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Role of Media in crisis and Disaster situation


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How to handle crisis? case study of Indian media how they handle different crises in India

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Role of Media in crisis and Disaster situation

  1. 1. RoleRole of Media in Crisis and Disasterof Media in Crisis and Disaster SituationSituation Dr Ashok KumarDr Ashok Kumar Assistant Professor, IMC&MTAssistant Professor, IMC&MT Kurukshetra University, KurukshetraKurukshetra University, Kurukshetra Email :Email :,,
  2. 2. CrisisCrisis………… Crisis can be man made or may occur due to natural reason Famine, Drought, cyclones, earthquakes, tidal waves, insurgency, terrorism, wars epidemics, corporate warfare, employee agitation, Riots, Scams etc.
  3. 3. Types of Crisis……Types of Crisis…… Exploding crisis-Actual disaster such as fires, explosions, accidents, earthquakes, flood, famine • Immediate crisis- Controversial or scandalous incident involving companies, individuals governments etc. • Building crisis –Anticipated crisis due to pre mediated decision closer of company, Discontinuance of service, retrenchment. • Continuing crisis- When an organisation or government, product or service is under long term attack from some stake holders.
  4. 4. NDMA, Disaster or crisisNDMA, Disaster or crisis meaningmeaning Disaster is a critical event that alters the regular order things. Natural Disaster- earthquake, cyclones, storm, volcanic eruptions, landslide, floods. Slow impact Disaster- Drought, famine, environmental degradation, deforestation, pest infestation. Man Made Disaster - Complex emergencies, industrial displacement, terrorism, food insecurity.
  5. 5. SR. NO. Name of Event Year Fatalities 1. Bengal Earthquake 1737 300,000 2. Bengal Cyclone 1864 60,000 3. The Great Famine of Southern India 1876-1878 5.5 million 4. Maharashtra Cyclone 1882 100,000 5. The Great Indian famine 1896-1897 1.25 million to 10 million 6. Kangra earthquake 1905 20,000 7. Bihar Earthquake 1934 6,000 8. Bengal Cyclone 1970 500,000 (include Pakistan & Bangladesh) 9. Drought 1972 200 million people affected 10. Andhra Pradesh Cyclone 1977 10,000 11. Latur Earthquake 1993 7,928 death and 30,000 injured 12. Orissa Super Cyclone 1999 10,000 13. Gujarat Earthquake 2001 25,000 14. Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 10,749 deaths 5,640 persons missing 15. Kashmir Earthquake 2005 86000 deaths (include Kashmir & Pakistan) Major Disasters in India
  6. 6. Reason of Crisis & Disaster in IndiaReason of Crisis & Disaster in India Earthquake : • 58 per cent of India’s land area is under threat of moderate to severe seismic hazard. • During the last 20 years, India has experienced 10 major earthquakes that have resulted in more than 35,000 deaths Flood • About 30 million people are affected annually. • Nearly 75% of the total rainfall occurs over a short monsoon season (June – September). 40 million hectares, or 12% of Indian land, is considered prone to floods. • On account of climate change floods have also occurred in recent years in areas that are normally not flood prone. Cyclone : About 8% of the land is vulnerable to cyclones of which coastal areas experience two or three tropical cyclones of varying intensity each year. Drought : About 50 million people are affected annually by drought. Of approximately 90 million hectares of rain-fed areas, about 40 million hectares are prone to scanty or no rain. Road Accident :On an average 17 lives were lost every hour in road accidents in the country nearly half (54 percent) of all persons killed in road accidents were in the productive age group of 15 -34 years. 5 lakh accidents occurred last year, killing 146,000 people and leaving thrice the number injured.
