phases
Reporting Crisis : Tips for ReporterReporting Crisis : Tips for Reporter
Stay clam, Be clear, accurate and compassionate.
Choose words carefully, Don’t express panic
Inform as fully as possible
Use Multiple sources
Ask for a timeline
Use all media
Tips for covering Crisis &Tips for covering Crisis &
Portray victim of violence with accuracy, insight &
Be clear and engaging with a strong them or focus.
Inform readers about the individual react to and cope
with emotional trauma and process of recovery.
Avoid sensationalism and portrayal for victim as tragic
Always treat victim with dignity and respect
Tips for covering Crisis &Tips for covering Crisis &
Media person and his/her organisation must be well prepared.
We must establish emergency procedures before they are needed
Good contacts with the emergency services are vital.
Regularly check all equipment, to make sure that it is working
Always try to plan ahead, think of problems which might arise
and ways of solving them
Keep the news desk informed of what is happening at all times
Keep your stories simple and do not put in your own emotions
Be sensitive to people's suffering
Think of follow-ups
Tips for Interviewing VictimsTips for Interviewing Victims
Cleary identify yourself and the
publication or television channel you are.
Don’t be surprise to receive harsh
Don’t ask hard questions
Always be accurate
Use pertinent details that describe victims
as they lived or provide image of their
Safety Issues in Crisis &Safety Issues in Crisis &
• Be Prepared
• Stay in touch
• Minimize risk
• Get close
• Avoid becoming a target
• Pay attention
• Limit exposure.
• Seek Documents
• Consult experts
• Stay in story
• Tap expertise
• Dig Deeper
• Probe for patterns
• Look ahead
“ Remember, not only is no story worth a reporters life,
but a dead reporter is not going to report anything”
Howard A Tyner ( Vice president & editor Chicago
What should we do at the time ofWhat should we do at the time of
Disaster ?Disaster ?
As people trust media. So it is the responsibility of the media to
seek and provide true information.
Media have the capacity to provide the service to public in wake
of an event. They can give the direction to the affected people and
disseminate the information to the public that similar disaster in
Electronic media can play a very important role in providing the
early warning to the public but care should be taken while
transmission the early warning. It should be in clear words and
confirmed through reliable sources.
Reporter should treat disaster affects with respect by thinking that
how would he want to be treated in similar situation.
What should we do at the time of Disaster ?What should we do at the time of Disaster ?
Reporters should not ask the survivor violent questions and
should not talk too much with the victims.
At the time of disaster media should not highlight the failure
of the government.
Reporters should provide the information to the public for
precautionary measures….evocations, areas they should not
Media should highlight the action being taken by the
government to save the lives of the people.
Media should also expand its role as a watchdog in
monitoring and handling of donations in the post disaster
phase and transparency and accountability in the use of
funds for rehabilitations and reconstructions.
What should we do ?
The most important thing journalists could do to help the efforts of first responders was to let
citizens know where to find safe zones.
Never put anything to the public until they are as sure as they can possibly be that it's correct
Media should have a sense of participation. Try to make a balance between emotion and
Newspaper and Media person should join the millions of volunteers in addressing the natural
It is important to have empathy towards human sufferings and vision to anticipate the impact.
Reporters needed to be sensitized on the human aspect of such situations.
Journalist need to develop a fair sense of judgement and clarity of issues.
We should not only need to maintain integrity and honesty but also need to look such situation
To go into the depth of the problem reporters need to cultivate their local sources strong.
Reporters should have ability to take quick decision and analyse facts and figured in blanced
Television journalist nned to be trained on how to conduct interviews and avoid being
Print & electronic media need to have look at the way they have handled the situation in the
Media House guideline forMedia House guideline for
Disaster CoverageDisaster Coverage
• AIR Guidelines for national calamities :
• Give due priority for all news about calamities, such as
cyclones, flood, fires, etc.
• Only authentic news should be disseminated.
• Figure about death, looses etc. Should be based on official or
equally reliable sources.
• All bulletins particularly beamed towards affected region must
carry and give high position to warning & announcement.
• In case of drought or cyclone avoid giving monetary
quantification of loss to corps.
• NDTV- follows a three phase strategy :
• Immediate reports
• Reports on rescue and rehabilitation
• follow up stories
“Everyone needs to speak with one
voice in time of crisis, not competing
for audience attention,”
• Reporting during the deluge, The Hindu, Monday December 2015
• When Messengers shoot the message,The Hindu, May 2015
• vkink dk izca/ku] tulRrk] ebZ 2015
• Monika Kalcsics A REPORTING DISASTER? The interdependence of media and aid
agencies in a competitive compassion market, Reuters Institute Fellowship Paper
University of Oxford .
• Disaster and crisis coverage, Deborah potter, Sherry Ricchiardi
• Tragedies & Journalist, a guide for more effective coverage..www.dartcentre.org
• Jaishri Jethwaney, Corporate communication, Principle & Practice
• Lenoard mogel, Making it in Public Relations