  7. 7. Death in Riots : Terrorism :
  8. 8. Terror “Tourism ”Terror “Tourism ”  In time and age of 24X7 media exposure , the war theatre came alive during the Mumbai terrorist attack.  India today, outlook, the week hiked the price of their issues that carried 26/11 coverage.  People criticize media for making money on death and destruction. “They have to be told how to behave in times like these. There action have to be considered criminal conduct if they in any way compromise security operation. And really if a channel puts a terrorist on air and airs his views in the middle of the operations, it should legally considered a criminal act ;
  9. 9. Indian media is “Insensitive”Indian media is “Insensitive” Dear@narendramodi  See even indians r ashamed of ur media. If u do have some selfrespect left then plz call back ur media Sincerely Nepalese. Stop your Media-quake!! We are already in pang by devastating Earthquake and your news are not helping the victims!!#GoHomeIndianMedia “However, me being a Nepali outside from my motherland, when (I) saw your news and news reports, my heart cried and hurt more than those destruction caused by (the) earthquake. Like all the medical personnel are taught and trained for potential disasters in future, as a reporter, I hope there is some kind of training on how to report different events. Your media and media personnel are acting like they are shooting some kind of family serials. If your media person can reach to the places where the relief supplies have not reached, at this time of crisis can’t they take a first-aid kit or some food supplies with them as well?” --------CNN Blog
  10. 10. Kashmir Floods Milking ofKashmir Floods Milking of Nationalism !Nationalism ! Sympathy for the Army!
  11. 11. • Indian media, Indian journalism and newspapers on an all time low #ChennaiFloods! #ChennaiRains • Sristi Sinha @snazzedout • So many leading newspapers didn't write or cover anything about the #ChennaiFloods. Why aren't people screaming or bitching now?#ChennaiRains Kanksha Raina @SpoiledHobo • It's sad that leading newspapers didn't bother covering the horrendous #ChennaiFloods. Feeling hopfeul looking at brands coming for help • Dear National Newspapers, Thanks for Covering the#ChennaiFloods it really helped us a lot! Chii! Shame on you!! Chennai Floods : Lack of Information & Lack ofChennai Floods : Lack of Information & Lack of AttentionAttention
  12. 12. Why the drought is not The BigWhy the drought is not The Big Story ?Story ? Lack of in depth reporting (Section 144) Coverage
  13. 13. Distorted coverage ofDistorted coverage of ““UttrakhandUttrakhand”” Tourism Centric Coverage
  14. 14. "Fireworks house became slaughter"Fireworks house became slaughter house,"house,"    January 2005: Up to 300 people die in a stampede during a Hindu pilgrimage to the remote Mandhar Devi temple in Maharashtra state  August 2008: At least 140 people die in a stampede at a hilltop Hindu temple in Himachal Pradesh during the Shravan Navratras festival  September 2008: Stampede at the Chamunda Devi Hindu temple inside Jodhpur's Mehrangarh Fort  kills more than 220  January 2011: More than 100 die at stampede at a festival in Kerala state  October 2013: Stampede at a Hindu festival in Madhya Pradesh  kills at least 115  July 2015: At least 27 pilgrims die in a stampede on the banks of a holy river in Andhra Pradesh at the start of the Maha Pushkaralu festival  10 April 2016 : Kollam temple: India fireworks blast kills at least 100 in temple
  15. 15. Social Conflict in IndianSocial Conflict in Indian SocietySociety
  16. 16. Communicating in a crisisCommunicating in a crisis is differentis different • In a serious crisis, all affected people ….. • Take in information differently Process information differently Act on information differently In a catastrophic event: communication is different Be first. Be right  Be credible Communication not only helps in sharing peoples views and opinion, it also helps in discussing and carrying out rescue plan successfully.
  17. 17.  Public expect media to be there at crisis spot.  Give important protective actions for the public.  Publics wants quality of information which provide facts about crisis.  Public expect Media provide information in such a way that empowered public decision making.  Media person should involved as a participant, not spectator  Media should be the watchdog over resource allocation  Recover or preserve well-being and normalcy.  The strength of a character of a person ,as goes the age old adage is judged in adversity.  Ever crisis poses a test about how an organizations would respond to emergency ? How it take care of people ? Crisis is also always a test of Media person how media covered the crisis ?  Public expect maturity, sensitivity, empathy in coverage.  Public expect media should keep human concern uppermost. What Public Expect From Media ?
  18. 18. Media Tells, what is happening ?Media Tells, what is happening ?  Media tells what is happening ? Where ? who is effected ? How things are changing and why ?  Media is a communication life line. Saving lives by relaying critical information to and form affected parties.  Media is a early warning beacon.  Media transmitting timely, reliable information that prevents harm.  Media communication channels is a community forum, giving citizen a way come together.  Platform for sharing concern and support one another during difficult times.  Mass media is definitely the best tool to share information quickly and efficiently.  Crisis gave the media an opportunity to showcase there alertness in bringing issues to the public domain , pull up authorities and get closer to there readers & viewers.
  19. 19. Information “Save lives”Information “Save lives” in Crisisin Crisis  Media is the most important source of information on Hazards and disaster  Media play an important role in awareness raising and providing information to the masses.  Media Educate the masses in crisis  Media gave warning of crisis or Hazards  Media gather and transmit information of affected areas  Media Alert government and its officials.  Media help relief organisation and public towards specific needs.  Media facilitate discussion about disaster preparedness and response  During crisis and emergency media provide reliable , up to date and reliable information
  20. 20. What should we do ?What should we do ?  Know how to reach their audiences and what their audiences need ?  Identifying the stake holders ?  Identify channels of communication for reaching out to various stake holders ?  Articulate flow of Information  Gather more information to make coverage is more factual.  When reporters have less information they become interpretative.
  21. 21. What we are doing ?What we are doing ?  Media personal talk directly to the victim just after the event. They show anger of the victim upon government.  Media made the stories of suffering of people which show the victim as helpless and degraded situation.  Media Make disaster reporting breaking & sensational.  Some time news media give the biased coverage of political parties and exaggerate the information.  Media choose the places which are easy to cover.  Extraordinary situation require extra effort. Which is not seen in the media ?  The rescuing efforts were ignored or access coverage ?  Attracting more audience & readers media showed that media reached those places where government has not reached.  Media exploit Crisis and Disaster situation for promoting there own newspaper & channel  Biased coverage of relief work .
  22. 22. Strengths of Media Reporting Crisis &Strengths of Media Reporting Crisis & DisasterDisaster  Media channel provide real time image.  Media communicate the risk  Media act as a bridge of communication between victim & general public  Announce appeals of aid.  Media motivate the general public to help the victims  Divert the attention of the public & the government  Gave weather forecast for coming days  Update the general public about the current situation of the suffering of victims.  Media realize the government, public & politician it is not the time for fight but help the victim.
  23. 23. Skills Required for Crisis & Disaster Reporting
  24. 24. The STARCC PrincipleThe STARCC Principle Messages in a crisis must be: »Simple »Timely »Accurate »Relevant »Credible »Consistent
  25. 25. Keep eyes on Phases crisisKeep eyes on Phases crisis ManagementManagement Pre crisis phases  Preparedness Mitigation Prevention Crisis Phase  Response  Recovery Development Post crisis phases Relief Recovery Rehabilitation
  26. 26. Reporting Crisis : Tips for ReporterReporting Crisis : Tips for Reporter  Stay clam, Be clear, accurate and compassionate.  Choose words carefully, Don’t express panic  Inform as fully as possible  Avoid Speculation  Use Multiple sources  Provide context  Stay Professional  Ask for a timeline  Provide maps  Get visuals  Use all media
  27. 27. Tips for covering Crisis &Tips for covering Crisis & DisasterDisaster  Portray victim of violence with accuracy, insight & sensitivity.  Be clear and engaging with a strong them or focus.  Inform readers about the individual react to and cope with emotional trauma and process of recovery.  Avoid sensationalism and portrayal for victim as tragic or pathetic.  Always treat victim with dignity and respect
  28. 28. Tips for covering Crisis &Tips for covering Crisis & DisasterDisaster  Media person and his/her organisation must be well prepared.  We must establish emergency procedures before they are needed  Good contacts with the emergency services are vital.  Regularly check all equipment, to make sure that it is working properly  Always try to plan ahead, think of problems which might arise and ways of solving them  Keep the news desk informed of what is happening at all times  Keep your stories simple and do not put in your own emotions  Be sensitive to people's suffering  Think of follow-ups
  29. 29. Tips for Interviewing VictimsTips for Interviewing Victims Cleary identify yourself and the publication or television channel you are. Don’t be surprise to receive harsh reaction. Don’t ask hard questions Always be accurate Use pertinent details that describe victims as they lived or provide image of their lives.
  30. 30. Safety Issues in Crisis &Safety Issues in Crisis & DisasterDisaster • Be Prepared • Stay in touch • Minimize risk • Get close • Avoid becoming a target • Pay attention • Limit exposure. • Seek Documents • Consult experts • Stay in story • Tap expertise • Dig Deeper • Probe for patterns • Look ahead “ Remember, not only is no story worth a reporters life, but a dead reporter is not going to report anything” Howard A Tyner ( Vice president & editor Chicago Tribune)
  31. 31. What should we do at the time ofWhat should we do at the time of Disaster ?Disaster ?  As people trust media. So it is the responsibility of the media to seek and provide true information.  Media have the capacity to provide the service to public in wake of an event. They can give the direction to the affected people and disseminate the information to the public that similar disaster in future.  Electronic media can play a very important role in providing the early warning to the public but care should be taken while transmission the early warning. It should be in clear words and confirmed through reliable sources.  Reporter should treat disaster affects with respect by thinking that how would he want to be treated in similar situation.
  32. 32. What should we do at the time of Disaster ?What should we do at the time of Disaster ?  Reporters should not ask the survivor violent questions and should not talk too much with the victims.  At the time of disaster media should not highlight the failure of the government.  Reporters should provide the information to the public for precautionary measures….evocations, areas they should not go.  Media should highlight the action being taken by the government to save the lives of the people.  Media should also expand its role as a watchdog in monitoring and handling of donations in the post disaster phase and transparency and accountability in the use of funds for rehabilitations and reconstructions.
  33. 33. What should we do ? The most important thing journalists could do to help the efforts of first responders was to let citizens know where to find safe zones. Never put anything to the public until they are as sure as they can possibly be that it's correct Media should have a sense of participation. Try to make a balance between emotion and content. Newspaper and Media person should join the millions of volunteers in addressing the natural calamity. It is important to have empathy towards human sufferings and vision to anticipate the impact. Reporters needed to be sensitized on the human aspect of such situations. Journalist need to develop a fair sense of judgement and clarity of issues. We should not only need to maintain integrity and honesty but also need to look such situation without bias. To go into the depth of the problem reporters need to cultivate their local sources strong. Reporters should have ability to take quick decision and analyse facts and figured in blanced manner. Television journalist nned to be trained on how to conduct interviews and avoid being unnecessarily aggersive. Print & electronic media need to have look at the way they have handled the situation in the past.
  34. 34. Media House guideline forMedia House guideline for Disaster CoverageDisaster Coverage • AIR Guidelines for national calamities : • Give due priority for all news about calamities, such as cyclones, flood, fires, etc. • Only authentic news should be disseminated. • Figure about death, looses etc. Should be based on official or equally reliable sources. • All bulletins particularly beamed towards affected region must carry and give high position to warning & announcement. • In case of drought or cyclone avoid giving monetary quantification of loss to corps. • NDTV- follows a three phase strategy : • Immediate reports • Reports on rescue and rehabilitation • follow up stories
  35. 35. “Everyone needs to speak with one voice in time of crisis, not competing for audience attention,”
  36. 36. ReferencesReferences • Reporting during the deluge, The Hindu, Monday December 2015 • When Messengers shoot the message,The Hindu, May 2015 • vkink dk izca/ku] tulRrk] ebZ 2015 • Monika Kalcsics A REPORTING DISASTER? The interdependence of media and aid agencies in a competitive compassion market, Reuters Institute Fellowship Paper University of Oxford . • Disaster and crisis coverage, Deborah potter, Sherry Ricchiardi • • • • • • • • • • Tragedies & Journalist, a guide for more effective • Jaishri Jethwaney, Corporate communication, Principle & Practice • Lenoard mogel, Making it in Public Relations
  37. 37. Questions ?
  38. 38. • Thanks